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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531308/challenges-of-research-recruitment-in-a-university-setting-in-england
#1
Claudia Vadeboncoeur, Charlie Foster, Nick Townsend
The recruitment is an integral part of most research projects in medical sciences involving human participants. In health promotion research, there is increasing work on the impact of environments. Settings represent environments such as schools where social, physical and psychological development unfolds. In this study, we investigated weight gain in students within a university setting. Barriers to access and recruitment of university students within a specific setting, in the context of health research are discussed...
May 20, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531097/evolution-not-revolution-nutrition-and-obesity
#2
Elaine C Rush, Mary R Yan
The increasing prevalence of obesity over the course of life is a global health challenge because of its strong and positive association with significant health problems such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and some cancers. The complex causes and drivers of obesity include genetic factors, social, ecological and political influences, food production and supply, and dietary patterns. Public health messages and government food and activity guidelines have little impact; the retail food environment has many low-priced, nutrient-poor, but energy-dense products and there is a gap between what an individual knows and what they do...
May 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528425/neet-adolescents-grown-up-eight-year-longitudinal-follow-up-of-education-employment-and-mental-health-from-adolescence-to-early-adulthood-in-mexico-city
#3
Raúl A Gutiérrez-García, Corina Benjet, Guilherme Borges, Enrique Méndez Ríos, María Elena Medina-Mora
The purpose is to examine the socio-demographic and mental health outcomes in early adulthood of those who as adolescents were not in education, employment or training, termed NEET, compared to their counterparts who studied, worked, or both. One thousand and seventy-one youth residing in Mexico City participated in a representative, prospective, longitudinal 8-year two-Wave cohort study. At Wave I the participants were aged 12-17 and at Wave II aged 19 and 26. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed psychiatric disorders, substance use and abuse, suicidal behavior, interpersonal relationships, employment and education...
May 20, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526666/a-smart-toy-to-enhance-the-decision-making-process-at-children-s-psychomotor-delay-screenings-a-pilot-study
#4
María Angeles Gutiérrez García, María Luisa Martín Ruiz, Diego Rivera, Laura Vadillo, Miguel Angel Valero Duboy
BACKGROUND: EDUCERE ("Ubiquitous Detection Ecosystem to Care and Early Stimulation for Children with Developmental Disorders") is an ecosystem for ubiquitous detection, care, and early stimulation of children with developmental disorders. The objectives of this Spanish government-funded research and development project are to investigate, develop, and evaluate innovative solutions to detect changes in psychomotor development through the natural interaction of children with toys and everyday objects, and perform stimulation and early attention activities in real environments such as home and school...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510267/the-jack-wills-crowd-towards-a-sociology-of-an-elite-subculture
#5
Anthony King, Daniel Smith
British sociologists have long been interested in youth sub-cultures. However British sociologists have tended to focus on working class subcultures and avoided engagement with exclusive sub-cultures of elite social groups. This article seeks to attend to this gap by examining the subculture of a British elite: ex-public school students at select universities in the UK in the twenty-first century. This group consists of a relatively small group of young adults, aged between 18 and 23, who attended public schools, especially one of the nine Clarendon schools (Eton, Winchester, Westminster, St...
May 16, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504307/family-based-promotion-of-mental-health-in-children-affected-by-hiv-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Theresa S Betancourt, Lauren C Ng, Catherine M Kirk, Robert T Brennan, William R Beardslee, Sara Stulac, Christine Mushashi, Estella Nduwimana, Sylvere Mukunzi, Beatha Nyirandagijimana, Godfrey Kalisa, Cyamatare F Rwabukwisi, Vincent Sezibera
BACKGROUND: Children affected by HIV are at risk for poor mental health. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the Family Strengthening Intervention (FSI-HIV), a family home-visiting intervention to promote mental health and improve parent-child relationships in families with caregivers living with HIV, hypothesizing that child and family outcomes would be superior to usual care social work services. METHODS: Eighty two families (N = 170 children, 48...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499113/social-and-individual-level-predictors-of-alcohol-use-initiation-and-escalation-replicating-and-extending-tests-of-differential-effects
#7
Hector I Lopez-Vergara, Jennifer E Merrill, Tim Janssen, Kristina M Jackson
OBJECTIVE: Although alcohol use is considered a developmental phenomenon, there is a relative dearth of studies disaggregating predictors of alcohol use initiation versus early escalation of drinking. One perspective that has emerged is that social levels of influence may be relevant for the initiation of drinking, whereas individual levels of influence may be relevant for the early escalation in level of drinking among initiators, which we refer to as the specificity hypothesis. METHOD: A sample of alcohol-naive youth (n = 944; mean age = 12...
