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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689040/unsupervised-learning-techniques-reveal-heterogeneity-in-memory-cd8-t-cell-differentiation-following-acute-chronic-and-latent-viral-infections
#1
Mingyong Liu, Erik S Barton, Ryan N Jennings, Darby G Oldenburg, Juliann M Whirry, Douglas W White, Jason M Grayson
CD8(+) T lymphocytes are critical for the control of gammaherpesvirus latency. To determine how memory CD8(+) T cells generated during latency differ from those primed during acute or chronic viral infection, we adoptively transferred naive P14 CD8(+) T cells into uninfected recipients, and examined surface proteins, cytokines and transcription factors following infection with the Armstrong (acute) or Clone 13 (chronic) strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), or murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) expressing the LCMV epitope D(b)GP33-41...
July 6, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687491/site-specific-regulation-of-oral-mucosa-recruiting-cd8-t-cells-in-a-mouse-contact-allergy-model
#2
Worawalun Hirunwidchayarat, Emi Furusawa, Siwen Kang, Tatsukuni Ohno, Shunsuke Takeuchi, Sorasun Rungsiyanont, Miyuki Azuma
Contact allergy is a T cell-mediated, delayed-type hypersensitivity generated by contact exposure of an allergen to the skin and mucosal surface. The clinical manifestations of allergic responses between the skin and oral mucosa vary and the differences in immunopathology have not been clarified. We generated hapten-induced contact hypersensitivity (CH) of the buccal mucosa (BM) in parallel studies with ear skin (ES) CH, and observed several characteristic findings of BM CH. The BM challenge induced more rapid and more severe inflammation than the ES challenge, with abundant granulocyte and CD8(+) T cell infiltration...
July 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684164/neem-leaf-glycoprotein-generates-superior-tumor-specific-central-memory-cd8-t-cells-than-cyclophosphamide-that-averts-post-surgery-solid-sarcoma-recurrence
#3
Sarbari Ghosh, Madhurima Sarkar, Tithi Ghosh, Ipsita Guha, Avishek Bhuniya, Akata Saha, Shayani Dasgupta, Subhasis Barik, Anamika Bose, Rathindranath Baral
The success of cancer vaccines is limited as most of them induce corrupted CD8(+) T cell memory populations. We reported earlier that a natural immunomodulator, neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP), therapeutically restricts tumor growth in a CD8(+) T cell-dependent manner. Here, our objective is to study whether memory CD8(+) T cell population is generated in sarcoma hosts after therapeutic NLGP treatment and their role in prevention of post-surgery tumor recurrence, in comparison to the immunostimulatory metronomic cyclophosphamide (CTX) treatment...
July 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655384/altered-basophil-function-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-on-hemodialysis%C3%A2
#4
Zenib Aljadi, Anna Nopp, Ola Winqvist, Aman Russom, Britta Hylander, Stefan Jacobson, Joachim Lundahl
AIMS: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to impairment of immune cell function. Given the potential role of basophils in the pathogenesis of CKD, we aimed to study the basophil responsiveness towards microbial antigen exposure, judged as adhesion molecule expression and degranulation, in CKD patients on hemodialysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected markers linked to two crucial biological phases: the transmigration and degranulation processes, respectively. For the transmigration process, we selected the adhesion molecules CD11b, active CD11b epitope, and CD62L and for the degranulation process CD203c (piecemeal degranulation marker), CD63 (degranulation marker), and CD300a (inhibitory marker of degranulation)...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642246/modulation-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-controls-cd4-t-cell-activation-and-anti-tumor-function
#5
Jessica E Thaxton, Caroline Wallace, Brian Riesenberg, Yongliang Zhang, Chrystal Paulos, Craig Beeson, Bei Liu, Zihai Li
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an energy-sensing organelle with intimate ties to programming cell activation and metabolic fate. T-cell receptor (TCR) activation represents a form of acute cell stress and induces mobilization of ER Ca(2+) stores. The role of the ER in programming T-cell activation and metabolic fate remains largely undefined. Gp96 is an ER protein with functions as a molecular chaperone and Ca(2+) buffering protein. We hypothesized that the ER stress response may be important for CD4(+) T-cell activation and that gp96 may be integral to this process...
