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Direct observation of residents

Jiuhong Zha, Bifeng Ding, Haoyu Wang, Weihan Zhao, Chen Yu, Katia Alves, Niloufar Mobashery, Yan Luo, Rajeev M Menon
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The 3 direct-acting antiviral (3D) regimen of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir plus dasabuvir has recently been approved in several Asian geographic regions for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) 1 infection. The pharmacokinetics of the components of the 3D regimen with or without ribavirin were evaluated in healthy Chinese subjects and HCV GT1b-infected Chinese, South Korean, and Taiwanese patients, with or without cirrhosis, to determine how the drug exposures in Asian populations compare with historical data in Western populations...
June 16, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Harry Gutiérrez-Mosquera, S B Sujitha, M P Jonathan, S K Sarkar, Fairy Medina-Mosquera, Helcias Ayala-Mosquera, Gladis Morales-Mira, Laura Arreola-Mendoza
A biomonitoring study was carried out to examine the adverse impacts of total mercury in the blood (HgB), urine (HgU) and human scalp hair (HgH) on the residents of a mining district in Colombia. Representative biological samples (scalp hair, urine and blood) were collected from volunteered participants (n=63) to estimate the exposure levels of THg using a Direct mercury analyzer. The geometric mean of THg concentrations in the hair, urine and blood of males were 15.98μg/g, 23.89μg/L and 11.29μg/L respectively, whereas the females presented values of 8...
June 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Shuyan Yang, Elsie Yan, Xue Bai
BACKGROUND: The subject of sexuality in older adults has remained grossly understudied in China, despite the country having the largest older population in the world. OBJECTIVE: Guided by the Sexual Script Theory and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this study used path analysis to test an integrated path model for sexual activity with sexual interest as a mediator. METHODS: Survey data was collected from a representative sample of 688 community-dwelling older Chinese adults aged 60 or above residing in Tianjin, China...
June 1, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Gary L Beck Dallaghan, Joy Higgins, Adam Reinhardt
Background: Direct observations with focused feedback are critical components for medical student education. Numerous challenges exist in providing useful comments to students during their clerkships. Students' evaluations of the clerkship indicated they were not receiving feedback from preceptors or house officers. Objective: To encourage direct observation with feedback, Structured Patient Care Observation (SPCO) forms were used to evaluate third-year medical students during patient encounters...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Education and Curricular Development
Nicholas J Nidzieko
There are still significant uncertainties in the magnitude and direction of carbon fluxes through coastal ecosystems. An important component of these biogeochemical budgets is ecosystem metabolism, the net result of organismal metabolic processes within an ecosystem. In this paper, I present a synthesis of published ecosystem metabolism studies from coastal ecosystems and describe an empirical observation that size-dependent patterns in aquatic gross primary production and community respiration exist across a wide range of coastal geomorphologies...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Carolynn Greene, Deebs Canning, Jennie Wilson, Aggie Bak, Alison Tingle, Amalia Tsiami, Heather Loveday
BACKGROUND: Dehydration is a complex and well-recognised problem for older people residing in care homes. Within the social care sector support staff provide the majority of direct care for residents, and yet receive minimal training. OBJECTIVES: To design, deliver and evaluate a hydration specific training session for care home staff to develop their knowledge and skills in supporting the hydration of care home residents. DESIGN: An observational study comprising a pre-test post-test survey of staff knowledge following a training intervention...
May 23, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Weiwei Gao, Fei Li, Li Liu, Xin Xu, Baoliang Zhang, Yingang Wu, Dongpei Yin, Shuai Zhou, Dongdong Sun, Ying Huang, Jianning Zhang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) tends to cause disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Previous studies have shown that intravenously or intracerebroventricularly infused human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) can home to injury sites and improve outcomes in mice subjected to experimental TBI. Several reports have demonstrated that these cells did not incorporate directly into newly formed vasculature but instead stimulated the proliferation and migration of tissue-resident endothelial cells (ECs) via paracrine mechanisms...