May 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499084/psychological-assessment-of-emirati-patients-pursuing-bariatric-surgery-for-obesity
#8
Ossama T Osman, Essam Emam, Taoufik Zoubeidi, Fadwa Al-Mugaddam, Abdul-Kader Souid
Background: Obesity is currently a rapidly growing global problem of epidemic proportions and is especially prevalent in economically developed countries such as the United Arab Emirates. Obese individuals are increasingly considering bariatric surgery as their preferred means of choice for the reduction of excess body fat. This study explored the psychological characteristics that may potentially complicate the surgical management of obesity. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of Emirati patients attending a bariatric clinic at Tawam Hospital, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, between December 2010 and February 2012...
May 11, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490882/connectivity-to-computers-and-the-internet-among-patients-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Maritta Välimäki, Lauri Kuosmanen, Heli Hätönen, Marita Koivunen, Anneli Pitkänen, Christina Athanasopoulou, Minna Anttila
PURPOSE: Information and communication technologies have been developed for a variety of health care applications and user groups in the field of health care. This study examined the connectivity to computers and the Internet among patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey design was used to study 311 adults with SSDs from the inpatient units of two psychiatric hospitals in Finland. The data collection lasted for 20 months and was done through patients' medical records and a self-reported, structured questionnaire...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484413/career-preparedness-and-school-achievement-of-portuguese-children-longitudinal-trend-articulations
#10
Íris M Oliveira, Maria do Céu Taveira, Erik J Porfeli
Social Cognitive Career Theory suggests that students' preparedness for the school-to-work transition is a developmental process. Middle school children explore various careers, obtain feedback about their academic progress, and develop career self-efficacy and outcome expectations. These processes advance provisional educational/occupational goals. The literature has suggested articulations between career and academic development and how both vary across demographic characteristics, but longitudinal studies linking these processes are scarce...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482273/neighborhood-disorder-and-glycemic-control-in-late-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#11
Tara L Queen, Katherine J W Baucom, Ashley C Baker, Daniel Mello, Cynthia A Berg, Deborah J Wiebe
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of neighborhood characteristics to treatment adherence and glycemic control in late adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: As part of a larger study, 220 late adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (aged 17.8 ± 0.4 years, 59.6% female, diabetes duration 7.3 ± 3.9 years) were recruited from outpatient pediatric clinics during their senior year of high school. Adolescents completed self-report measures of adherence behaviors and subjective social status, and their HbA1c values were collected during a lab assessment...
June 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470075/factors-influencing-choice-of-site-for-rural-clinical-placements-by-final-year-medical-students-in-a-south-african-university
#12
Nontsikelelo O Mapukata, Rainy Dube, Ian Couper, Motlatso Mlambo
BACKGROUND: Most of South Africa's citizens who live in rural or underserved communities rely on the public health care sector to access quality health care. The value of rural exposure through clinical placements is well documented. Medical schools in South Africa have a responsibility to provide solutions that address the prevailing human resources challenges. Despite this commitment, medical students do not necessarily appreciate their role in resolving South Africa's human resources challenges...
April 28, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452671/evaluation-of-an-audio-visual-novela-to-improve-beliefs-attitudes-and-knowledge-toward-dementia-a-mixed-methods-approach
#13
Timothy J Grigsby, Jennifer B Unger, Gregory B Molina, Mel Baron
OBJECTIVES: Dementia is a clinical syndrome characterized by progressive degeneration in cognitive ability that limits the capacity for independent living. Interventions are needed to target the medical, social, psychological, and knowledge needs of caregivers and patients. This study used a mixed methods approach to evaluate the effectiveness of a dementia novela presented in an audio-visual format in improving dementia attitudes, beliefs and knowledge. METHODS: Adults from Los Angeles (N = 42, 83% female, 90% Hispanic/Latino, mean age = 42...
