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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930428/ion-transport-in-confined-geometries-below-the-nanoscale-access-resistance-dominates-protein-channel-conductance-in-diluted-solutions
#1
Antonio Alcaraz, M Lidón López, María Queralt-Martín, Vicente M Aguilella
Synthetic nanopores and mesoscopic protein channels have common traits like the importance of electrostatic interactions between the permeating ions and the nanochannel. Ion transport at the nanoscale occurs under confinement conditions so that the usual assumptions made in microfluidics are challenged, among others, by interfacial effects such as access resistance (AR). Here we show that a sound interpretation of electrophysiological measurements in terms of channel ion selective properties requires the consideration of interfacial effects, up to the point that they dominate protein channel conductance in diluted solutions...
September 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930354/flow-induced-polymer-separation-through-a-nanopore-effects-of-solvent-quality
#2
Mingming Ding, Xiaozheng Duan, Tongfei Shi
Using a hybrid simulation method that combines a lattice-Boltzmann approach for the flow and a molecular dynamics model for the polymer, we investigated the effect of solvent quality on the flow-induced polymer translocation through a nanopore. We demonstrate the nontrivial dependence of the translocation dynamics of polymers on the solvent quality, i.e., the enhancement in the polymer insolubility increases the critical velocity flux and shortens the translocation time. Accordingly, we propose a new strategy to separate polymers with different solubilities via their translocations in the nanopore by adjusting the velocity flux of the flow, which appears to be promising for the design of micro-scaled polymer separation devices...
September 20, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929755/nanowires-of-geobacter-sulfurreducens-require-redox-cofactors-to-reduce-metals-in-pore-spaces-too-small-for-cell-passage
#3
Kyle Michelson, Robert A Sanford, Albert J Valocchi, Charles J Werth
Members of the Geobacteraceae family are ubiquitous metal reducers that utilize conductive 'nanowires' to reduce Mn(IV) and Fe(III) oxides in anaerobic sediments. However, it is not currently known if and to what extent the Mn(IV) and Fe(III) oxides in soil grains and low permeability sediments that are sequestered in pore spaces too small for cell passage can be reduced by long-range extracellular electron transport via Geobacter nanowires, and what mechanisms control this reduction. We developed a microfluidic reactor that physically separates Geobacter sulfurreducens from the Mn(IV) mineral birnessite by a 1...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929599/rutile-tio2-mesocrystals-as-a-novel-sulfur-host-for-high-performance-lithium-sulfur-batteries
#4
Qingqing Sun, Kaixiang Chen, Yubin Liu, Yafeng Li, Mingdeng Wei
Although Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are one of the most promising rechargeable batteries in energy storage devices, the poor cycling performance of Li-S batteries restricts their potential application. The polar materials can improve the cycling stability due to their inherent strong chemical interaction with polysulfides. Herein, a novel rutile TiO2 mesocrystals (RTMs) was employed as the host of sulfur in Li-S, displaying a stable cycling performance with a capacity retention of 64% and a small average capacity decay rate of 0...
September 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929086/role-of-two-cell-wall-amidases-in-septal-junction-and-nanopore-formation-in-the-multicellular-cyanobacterium-anabaena-sp-pcc-7120
#5
Jan Bornikoel, Alejandro Carrión, Qing Fan, Enrique Flores, Karl Forchhammer, Vicente Mariscal, Conrad W Mullineaux, Rebeca Perez, Nadine Silber, C Peter Wolk, Iris Maldener
Filamentous cyanobacteria have developed a strategy to perform incompatible processes in one filament by differentiating specialized cell types, N2-fixing heterocysts and CO2-fixing, photosynthetic, vegetative cells. These bacteria can be considered true multicellular organisms with cells exchanging metabolites and signaling molecules via septal junctions, involving the SepJ and FraCD proteins. Previously, it was shown that the cell wall lytic N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase, AmiC2, is essential for cell-cell communication in Nostoc punctiforme...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928943/investigation-of-chimeric-reads-using-the-minion
#6
Ruby White, Christophe Pellefigues, Franca Ronchese, Olivier Lamiable, David Eccles
Following a nanopore sequencing run of PCR products of three amplicons less than 1kb, an abundance of reads failed quality control due to template/complement mismatch. A BLAST search demonstrated that some of the failed reads mapped to two different genes -- an unexpected observation, given that PCR was carried out separately for each amplicon. A further investigation was carried out specifically to search for chimeric reads, using separate barcodes for each amplicon and trying two different ligation methods prior to sample loading...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928427/warming-up-human-body-by-nanoporous-metallized-polyethylene-textile
#7
Lili Cai, Alex Y Song, Peilin Wu, Po-Chun Hsu, Yucan Peng, Jun Chen, Chong Liu, Peter B Catrysse, Yayuan Liu, Ankun Yang, Chenxing Zhou, Chenyu Zhou, Shanhui Fan, Yi Cui
