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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225465/a-patient-centered-approach-to-developing-entrustable-professional-activities
#1
Carlos El-Haddad, Arvin Damodaran, H Patrick McNeil, Wendy Hu
PURPOSE: The medical education community is rapidly accepting the use of entrustable professional activities (EPAs) as a means of assessing residents. Stakeholder engagement is advised in developing EPAs, but no studies have investigated the role of patient input. In this qualitative study, the authors investigated what patient input may add to designing a patient-centered EPA. METHOD: The authors chose "management of acute low back pain (LBP)" as a common, important clinical task on which to base the patient-centered EPA...
February 21, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223219/trpm2-contributes-to-lpc-induced-intracellular-ca-2-influx-and-microglial-activation
#2
Heejin Jeong, Yong Ho Kim, Yunsin Lee, Sung Jun Jung, Seog Bae Oh
Microglia are the resident immune cells which become activated in some pathological conditions in central nervous system (CNS). Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), an endogenous inflammatory phospholipid, is implicated in immunomodulatory function of glial cells in the CNS. Although several studies uncovered that LPC induces intracellular Ca(2+) influx and morphologic change in microglia, there is still no direct evidence showing change of phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 (p-p38), a widely used microglia activation marker, by LPC...
February 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217128/tumor-associated-lymphatic-vessels-upregulate-pdl1-to-inhibit-t-cell-activation
#3
Lothar C Dieterich, Kristian Ikenberg, Timur Cetintas, Kübra Kapaklikaya, Cornelia Hutmacher, Michael Detmar
Tumor-associated lymphatic vessels (LVs) play multiple roles during tumor progression, including promotion of metastasis and regulation of antitumor immune responses by delivering antigen from the tumor bed to draining lymph nodes (LNs). Under steady-state conditions, LN resident lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) have been found to maintain peripheral tolerance by directly inhibiting autoreactive T-cells. Similarly, tumor-associated lymphatic endothelium has been suggested to reduce antitumor T-cell responses, but the mechanisms that mediate this effect have not been clarified...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215990/neural-mechanisms-of-single-corrective-steps-evoked-in-the-standing-rabbit
#4
L-J Hsu, P V Zelenin, V F Lyalka, M G Vemula, G N Orlovsky, T G Deliagina
Single steps in different directions are often used for postural corrections. However, our knowledge about the neural mechanisms underlying their generation is scarce. This study was aimed to characterize the corrective steps generated in response to disturbances of the basic body configuration caused by forward, backward or outward displacement of the hindlimb, as well as to reveal location in the CNS of the corrective step generating mechanisms. Video recording of the motor response to translation of the supporting surface under the hindlimb along with contact forces and activity of back and limb muscles was performed in freely standing intact and in fixed postmammillary rabbits...
February 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197858/mapping-biological-transmission-an-empirical-dynamical-and-evolutionary-approach
#5
Francesca Merlin, Livio Riboli-Sasco
The current debate over extending inheritance and its evolutionary impact has focused on adding new categories of non-genetic factors to the classical transmission of DNA, and on trying to redefine inheritance. Transmitted factors have been mainly characterized by their directions of transmission (vertical, horizontal, or both) and the way they store variations. In this paper, we leave aside the issue of defining inheritance. We rather try to build an evolutionary conceptual framework that allows for tracing most, if not all forms of transmission and makes sense of their different tempos and modes...
February 14, 2017: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192031/neural-crest-stem-cells-can-differentiate-to-a-cardiomyogenic-lineage-with-an-ability-to-contract-in-response-to-pulsed-infrared-stimulation
#6
Jordan M Greenberg, Vicente Lumbreras, Daniel Pelaez, Suhrud M Rajguru, Herman S Cheung
INTRODUCTION: Cellular cardiomyoplasty has rapidly risen to prominence in the clinic following a myocardial infarction; however, low engraftment of transplanted cells limits the therapeutic benefit to these procedures. Recently, lineage-specific stem cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes have gained much attention to assist in the repair of an injured heart tissue; however, questions regarding the ideal cell source remain. In the present study, we have identified a source that is easy to extract stem cells from and show that the cells present have a high plasticity toward the cardiomyogenic lineage...