March 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449685/development-and-psychometric-testing-of-an-instrument-to-compare-career-choice-influences-and-perceptions-of-nursing-among-healthcare-students
#14
Sok Ying Liaw, Ling Ting Wu, Violeta Lopez, Yeow Leng Chow, Siriwan Lim, Eleanor Holroyd, Khoon Kiat Tan, Wenru Wang
BACKGROUND: With the availability of more healthcare courses and an increased intake of nursing students, education institutions are facing challenges to attract school leavers to enter nursing courses. The comparison of career choice influences and perception of nursing among healthcare students can provide information for recruitment strategies. An instrument to compare the influences of healthcare career choice is lacking. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to compare the influences of healthcare career choice with perceptions of nursing as a career choice...
April 27, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449616/obesogenic-environments-current-evidence-of-the-built-and-food-environments
#15
Tim Townshend, Amelia Lake
AIMS: Obesity is one of the most significant global health and social problems, with rates rising dramatically over the past few decades. While the basic drivers of obesity are obvious (more energy consumed than expended), the causes are multifactorial and complex. A decade ago, it was suggested that exploring the ways in which the built environment influenced physical activity and dietary behaviours might provide fertile ground for investigation. This article overviews current evidence and, in particular, emergent themes that are of significance for the United Kingdom...
January 2017: Perspectives in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445219/canadian-national-guidelines-and-recommendations-for-integrating-career-advising-into-medical-school-curricula
#16
Kelly Howse, June Harris, Nancy Dalgarno
Career planning, decision making about specialty choice, and preparation for residency matching are significant sources of stress for medical students. Attempts have been made to structure and formalize career advising by including it in accreditation standards. There is an expressed need for national guidelines on career advising for medical students. The Future of Medical Education in Canada Postgraduate (FMEC PG) Implementation Project was created to ensure Canadian medical trainees receive the best education possible...
April 25, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441674/the-development-of-an-indigenous-health-curriculum-for-medical-students
#17
Melissa Lewis, Amy Prunuske
Indigenous populations experience dramatic health disparities; yet, few medical schools equip students with the skills to address these inequities. At the University of Minnesota Medical School, Duluth campus, a project to develop an Indigenous health curriculum began in September 2013. This project used collaborative and decolonizing methods to gather ideas and opinions from multiple stakeholders, including students, community members, faculty, and administration, to guide the process of adding Indigenous health content to the curriculum to prepare students to work effectively with Indigenous populations...
May 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439525/most-likely-to-succeed-long-run-returns-to-adolescent-popularity
#18
Ying Shi, James Moody
Sociological explanations for economic success tend toward measures of embeddedness in longstanding social institutions, such as race and gender, or personal skills represented mainly by educational attainment. In this paper we seek a distinctively social foundation for success by investigating the long-term association between high school popularity and income. Using rich longitudinal data, we find a clear and persistent association between the number of friendship nominations received and adult income, even after accounting for the mediating influences of diverse personal, family, and work characteristics...
February 2017: Social Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439211/examining-the-relations-between-self-regulation-and-achievement-in-third-grade-students
#19
Stephanie L Day, Carol M Connor
Children with stronger self-regulation skills generally demonstrate greater overall success in school both academically and socially. However, there are few valid and reliable measures of self-regulation in middle elementary school. Such a measure could help identify whether a child is truly having difficulties. Thus, the Remembering Rules and Regulation Picture Task (RRRP) was developed. The aim of this study was to develop scoring systems for the RRRP and then to examine the associations between RRRP and independent measures of self-regulation and academic achievement in mathematics and reading...
March 2017: Assessment for Effective Intervention: Official Journal of the Council for Educational Diagnostic Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436587/coparenting-conflict-and-academic-readiness-in-children-of-teen-mothers-effortful-control-as-a-mediator
#20
Laudan B Jahromi, Katharine H Zeiders, Kimberly A Updegraff, Adriana J Umaña-Taylor, Sara Douglass Bayless
Children's exposure to coparenting conflict has important implications for their developmental functioning, yet limited work has focused on such processes in families with diverse structures or ethnically and culturally diverse backgrounds. This longitudinal study examined the processes by which Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' coparenting conflict with their 3-year-old children's grandmothers and biological fathers (N = 133 families) were linked to children's academic and social skills at 5 years of age, and whether children's effortful control at 4 years of age mediated the link between coparenting conflict and indices of children's academic readiness...
April 24, 2017: Family Process
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