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Zhuang Liu, Hanyue Ma, Huihui Sun, Rui Gao, Honglei Liu, Xia Wang, Ping Xu, Luying Xun
Environmental pollution caused by sulfide compounds has become a major problem for public health. Hence, there is an urgent need to explore a sensitive, selective, and simple sulfide detection method for environmental monitoring and protection. Here, a novel microbial biosensor was developed using recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 (E. coli BL21) expressing sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) for sulfide detection. As an important enzyme involved in the initial step of sulfide metabolism, SQR oxidizes sulfides to polysulfides and transfers electrons to the electron transport chain...
June 20, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
A Fiasconaro, J J Mazo, F Falo
In this work we study the assisted translocation of a polymer across a membrane nanopore, inside which a molecular motor exerts a force fuelled by the hydrolysis of ATP molecules. In our model the motor switches to its active state for a fixed amount of time, while it waits for an ATP molecule which triggers the motor, during an exponentially distributed time lapse. The polymer is modelled as a beads-springs chain with both excluded volume and bending contributions, and moves in a stochastic three dimensional environment modelled with a Langevin dynamics at a fixed temperature...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Laleh Enayati Ahangar, Masoud A Mehrgardi
In the present study, a nanoporous gold platform was applied for the amplified detection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) by an electrochemical DNA biosensor. Ferrocene as a redox reporter was covalently attached to the DNA probe and its electrochemical signal was recorded as the biosensor response. For real samples, DNA was firstly extracted from blood of patients and then amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for 5cycles. Sensitivity of this biosensor was enhanced by using nanoporous gold electrode, therefore this sensor can discriminate the genome of HBV in real sample with low PCR cycles...
June 15, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
Taimoor H Qazi, David J Mooney, Georg N Duda, Sven Geissler
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) secrete paracrine factors that play crucial roles during tissue regeneration. Whether this paracrine function is influenced by the properties of biomaterials in general, and those used for cell delivery in particular, largely remains unexplored. Here, we investigated if three-dimensional culture in distinct microenvironments - nanoporous hydrogels (mean pore size ∼5 nm) and macroporous scaffolds (mean pore size ∼120 μm) - affects the secretion pattern of MSCs, and consequently leads to differential paracrine effects on target progenitor cells such as myoblasts...
June 18, 2017: Biomaterials
Mikhail Valeryevich Zyuzin, Yan Yan, Raimo Hartmann, Katelyn T Gause, Moritz Nazarenus, Jiwei Cui, Frank Caruso, Wolfgang J Parak
The presence of a protein corona on various synthetic nanomaterials has been shown to strongly influence how they interact with cells. However, it is unclear if the protein corona also exists on protein particles, and if so, its role in particle-cell interactions. In this study, pure human serum albumin (HSA) particles were fabricated via mesoporous silica particle templating. Our data reveal that various serum proteins adsorbed on the particles. The presence of a corona from human plasma was shown to decrease particle binding to cell membrane, increase the residence time of particles in early endosomes, and reduce the amount of internalized particles within the first hours of cell exposure to particles...
June 23, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Xiang Zhu, Shunmin Ding, Carter W Abney, Katie L Browning, Robert L Sacci, Gabriel M Veith, Chengcheng Tian, Sheng Dai
A superacid-promoted "knitting" strategy has been developed for the generation of a novel family of hypercrosslinked nanoporous polycarbazoles for efficient CO2 capture. Using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, a Brønsted superacid, we demonstrate the facile and rapid synthesis of highly porous polycarbazoles with BET surface areas as high as 1688 m(2) g(-1), and capable of adsorbing 3.5 mmol g(-1) of CO2 at 298 K and 1 bar. This impressive result bestows the material with the highest CO2 uptake capacity for all nanoporous carbazolic polymers and ranks among the best by known porous organic polymers under this condition...