June 22, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596771/regulation-of-t-cell-trafficking-by-enzymatic-synthesis-of-o-glycans
#6
REVIEW
Samuel J Hobbs, Jeffrey C Nolz
Selectins constitute a family of oligosaccharide binding proteins that play critical roles in regulating the trafficking of leukocytes. In T cells, L-selectin (CD62L) controls the capacity for naive and memory T cells to actively survey peripheral lymph nodes, whereas P- and E-selectin capture activated T cells on inflamed vascular endothelium to initiate extravasation into non-lymphoid tissues. The capacity for T cells to interact with all of these selectins is dependent on the enzymatic synthesis of complex O-glycans, and thus, this protein modification plays an indispensable role in regulating the distribution and homing of both naive and previously activated T cells in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583547/major-histocompatibilty-complex-restricted-adaptive-immune-responses-to-ct26-colon-cancer-cell-line-in-mixed-allogeneic-chimera
#7
K W Lee, B Choi, Y M Kim, C W Cho, H Park, J I Moon, G-S Choi, J B Park, S J Kim
BACKGROUND: Although the induction of mixed allogeneic chimera shows promising clinical tolerance results in organ transplantation, its clinical relevance as an anti-cancer therapy is yet unknown. We introduced a mixed allogenic chimera setting with the use of a murine colon cancer cell line, CT26, by performing double bone marrow transplantation. METHODS: We analyzed donor- and recipient-restricted anti-cancer T-cell responses, and phenotypes of subpopulations of T cells...
June 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555090/the-distribution-of-activation-markers-and-selectins-on-peripheral-t-lymphocytes-in-preeclampsia
#8
Anna Bajnok, Maria Ivanova, János Rigó, Gergely Toldi
INTRODUCTION: Impaired maternal immune tolerance resulting in systemic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Phenotypical changes of monocytes and neutrophil granulocytes have already been studied in preeclampsia, and some studies also included T lymphocyte activation markers; however, the results are controversial and a comprehensive analysis of activation markers is lacking. The characteristics of cellular adhesion molecules in preeclampsia are yet to be described...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543181/loss-of-l-selectin-guided-cd8-but-not-cd4-cells-protects-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-a-steatotic-liver
#9
Vasantha L Kolachala, Sirish Palle, Ming Shen, Alayna Feng, Dmitry Shayakhmetov, Nitika A Gupta
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Steatotic liver responds with increased hepatocellular injury when exposed to an ischemic-reperfusion insult. Increasing evidence supports the role of immune cells as key mediators of this injury in a normal (lean) state, but data about their role in a steatotic liver are practically non-existent. The objective of the current study was to delineate contribution of specific phenotypes of T cells and adhesion molecules in exacerbated cell death in steatotic liver injury...