Space heating accounts for the largest energy end-use of buildings that imposes significant burden on the society. The energy wasted for heating the empty space of the entire building can be saved by passively heating the immediate environment around the human body. Here, we demonstrate a nanophotonic structure textile with tailored infrared (IR) property for passive personal heating using nanoporous metallized polyethylene. By constructing an IR-reflective layer on an IR-transparent layer with embedded nanopores, the nanoporous metallized polyethylene textile achieves a minimal IR emissivity (10...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928405/nanopore-extended-field-effect-transistor-for-selective-single-molecule-biosensing
#8
Ren Ren, Yanjun Zhang, Binoy Paulose Nadappuram, Bernice Akpinar, David Klenerman, Aleksandar P Ivanov, Joshua B Edel, Yuri Korchev
There has been a significant drive to deliver nanotechnological solutions to biosensing, yet there remains an unmet need in the development of biosensors that are affordable, integrated, fast, capable of multiplexed detection, and offer high selectivity for trace analyte detection in biological fluids. Herein, some of these challenges are addressed by designing a new class of nanoscale sensors dubbed nanopore extended field-effect transistor (nexFET) that combine the advantages of nanopore single-molecule sensing, field-effect transistors, and recognition chemistry...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927272/nonaqueous-sol-gel-synthesis-of-anatase-nanoparticles-and-their-electrophoretic-deposition-in-porous-alumina
#9
Cedric Frantz, Alessandro Lauria, Cristina Vicente Manzano, Carlos Guerra-Nuñez, Markus Niederberger, Cédric Storrer, Johann Michler, Laetitia Vérnique Philippe
TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by nonaqueous sol-gel route using chloride precursor and benzyl alcohol as the solvent. The obtained 4 nm size anatase nanocrystals were readily dispersible in various polar solvents allowing for simple preparation of colloidal dispersions in water, isopropyl alcohol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and ethanol. Results showed that dispersed nanoparticles have acidic properties and exhibit positive zeta-potential which is suitable for their deposition by cathodic electrophoresis. Aluminum substrates were anodized in phosphoric acid in order to produce porous anodic oxide layers with pores ranging from 160 to 320 nm...
September 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926984/n-doped-carbon-xerogels-as-pt-support-for-the-electro-reduction-of-oxygen
#10
Cinthia Alegre, David Sebastián, María E Gálvez, Estela Baquedano, Rafael Moliner, Antonino S Aricò, Vincenzo Baglio, María J Lázaro
Durability and limited catalytic activity are key impediments to the commercialization of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Carbon materials employed as catalyst support can be doped with different heteroatoms, like nitrogen, to improve both catalytic activity and durability. Carbon xerogels are nanoporous carbons that can be easily synthesized in order to obtain N-doped materials. In the present work, we introduced melamine as a carbon xerogel precursor together with resorcinol for an effective in-situ N doping (3-4 wt % N)...
September 17, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926270/an-ultra-thin-nanoporous-membrane-evaporator
#11
Zhengmao Lu, Kyle L Wilke, Daniel John Preston, Ikuya Kinefuchi, Elizabeth F Chang-Davidson, Evelyn N Wang
Evaporation is a ubiquitous phenomenon found in nature and widely used in industry. Yet fundamental understanding of interfacial transport during evaporation remains limited to date owing to the difficulty of characterizing the heat and mass transfer at the interface, especially at high heat fluxes ( > 100 W/cm(2)). In this work, we elucidated evaporation into an air ambient with an ultra-thin (≈ 200 nm thick) nanoporous (≈ 130 nm pore diameter) membrane. With our evaporator design, we accurately monitored the temperature of the liquid-vapor interface, reduced the thermal-fluidic transport resistance and mitigated the clogging risk associated with contamination...
September 19, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926073/pore-and-ligament-size-control-thermal-stability-and-mechanical-properties-of-nanoporous-single-crystals-of-gold
#12
Maria Koifman Khristosov, Shiri Dishon, Imrit Noi, Alex Katsman, Boaz Pokroy
Nanoporous gold is widely used in research and nanotechnology because of its diverse properties, including high surface area and catalytic activity. The ligament size is usually considered as one of the main parameters controlling thermal stability and mechanical properties of nanoporous gold. Recently we developed a method for creating nanoporous single crystal gold particles using eutectic decomposition of Au-Ge, followed by selective etching of Ge. Here, we used this novel method to create nanoporous gold particles with controlled ligament sizes by changing the initial sample's relative concentrations of gold and germanium...
September 19, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925713/simple-and-efficient-fabrication-of-mayenite-electrides-from-a-solution-derived-precursor
#13
Dong Jiang, Zeyu Zhao, Shenglong Mu, Vincent Phaneuf, Jianhua Tong
Mayenite (12CaO·7Al2O3, C12A7) electride with an anti-zeolite nanoporous structure has attracted intense attention due to its versatile promising application potentials. However, the synthesis difficulty because of extremely harsh conditions (e.g., reduction in sealed calcium or titanium vapor) significantly obstructs its realistic applications. In this work, we employed a simple, efficient, and cost-effective route for synthesizing mayenite electrides (C12A7:e(-)) in both powder and dense ceramic. C12A7:e(-) powders with efficient electron doping (3...