June 23, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Cristina Gavazzoni, Nicolas Giovambattista, Paulo A Netz, Marcia C Barbosa
We performed molecular dynamics simulations of water confined within AlPO4-54 nanotubes. AlPO4-54 is an artificial material made of AlO4 and of PO4 in tetrahedra arranged in a periodic structure forming pores of approximately 1.3 nm in diameter. This makes AlPO4-54 an excellent candidate for practical applications, such as for water filtration and desalination. In this work, the structural and dynamical properties of the confined water are analyzed for various temperatures and water loadings. We find that the water structure is controlled by the heterogeneity of the nanopore surface with the water molecules located preferentially next to the surface of oxygens of AlPO4-54; consequently, at very low densities, water forms helicoidal structures in string-like arrangements...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Kui Wang, Wubulikasimu Yiming, Jayaprakash Saththasivam, Zhaoyang Liu
Polymeric and ceramic asymmetric membranes have dominated commercial membranes for water treatment. However, polymeric membranes are prone to becoming fouled, while ceramic membranes are mechanically fragile. Here, we report a novel concept to develop asymmetric membranes based on ultra-long ceramic/polymeric fibers, with the combined merits of good mechanical stability, excellent fouling resistance and high oil/water selectivity, in order to meet the stringent requirements for practical oil/water separation...
June 22, 2017: Nanoscale
K Liang, K Marcus, L Guo, Z Li, L Zhou, Y Li, S T De Oliveira, N Orlovskaya, Y-H Sohn, Yang Yang
An ultrathin, freestanding NiSx nanoporous thin-film was developed by facile electrochemical deposition, etching, anodization and chemical vapor treatments. The NiSx nanoporous thin-film shows excellent reversible insertion/extraction of Mg ions and long-term cycling performance, which is an ideal energy storage device for small/micro-size electronic and medical devices.
June 22, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Philipp Euskirchen, Franck Bielle, Karim Labreche, Wigard P Kloosterman, Shai Rosenberg, Mailys Daniau, Charlotte Schmitt, Julien Masliah-Planchon, Franck Bourdeaut, Caroline Dehais, Yannick Marie, Jean-Yves Delattre, Ahmed Idbaih
Molecular classification of cancer has entered clinical routine to inform diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment decisions. At the same time, new tumor entities have been identified that cannot be defined histologically. For central nervous system tumors, the current World Health Organization classification explicitly demands molecular testing, e.g., for 1p/19q-codeletion or IDH mutations, to make an integrated histomolecular diagnosis. However, a plethora of sophisticated technologies is currently needed to assess different genomic and epigenomic alterations and turnaround times are in the range of weeks, which makes standardized and widespread implementation difficult and hinders timely decision making...
June 21, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
Mingzhe Li, Weiyi Lu
Liquid flow speed in 2D nanochannel models has previously been characterized, whereas liquid flow behavior in 3D nanostructured materials remains unknown. To fill this gap, we have developed a novel liquid nanofoam (LN) system composed of nanoporous silica gel particles and a non-wettable liquid phase. We demonstrated that the dynamic behavior of the LN sample was strain rate insensitive by impacting it with a drop weight at various incident speeds. Using this experimental setup, we measured the effective liquid flow speed in 3D nanopores and showed that it was 5 orders of magnitude higher than that of quasi-static loading...
June 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Francesca Giordano, Louise Aigrain, Michael A Quail, Paul Coupland, James K Bonfield, Robert M Davies, German Tischler, David K Jackson, Thomas M Keane, Jing Li, Jia-Xing Yue, Gianni Liti, Richard Durbin, Zemin Ning
Long-read sequencing technologies such as Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore MinION are capable of producing long sequencing reads with average fragment lengths of over 10,000 base-pairs and maximum lengths reaching 100,000 base- pairs. Compared with short reads, the assemblies obtained from long-read sequencing platforms have much higher contig continuity and genome completeness as long fragments are able to extend paths into problematic or repetitive regions. Many successful assembly applications of the Pacific Biosciences technology have been reported ranging from small bacterial genomes to large plant and animal genomes...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Libo Zhu, Dejian Gu, Quanjun Liu
There are many techniques for the detection of molecules. But detection of molecules through solid-state nanopore in a solution is one of the promising, high-throughput, and low-cost technology used these days. In the present investigation, a solid-state nanopore platform was fabricated for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is not only a label free product but also a significant participant in the redox reaction. We have successfully fabricated silicon nitride (Si3N4) nanopores with diameters of ~50 nm by using a focused Ga ion beam, the inner surface of the nanopore has been modified with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by employing carbodiimide coupling chemistry...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Alberto Magi, Roberto Semeraro, Alessandra Mingrino, Betti Giusti, Romina D'Aurizio
The nanopore sequencing process is based on the transit of a DNA molecule through a nanoscopic pore, and since the 90s is considered as one of the most promising approaches to detect polymeric molecules. In 2014, Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) launched a beta-testing program that supplied the scientific community with the first prototype of a nanopore sequencer: the MinION. Thanks to this program, several research groups had the opportunity to evaluate the performance of this novel instrument and develop novel computational approaches for analyzing this new generation of data...