May 20, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539429/bolstering-the-number-and-function-of-hsv-1-specific-cd8-effector-memory-t-cells-and-tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-in-latently-infected-trigeminal-ganglia-reduces-recurrent-ocular-herpes-infection-and-disease
#10
Arif A Khan, Ruchi Srivastava, Aziz A Chentoufi, Elizabeth Kritzer, Sravya Chilukuri, Sumit Garg, David C Yu, Hawa Vahed, Lei Huang, Sabrina A Syed, Julie N Furness, Tien T Tran, Nesburn B Anthony, Christine E McLaren, John Sidney, Alessandro Sette, Randolph J Noelle, Lbachir BenMohamed
HSV type 1 (HSV-1) is a prevalent human pathogen that infects >3.72 billion individuals worldwide and can cause potentially blinding recurrent corneal herpetic disease. HSV-1 establishes latency within sensory neurons of trigeminal ganglia (TG), and TG-resident CD8(+) T cells play a critical role in preventing its reactivation. The repertoire, phenotype, and function of protective CD8(+) T cells are unknown. Bolstering the apparent feeble numbers of CD8(+) T cells in TG remains a challenge for immunotherapeutic strategies...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533445/lung-cd4-tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-mediate-adaptive-immunity-induced-by-previous-infection-of-mice-with-bordetella-pertussis
#11
Mieszko M Wilk, Alicja Misiak, Róisín M McManus, Aideen C Allen, Marina A Lynch, Kingston H G Mills
Th1 and Th17 cells have an established role in protective immunity to Bordetella pertussis, but this evidence is based largely on peripheral T cells. There is emerging evidence that local tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells that accumulate in tissue following mucosal infection may be crucial for long-term immunity. In this study, we examined the role of respiratory CD4 TRM cells in immunity to B. pertussis Natural immunity to B. pertussis induced by infection is considered long lasting and effective at preventing reinfection...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523279/increased-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-in-uremia-is-associated-with-chronic-inflammation-and-prevalent-coronary-artery-disease
#12
Jwa-Kyung Kim, Chang-Won Hong, Mi Jin Park, Young Rim Song, Hyung Jik Kim, Sung Gyun Kim
Background. Neutrophils are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. We hypothesized that the NET formation of neutrophils might be changed in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, explaining their higher incidence of coronary artery diseases (CAD). Method. A cross-sectional study was performed in 60 maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, 30 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals (HV, negative control), and 30 patients with acute infection (positive control)...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522585/herpes-simplex-virus-glycoprotein-d-targets-a-specific-dendritic-cell-subset-and-improves-the-performance-of-vaccines-to-human-papillomavirus-associated-tumors
#13
Bruna F M M Porchia, Ana Carolina R Moreno, Rodrigo N Ramos, Mariana O Diniz, Laís Helena T M de Andrade, Daniela S Rosa, José Alexandre M Barbuto, Silvia B Boscardin, Luís Carlos S Ferreira
Cervical cancer is a major public health problem and one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in women. Virtually all cases of cervical cancer, as well as a growing share of anal and head/neck tumors, are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Despite the effectiveness, the available prophylactic vaccines do not benefit women with cervical lesions or cancer. Therefore, the search of new immunotherapeutic approaches to treat HPV-induced tumors is still a priority. The present study characterizes a therapeutic antitumor vaccine based on the genetic fusion of the Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D (gD) with the E7 oncoprotein from HPV-16 (gDE7)...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522286/increased-proportions-of-functionally-impaired-regulatory-t-cell-subsets-in-systemic-sclerosis
#14
Emese Ugor, Diána Simon, Giovanni Almanzar, Ramóna Pap, József Najbauer, Péter Németh, Péter Balogh, Martina Prelog, László Czirják, Tímea Berki
Treg abnormalities have been implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Treg subpopulations and their cytokines, IL-10 and TGF-β in the peripheral blood of early stage SSc patients were investigated. We hypothesized that epigenetically regulated methylation of the FOXP3 promoter and enhancer regions are altered in Tregs of SSc patients, which might be involved in the T cell imbalance. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+CD127- Treg cells were significantly elevated in patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc and in patients with anti-Scl-70/RNA-Pol-III autoantibody positivity and with lung fibrosis...
May 15, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515092/human-cd62l-dim-neutrophils-identified-as-a-separate-subset-by-proteome-profiling-and-in-vivo-pulse-chase-labelling
#15
Tamar Tak, Patrick Wijten, Marjolein Heeres, Peter Pickkers, Arjen Scholten, Albert J R Heck, Nienke Vrisekoop, Luke P Leenen, Jos Eacute A M Borghans, Kiki Tesselaar, Leo Koenderman
During acute inflammation three neutrophil subsets are found in the blood: neutrophils with a conventional segmented nucleus, neutrophils with a banded nucleus and T-cell-suppressing CD62L(dim) neutrophils with a high number of nuclear lobes. In this study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01766414) we compared the in vivo kinetics and proteomes of banded, mature and hypersegmented neutrophils to determine whether these cell types represent truly different neutrophil subsets or reflect changes induced by LPS activation...