September 19, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925378/spectroscopically-forbidden-infra-red-emission-in-au-vertical-graphene-hybrid-nanostructures
#14
A K Sivadasan, Santanu Parida, Subrata Ghosh, Ramanathaswamy Pandian, Sandip Dhara
Implementation of Au nanoparticles (NPs) is a subject for frontier plasmonic research due to its fascinating optical properties. Herein, the present study deals with plasmonic assisted emission properties of Au NPs-vertical graphene (VG) hybrid nanostructures. The influence of effective polarizability of Au NPs on the surface enhanced Raman scattering and luminescence properties is investigated. In addition, a remarkable infra-red (IR) emission in the hybrid nanostructures is observed and interpreted on the basis of intra-band transitions in Au NPs...
September 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921952/nano-air-seeds-trapped-in-mesoporous-janus-nanoparticles-facilitate-cavitation-and-enhance-ultrasound-imaging
#15
Konstantin Tamarov, Andrey Sviridov, Wujun Xu, Markus Malo, Valery Andreev, Victor Yu Timoshenko, Vesa-Pekka Lehto
The current contrast agents utilized in ultrasound (US) imaging are based on microbubbles which, however, suffer from a short lifetime in the systemic circulation. The present study introduces a new type of contrast agents for US imaging based on bioresorbable Janus nanoparticles (NPs) that are able to generate microbubbles in situ under US radiation for extended time. The Janus NPs were fabricated from porous silicon (PSi) that was modified via a nanostopper technique. The technique was exploited to prepare PSi NPs which had hydrophobic pore walls (inner face) while the external surfaces of the NPs (outer face) were hydrophilic...
September 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920938/partial-breaking-of-the-coulombic-ordering-of-ionic-liquids-confined-in-carbon-nanopores
#16
Ryusuke Futamura, Taku Iiyama, Yuma Takasaki, Yury Gogotsi, Mark J Biggs, Mathieu Salanne, Julie Ségalini, Patrice Simon, Katsumi Kaneko
Ionic liquids are composed of equal quantities of positive and negative ions. In the bulk, electrical neutrality occurs in these liquids due to Coulombic ordering, in which ion shells of alternating charge form around a central ion. Their structure under confinement is far less well understood. This hinders the widespread application of ionic liquids in technological applications. Here we use scattering experiments to resolve the structure of a widely used ionic liquid (EMI-TFSI) when it is confined inside nanoporous carbons...
September 18, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919790/exploring-bacterial-outer-membrane-barrier-to-combat-bad-bugs
#17
REVIEW
Ishan Ghai, Shashank Ghai
One of the main fundamental mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria comprises an effective change in the membrane permeability to antibiotics. The Gram-negative bacterial complex cell envelope comprises an outer membrane that delimits the periplasm from the exterior environment. The outer membrane contains numerous protein channels, termed as porins or nanopores, which are mainly involved in the influx of hydrophilic compounds, including antibiotics. Bacterial adaptation to reduce influx through these outer membrane proteins (Omps) is one of the crucial mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917880/intercalated-chitosan-hydroxyapatite-nanocomposites-promising-materials-for-bone-tissue-engineering-applications
#18
Muhammad Anwaar Nazeer, Emel Yilgör, Iskender Yilgör
Preparation and characterization of chitosan/hydroxyapatite (CS/HA) nanocomposites displaying an intercalated structure is reported. Hydroxyapatite was synthesized through sol-gel process. Formic acid was introduced as a new solvent to obtain stable dispersions of nano-sized HA particles in polymer solution. CS/HA dispersions with HA contents of 5, 10 and 20% by weight were prepared. Self-assembling of HA nanoparticles during the drying of the solvent cast films led to the formation of homogeneous CS/HA nanocomposites...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915752/a-new-insight-into-diffusional-escape-from-a-biased-cylindrical-trap
#19
Alexander M Berezhkovskii, Leonardo Dagdug, Sergey M Bezrukov
Recent experiments with single biological nanopores, as well as single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and pulling studies of protein and nucleic acid folding raised a number of questions that stimulated theoretical and computational investigations of barrier crossing dynamics. The present paper addresses a closely related problem focusing on trajectories of Brownian particles that escape from a cylindrical trap in the presence of a force F parallel to the cylinder axis. To gain new insights into the escape dynamics, we analyze the "fine structure" of these trajectories...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915735/the-effect-of-finite-pore-length-on-ion-structure-and-charging
#20
Konrad Breitsprecher, Manuel Abele, Svyatoslav Kondrat, Christian Holm
Nanoporous supercapacitors play an important role in modern energy storage systems, and their modeling is essential to predict and optimize the charging behaviour. Two classes of models have been developed that consist of finite and infinitely long pores. Here, we show that although both types of models predict qualitatively consistent results, there are important differences emerging due to the finite pore length. In particular, we find that the ion density inside a finite pore is not constant, but increases linearly from the pore entrance to the pore end, where the ions form a strongly layered structure...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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