June 16, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Guillaume Fraux, François-Xavier Coudert
Here we highlight recent progress in the field of computational chemistry of nanoporous materials, focusing on methods and studies that address the extraordinary dynamic nature of these systems: the high flexibility of their frameworks, the large-scale structural changes upon external physical or chemical stimulation, and the presence of defects and disorder. The wide variety of behavior demonstrated in soft porous crystals, including the topical class of metal-organic frameworks, opens new challenges for computational chemistry methods at all scales...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Vijayaganapathy Vaithilingam, Sumeet Bal, Bernard E Tuch
Transplantation of pancreatic islets encapsulated within immuno-protective microcapsules is a strategy that has the potential to overcome graft rejection without the need for toxic immunosuppressive medication. However, despite promising preclinical studies, clinical trials using encapsulated islets have lacked long-term efficacy, and although generally considered clinically safe, have not been encouraging overall. One of the major factors limiting the long-term function of encapsulated islets is the host's immunological reaction to the transplanted graft which is often manifested as pericapsular fibrotic overgrowth (PFO)...
2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
Bita Malekian, Kunli Xiong, Gustav Emilsson, Jenny Andersson, Cecilia Fager, Eva Olsson, Elin M Larsson-Langhammer, Andreas B Dahlin
Plasmonic nanostructures are widely used for various sensing applications by monitoring changes in refractive index through optical spectroscopy or as substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. However, in most practical situations conventional surface plasmon resonance is preferred for biomolecular interaction analysis because of its high resolution in surface coverage and the simple single-material planar interface. Still, plasmonic nanostructures may find unique sensing applications, for instance when the nanoscale geometry itself is of interest...
June 20, 2017: Sensors
Brent Cook, Qingfeng Liu, Maogang Gong, Dan Ewing, Matthew Casper, Alex Stramel, Judy Z Wu
A nanocomposite ink composed of zinc oxide precursor (ZnOPr) and crystalline ZnO quantum dots (ZnOPrQDs) has been explored for printing high-performance ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors. The performance of the devices has been compared with their counterparts' printed from ZnOPr ink without ZnO QDs. Remarkably, higher UV photoresponsivity of 383.6 A/W and the on/off ratio of 2470 are observed in the former, which are significantly better than 14.7 A/W and 949 in the latter. The improved performance is attributed to the increased viscosity in the nanocomposite ink to enable a nanoporous structure with improved crystallinity and surface-to-volume ratio...
June 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Pradeep Ramiah Rajasekaran, Chuanhong Zhou, Mallika Dasari, Kay-Obbe Voss, Christina Trautmann, Punit Kohli
A new lithographic editing system with an ability to erase and rectify errors in microscale with real-time optical feedback is demonstrated. The erasing probe is a conically shaped hydrogel (tip size, ca. 500 nm) template-synthesized from track-etched conical glass wafers. The "nanosponge" hydrogel probe "erases" patterns by hydrating and absorbing molecules into a porous hydrogel matrix via diffusion analogous to a wet sponge. The presence of an interfacial liquid water layer between the hydrogel tip and the substrate during erasing enables frictionless, uninterrupted translation of the eraser on the substrate...
June 2017: Science Advances
Kherim Willems, Veerle Van Meervelt, Carsten Wloka, Giovanni Maglia
Biological nanopores are a class of membrane proteins that open nanoscale water conduits in biological membranes. When they are reconstituted in artificial membranes and a bias voltage is applied across the membrane, the ionic current passing through individual nanopores can be used to monitor chemical reactions, to recognize individual molecules and, of most interest, to sequence DNA. In addition, a more recent nanopore application is the analysis of single proteins and enzymes. Monitoring enzymatic reactions with nanopores, i...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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