October 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185748/validity-of-ultrasound-in-diagnosis-of-tendon-injuries-in-penetrating-extremity-trauma
#7
Narges Mohammadrezaei, Javad Seyedhosseini, Elnaz Vahidi
BACKGROUND: Tendon ruptures are common musculoskeletal injuries all around the world. Correct and timely diagnosis of tendon injuries is obviously important for improving the treatment and minimizing the community costs. Ultrasound is now being considered as one of useful modalities in this area. OBJECTIVE: The preset study is going to validate the diagnostic ability of ultrasound in tendon injuries induced by penetrating extremity trauma. METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, patients with penetrating extremity trauma and suspicion of tendon injuries were enrolled in our study...
January 27, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183740/preventing-deaths-and-injuries-from-house-fires-a-cost-benefit-analysis-of-a-community-based-smoke-alarm-installation-programme
#8
Merissa A Yellman, Cora Peterson, Mary A McCoy, Shelli Stephens-Stidham, Emily Caton, Jeffrey J Barnard, Ted O Padgett, Curtis Florence, Gregory R Istre
BACKGROUND: Operation Installation (OI), a community-based smoke alarm installation programme in Dallas, Texas, targets houses in high-risk urban census tracts. Residents of houses that received OI installation (or programme houses) had 68% fewer medically treated house fire injuries (non-fatal and fatal) compared with residents of non-programme houses over an average of 5.2 years of follow-up during an effectiveness evaluation conducted from 2001 to 2011. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-benefit of OI...
February 9, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182770/biochemical-and-biophysical-investigations-of-the-interaction-between-human-glucokinase-and-pro-apoptotic-bad
#9
Alix Rexford, Diego A R Zorio, Brian G Miller
The glycolytic enzyme glucokinase (GCK) and the pro-apoptotic protein BAD reportedly reside within a five-membered complex that localizes to the mitochondria of mammalian hepatocytes and pancreatic β-cells. Photochemical crosslinking studies using a synthetic analog of BAD's BH3 domain and in vitro transcription/translation experiments support a direct interaction between BAD and GCK. To investigate the biochemical and biophysical consequences of the BAD:GCK interaction, we developed a method for the production of recombinant human BAD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182754/satisfaction-of-patients-with-directly-observed-treatment-strategy-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-mixed-methods-study
#10
Belete Getahun, Zethu Zerish Nkosi
BACKGROUND: Directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) strategy has been a cornerstone for Tuberculosis (TB) control programs in developing countries. However, in Ethiopia satisfaction level of patients' with TB with the this strategy is not well understood. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the satisfaction level of patients with TB with the DOTS. METHOD: Explanatory sequential mixed method design was carried out in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Interviewer-administered questionnaire with 601 patients with TB who were on follow-up was employed in the quantitative approach...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174596/screening-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-residence-home-for-elderly-in-germany
#11
Jürgen Becker, Roland Diel
BACKGROUND: Since many hospitals report high MRSA colonization rates among elderly patients, and because it has been shown that S. aureus colonization increases with advancing age, there are concerns about the introduction of MRSA into nursing homes by MRSA positive patients discharged from hospital. So far, admission screening and subsequent longitudinal screening in residence homes or screening at time of hospital discharge is not established on a regular base. On the other hand, MRSA is acquired frequently during hospital stay...
2017: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167407/efficient-blood-flow-visualization-using-flowline-extraction-and-opacity-modulation-based-on-vascular-structure-analysis
#12
Ohjae Kwon, Jeongjin Lee, Bohyoung Kim, Juneseuk Shin, Yeong-Gil Shin
With the recent advances regarding the acquisition and simulation of blood flow data, blood flow visualization has been widely used in medical imaging for the diagnosis and treatment of pathological vessels. In this paper, we present a novel method for the visualization of the blood flow in vascular structures. The vessel inlet or outlet is first identified using the orthogonality metric between the normal vectors of the flow velocity and vessel surface. Then, seed points are generated on the identified inlet or outlet by Poisson disk sampling...
January 31, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159894/the-evolving-role-of-ubiquitin-modification-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-associated-degradation
#13
REVIEW
G Michael Preston, Jeffrey L Brodsky
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves as a warehouse for factors that augment and control the biogenesis of nascent proteins entering the secretory pathway. In turn, this compartment also harbors the machinery that responds to the presence of misfolded proteins by targeting them for proteolysis via a process known as ER-associated degradation (ERAD). During ERAD, substrates are selected, modified with ubiquitin, removed from the ER, and then degraded by the cytoplasmic 26S proteasome. While integral membrane proteins can directly access the ubiquitination machinery that resides in the cytoplasm or on the cytoplasmic face of the ER membrane, soluble ERAD substrates within the lumen must be retrotranslocated from this compartment...