May 17, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475489/differential-modulation-of-innate-immune-response-by-epinephrine-and-estradiol
#16
Sona Margaryan, Armenuhi Hyusyan, Anush Martirosyan, Shushan Sargsian, Gayane Manukyan
Background Although it is widely accepted that catecholamines and estrogens influence immunity and have consequences for health, their effect on innate immunity (e.g. monocytes and neutrophils) is still not fully investigated. Materials and methods Our study aimed to analyze the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and IL-8 by whole blood cells following short-term exposure to epinephrine (Epi) and 17β-estradiol (E2) in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
May 5, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473323/gabaa-receptor-%C3%AE-4-subunit-knockout-enhances-lung-inflammation-and-airway-reactivity-in-a-murine-asthma-model
#17
Gene T Yocum, Damian L Turner, Jennifer Danielsson, Matthew B Barajas, Yi Zhang, Dingbang Xu, Neil Harrison, Gregg E Homanics, Donna L Farber, Charles W Emala
Emerging evidence indicates that hypnotic anesthetics affect immune function. Many anesthetics potentiate γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) activation, and these receptors are expressed on multiple subtypes of immune cells, providing a potential mechanistic link. Like immune cells, airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells also express GABAARs, particularly isoforms containing α4 subunits, and activation of these receptors leads to ASM relaxation. We sought to determine if GABAAR signaling modulates the ASM contractile and inflammatory phenotype of a murine allergic asthma model utilizing GABAAR α4 subunit global knockout (KO; Gabra4(0/0)) mice...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455608/expansion-of-cd11b-ly6g-high-and-cd11b-cd49d-myeloid-cells-with-suppressive-potential-in-mice-with-chronic-inflammation-and-light-at-night-induced-circadian-disruption
#18
Yuliya V Perfilyeva, Nurshat Abdolla, Yekaterina O Ostapchuk, Raikhan Tleulieva, Vladimir C Krasnoshtanov, Nikolai N Belyaev
OBJECTIVE: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are important negative regulators of immune processes in cancer and other pathological conditions. We suggested that MDSCs play a key role in pathogenesis of chronic inflammation, which precedes and, to a certain extent, induces carcinogenesis. The present study aimed at investigation of MDSCs arising during chronic inflammation and light-at-night (LN)-induced stress, which is shown to accelerate chronic diseases. SUBJECTS: 67 CD-1 mice and in vitro MDSC cultures...
August 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454715/a-pcr-based-method-for-quantifying-neutrophils-in-human-nasal-secretions
#19
Matthew C Morris, M Nadeem Khan, Michael E Pichichero
Neutrophil recruitment to the nasopharynx (NP) is a central event in resolution of NP-initiated microbial infections. A vigorous neutrophil response in infected tissues is also associated with the outcome of adverse tissue pathology. Therefore, differences in infection-induced tissue neutrophil numbers may correlate with pathogenesis events. Existing methods of quantifying neutrophils require evaluation of NP samples within hours of procurement as flow cytometry based cell quantification methods require live neutrophil cells...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442521/application-of-flow-cytometry-in-the-early-diagnosis-of-neonatal-sepsis
#20
Mustafa Aydin, Sumeyye Barut, H Handan Akbulut, Sit Ucar, Aysen Orman
GOALS: To raise awareness of the utility of flow cytometric detection of inflammatory markers in the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. PROCEDURES: In accordance with the Töllner scoring system, cases with ≥10 points are accepted as having "clinical sepsis" and cases with 0-4 points as having "no sepsis". The study group consisted of 50 newborns with clinical sepsis as well as a control group of 50 newborns without sepsis. In all cases, blood counts, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and procalcitonin (PCT) levels were recorded...
March 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
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