June 5, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Natalie Riedel, Heike Köckler, Joachim Scheiner, Irene van Kamp, Raimund Erbel, Adrian Loerbroks, Thomas Claßen, Gabriele Bolte
Urban residents’ need to be in control of their home environment can be constrained by perceived uncontrollability of exposure to road traffic noise. Noise annoyance may indicate a psychological stress reaction due to this uncontrollability perception, thereby undermining the restoration process. Environmental resources, such as having access to a quiet side at home and dwelling-related green, may reduce noise annoyance both directly by shielding acoustically and indirectly by enhancing residents’ perceived noise control...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Justine Burns, Brendan Maughan-Brown, Âurea Mouzinho
BACKGROUND: While regular handwashing effectively reduces communicable disease incidence and related child mortality, instilling a habit of regular handwashing in young children continues to be a challenging task, especially in developing country contexts. This randomised controlled pilot study assessed the effect of a novel handwashing intervention - a bi-monthly delivery of a colourful, translucent bar of soap with a toy embedded in its centre (HOPE SOAP©) - on children's handwashing behaviour and health outcomes...
June 7, 2018: BMC Public Health
Francisco M Olmos-Vega, Diana Hjm Dolmans, Carlos Guzmán-Quintero, Renée E Stalmeijer, Pim W Teunissen
CONTEXT: Successful engagement between residents and supervisors lies at the core of workplace learning, a process that is not exempt from challenge. Clinical encounters have unique learning potential as they offer opportunities to achieve a shared understanding between the resident and supervisor of how to accomplish a common goal. How residents and supervisors develop such a mutual understanding is an issue that has received limited attention in the literature. We used the 'intersubjectivity' concept as a novel conceptual framework to analyse this issue...
July 2018: Medical Education
Anneke J A H van Vught, Geert T W J van den Brink, Murielle G E C Hilkens, Jos A H van Oers
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Since adequate staffing in intensive care units (ICUs) is an increasing problem worldwide, we investigated whether physician assistants (PAs) are able to substitute medical residents (MR) in ICUs with at least the same quality of clinical skills. In this study, we analysed the level of clinical skills of PAs in direct comparison with those who traditionally performed these tasks, ie, MR with 6 to 24 months of work experience in the ICU. METHOD: Physician assistants and MRs in the ICUs were observed on their clinical skills by means of a simulated ICU comprising 2 scenarios on a human patient simulator with typical ICU cases...
June 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Elizabeth M Steinert, Emily A Thompson, Lalit K Beura, Omar A Adam, Jason S Mitchell, Mengdi Guo, Elise R Breed, Frances V Sjaastad, Vaiva Vezys, David Masopust
Lymphocytes enter tissues from blood vessels through a well-characterized three-step process of extravasation. To our knowledge, nonvascular routes of lymphocyte entry have not been described. In this article, we report that Ag-experienced CD8 T cells in mice recirculate from blood through the peritoneal cavity. In the event of infection, Ag-experienced CD8 T cell subsets adhered to visceral organs, indicating potential transcapsular immunosurveillance. Focusing on the male genital tract (MGT), we observed Ag-experienced CD8 T cell migration from the peritoneal cavity directly to the infected MGT across the capsule, which was dependent on the extracellular matrix receptor CD44...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Iain J Staniland, Norman Ratcliffe, Philip N Trathan, Jaume Forcada
Leopard seals are an important Antarctic apex predator that can affect marine ecosystems through local predation. Here we report on the successful use of micro geolocation logging sensor tags to track the movements, and activity, of four leopard seals for trips of between 142-446 days including one individual in two separate years. Whilst the sample size is small the results represent an advance in our limited knowledge of leopard seals. We show the longest periods of tracking of leopard seals' migratory behaviour between the pack ice, close to the Antarctic continent, and the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia...
2018: PloS One
Catharina Nord
The relationship between architectural space and resident-centred care is poorly understood, even though architectural space is indicated as an important factor in the quality of care. This paper aims to address this gap in existing research by putting resident-centred care in the theoretical context of relationality and emergence in which space is a co-producing component. This qualitative case study includes two housing alternatives, which are compared: one assisted living and one extra-care housing residence, which differ in their legal status and architecturally...