February 15, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159645/driven-to-distraction-the-nature-and-apparent-purpose-of-interruptions-in-critical-care-and-implications-for-hit
#14
Lena Mamykina, Eileen J Carter, Barbara Sheehan, R Stanley Hum, Bridget C Twohig, David R Kaufman
OBJECTIVES: To examine the apparent purpose of interruptions in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and opportunities to reduce their burden with informatics solutions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective observational study, researchers shadowed clinicians in the unit for one hour at a time, recording all interruptions participating clinicians experienced or initiated, their starting time, duration, and a short description that could help to infer their apparent purpose...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153385/video-review-as-a-tool-to-improve-orthopedic-residents-performance-of-closed-manipulative-reductions
#15
Nickul S Jain, Ran Schwarzkopf, John A Scolaro
OBJECTIVE: Orthopedic residents commonly perform closed manipulative reductions as a part of their training. Traditionally, this skill is taught early in training but difficult to simulate. Proficiency is achieved through repetition and experience; faculty observation and instruction is unfortunately often limited. Direct resident teaching has been shown to increase competency, comfort, and long-term skill retention. We hypothesize that video review of closed fracture reductions will provide an inexpensive and valuable tool for resident education and improve skill performance...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146040/hospital-based-case-control-study-of-mds-subtypes-and-benzene-exposure-in-shanghai
#16
G Bruce Copley, A Robert Schnatter, Thomas W Armstrong, Richard D Irons, Min Chen, Xiao Qin Wang, Patrick Kerzic
OBJECTIVE: Due to the sparse data on benzene exposure and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) subtypes, we studied this relationship in patients from 29 hospitals in Shanghai, China. METHODS: We recruited 604 cases of MDS and 1193 controls matched on age, sex, and admission date. We interviewed subjects for information on workplace and lifestyle exposures, and developed semi-quantitative exposure estimates. RESULTS: Benzene exposure showed a direct exposure-response pattern with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, a less certain association with refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia, and no association with other MDS subtypes...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143838/cost-related-non-adherence-to-prescribed-medicines-among-older-adults-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-a-survey-in-11-developed-countries
#17
Steven G Morgan, Augustine Lee
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of costs on access to medicines in 11 developed countries offering different levels of prescription drug coverage for their populations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of data from the Commonwealth Fund 2014 International Health Policy Survey of Older Adults. SETTING: Telephone survey conducted in 11 high-income countries: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the UK and the USA...
January 31, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135724/allocation-of-internal-medicine-resident-time-in-a-swiss-hospital-a-time-and-motion-study-of-day-and-evening-shifts
#18
Nathalie Wenger, Marie Méan, Julien Castioni, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Gérard Waeber, Antoine Garnier
Background: Little current evidence documents how internal medicine residents spend their time at work, particularly with regard to the proportions of time spent in direct patient care versus using computers. Objective: To describe how residents allocate their time during day and evening hospital shifts. Design: Time and motion study. Setting: Internal medicine residency at a university hospital in Switzerland, May to July 2015...
January 31, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129754/health-endangering-everyday-settings-and-practices-in-a-rural-segregated-roma-settlement-in-slovakia-a-descriptive-summary-from-an-exploratory-longitudinal-case-study
#19
Andrej Belak, Andrea Madarasova Geckova, Jitse P van Dijk, Sijmen A Reijneveld
BACKGROUND: Research into social root-causes of poor health within segregated Roma communities in Central and Eastern Europe, i.e. research into how, why and by whom high health-endangering settings and exposures are maintained here, is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the local setup of health-endangering everyday settings and practices over the long-term in one such community. It is the initial part of a larger longitudinal study qualitatively exploring the social root-causes of poor Roma health status through the case of a particular settlement in Slovakia...
January 28, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128467/nutritional-stimulation-of-commensal-oral-bacteria-suppresses-pathogens-the-prebiotic-concept
#20
Vera Slomka, Emma Hernandez-Sanabria, Esteban Rodriguez Herrero, Lynette Zaidel, Kristel Bernaerts, Nico Boon, Marc Quirynen, Wim Teughels
AIM: To identify potential oral prebiotics that selectively stimulate commensal albeit beneficial bacteria of the resident oral microbial community while suppressing the growth of pathogenic bacteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using Phenotype MicroArrays as a high-throughput method, the change in respiratory activity of 16 oral bacteria in response to 742 nutritional compounds was screened. Most promising prebiotic compounds were selected and applied in single species growth and biofilm formation assays, as well as dual species (beneficial-pathogen) competition assays...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
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