December 2018: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Nicholas J W Easom, Kerstin A Stegmann, Leo Swadling, Laura J Pallett, Alice R Burton, Dennis Odera, Nathalie Schmidt, Wei-Chen Huang, Giuseppe Fusai, Brian Davidson, Mala K Maini
NK cells have potent antitumor capacity. They are enriched in the human liver, with a large subset specialized for tissue-residence. The potential for liver-resident versus liver-infiltrating NK cells to populate, and exert antitumor functions in, human liver tumors has not been studied. We examined liver-resident and liver-infiltrating NK cells directly ex vivo from human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and liver colorectal (CRC) metastases, compared with matched uninvolved liver tissue. We found that NK cells were highly prevalent in both HCC and liver CRC metastases, although at lower frequencies than unaffected liver...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Arthur Lau, Hyunjae Chung, Takanori Komada, Jaye M Platnich, Christina F Sandall, Saurav Roy Choudhury, Justin Chun, Victor Naumenko, Bas Gj Surewaard, Michelle C Nelson, Annegret Ulke-Lemée, Paul L Beck, Hallgrimur Benediktsson, Anthony M Jevnikar, Sarah L Snelgrove, Michael J Hickey, Donna L Senger, Matthew T James, Justin A Macdonald, Paul Kubes, Craig N Jenne, Daniel A Muruve
Radiographic contrast agents cause acute kidney injury (AKI), yet the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. Nod-like receptor pyrin containing 3-deficient (Nlrp3-deficient) mice displayed reduced epithelial cell injury and inflammation in the kidney in a model of contrast-induced AKI (CI-AKI). Unexpectedly, contrast agents directly induced tubular epithelial cell death in vitro that was not dependent on Nlrp3. Rather, contrast agents activated the canonical Nlrp3 inflammasome in macrophages. Intravital microscopy revealed diatrizoate (DTA) uptake within minutes in perivascular CX3CR1+ resident phagocytes in the kidney...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Dustin Costescu, Édith Guilbert
OBJECTIVE: This guideline reviews evidence relating to the provision of surgical induced abortion (IA) and second trimester medical abortion, including pre- and post-procedural care. INTENDED USERS: Gynaecologists, family physicians, nurses, midwives, residents, and other health care providers who currently or intend to provide and/or teach IAs. TARGET POPULATION: Women with an unintended or abnormal first or second trimester pregnancy. EVIDENCE: PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane Database were searched using the key words: first-trimester surgical abortion, second-trimester surgical abortion, second-trimester medical abortion, dilation and evacuation, induction abortion, feticide, cervical preparation, cervical dilation, abortion complications...
June 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Paula Ravitz, Andrea Lawson, Mark Fefergrad, Sian Rawkins, William Lancee, Robert Maunder, Molyn Leszcz, Dennis M Kivlighan
OBJECTIVE: Psychiatry residents train in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), evidence-supported treatments used in mental health care that can facilitate clinical reasoning, foster therapeutic alliances, and improve clinical outcomes. However, empirically derived milestones are needed to evaluate competency. This exploratory pilot examined changes over 1 year of training in junior psychiatry residents' competency milestone elements in Psychodynamic Psychotherapy and CBT...
June 1, 2018: Academic Psychiatry
Paul A Bergl, Allison C Taylor, Jennifer Klumb, Kerrie Quirk, Martin D Muntz, Kathlyn E Fletcher
Physical examination (PE) is a core clinical competency, and the internal medicine clerkship is a premiere venue for students to develop PE skills. However, clinical rotations often lack opportunities for real-time instruction. We sought to measure the frequency, content, and factors affecting PE instruction during the internal medicine clerkship. We conducted a prospective mixed-methods study at a single academic center. Data were gathered by a student researcher who directly observed inpatient teams over 3 months...
June 2018: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Junya Duan, Yafei Wang, Chen Fan, Beicheng Xia, Rudolf de Groot
Cities face many challenging environmental problems that affect human well-being. Environmental risks can be reduced by Urban Green Infrastructures (UGIs). The effects of UGIs on the urban environment have been widely studied, but less attention has been given to the public perception of these effects. This paper presents the results of a study in Guangzhou, China, on UGI users' perceptions of these effects and their relationship with sociodemographic variables. A questionnaire survey was conducted in four public green spaces...
May 28, 2018: Environmental Management
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