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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103847/exploring-healthcare-assistants-role-and-experience-in-pain-assessment-and-management-for-people-with-advanced-dementia-towards-the-end-of-life-a-qualitative-study
#1
Bannin De Witt Jansen, Kevin Brazil, Peter Passmore, Hilary Buchanan, Doreen Maxwell, Sonja J McIlfatrick, Sharon M Morgan, Max Watson, Carole Parsons
BACKGROUND: Pain assessment and management are key aspects in the care of people with dementia approaching the end of life but become challenging when patient self-report is impaired or unavailable. Best practice recommends the use of observational pain assessments for these patients; however, difficulties have been documented with health professionals' use of these tools in the absence of additional collateral patient knowledge. No studies have explored the role, perspectives and experiences of healthcare assistants in pain assessment and management in dementia; this study provides insight into this important area...
January 19, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102733/plk1-polo-like-kinase-1-inhibits-mtor-complex-1-and-promotes-autophagy
#2
Stefanie Ruf, Alexander Martin Heberle, Miriam Langelaar-Makkinje, Sara Gelino, Deepti Wilkinson, Carolin Gerbeth, Jennifer Jasmin Schwarz, Birgit Holzwarth, Bettina Warscheid, Chris Meisinger, Marcel A T M van Vugt, Ralf Baumeister, Malene Hansen, Kathrin Thedieck
Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (MTORC1) and PLK1 (polo like kinase 1) are major drivers of cancer cell growth and proliferation, and inhibitors of both protein kinases are currently being investigated in clinical studies. To date, MTORC1's and PLK1's functions are mostly studied separately, and reports on their mutual crosstalk are scarce. Here, we identify PLK1 as a physical MTORC1 interactor in human cancer cells. PLK1 inhibition enhances MTORC1 activity under nutrient sufficiency and in starved cells, and PLK1 directly phosphorylates the MTORC1 component RPTOR/RAPTOR in vitro...
January 19, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102312/correlations-of-charge-neutrality-level-with-electronic-structure-and-p-d-hybridization
#3
Arkaprava Das, Subodh K Gautam, D K Shukla, Fouran Singh
The formation of charge neutrality level (CNL) in highly conducting Cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films is demonstarted by the observed variation in the band gap upon annealing and doping. It may be explained by the observation that Tin (Sn) doping breaks the perfect periodicity of CdO cubic crystal structure and creates virtual gap states (ViGS). The level of local CNL resides at the branch point of ViGS, making the energy at which native defect's character changes from predominantly donor-like below CNL to predominantly acceptor-like above the CNL and a schematic band diagram is developed to substantiate the same...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096361/thermal-driven-domain-and-cargo-transport-in-lipid-membranes
#4
Emma L Talbot, Lucia Parolini, Jurij Kotar, Lorenzo Di Michele, Pietro Cicuta
Domain migration is observed on the surface of ternary giant unilamellar vesicles held in a temperature gradient in conditions where they exhibit coexistence of two liquid phases. The migration localizes domains to the hot side of the vesicle, regardless of whether the domain is composed of the more ordered or disordered phase and regardless of the proximity to chamber boundaries. The distribution of domains is explored for domains that coarsen and for those held apart due to long-range repulsions. After considering several potential mechanisms for the migration, including the temperature preferences for each lipid, the favored curvature for each phase, and the thermophoretic flow around the vesicle, we show that observations are consistent with the general process of minimizing the system's line tension energy, because of the lowering of line interface energy closer to mixing...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092660/the-role-of-peripheral-immune-cells-in-the-cns-in-steady-state-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Marco Prinz, Josef Priller
The CNS is protected by the immune system, including cells that reside directly within the CNS and help to ensure proper neural function, as well as cells that traffic into the CNS with disease. The CNS-resident immune system is comprised mainly of innate immune cells and operates under homeostatic conditions. These myeloid cells in the CNS parenchyma and at CNS-periphery interfaces are highly specialized but also extremely plastic cells that immediately react to any changes in CNS homeostasis and become reactive in the context of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease...
January 16, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086754/making-the-most-of-mealtimes-m3-protocol-of-a-multi-centre-cross-sectional-study-of-food-intake-and-its-determinants-in-older-adults-living-in-long-term-care-homes
#6
Heather H Keller, Natalie Carrier, Susan Slaughter, Christina Lengyel, Catriona M Steele, Lisa Duizer, K Steve Brown, Habib Chaudhury, Minn N Yoon, Alison M Duncan, Veronique M Boscart, George Heckman, Lita Villalon
BACKGROUND: Older adults living in long term care (LTC) homes are nutritionally vulnerable, often consuming insufficient energy, macro- and micronutrients to sustain their health and function. Multiple factors are proposed to influence food intake, yet our understanding of these diverse factors and their interactions are limited. The purpose of this paper is to fully describe the protocol used to examine determinants of food and fluid intake among older adults participating in the Making the Most of Mealtimes (M3) study...
January 13, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081235/comprehensive-rna-seq-profiling-to-evaluate-the-sheep-mammary-gland-transcriptome-in-response-to-experimental-mycoplasma-agalactiae-infection
#7
Rohini Chopra-Dewasthaly, Melanie Korb, René Brunthaler, Reinhard Ertl
Mycoplasma agalactiae is a worldwide serious pathogen of small ruminants that usually spreads through the mammary route causing acute to subacute mastitis progressing to chronic persistent disease that is hard to eradicate. Knowledge of mechanisms of its pathogenesis and persistence in the mammary gland are still insufficient, especially the host-pathogen interplay that enables it to reside in a chronic subclinical state. This study reports transcriptome profiling of mammary tissue from udders of sheep experimentally infected with M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074921/heat-related-hospitalizations-in-older-adults-an-amplified-effect-of-the-first-seasonal-heatwave
#8
Alexander Liss, Ruiruo Wu, Kenneth Kwan Ho Chui, Elena N Naumova
Older adults are highly vulnerable to the detriment of extreme weather. The rapid non-linear increase in heat-related morbidity is difficult to quantify, hindering the attribution of direct effects of exposure on severe health outcomes. We examine the effects of ambient temperatures on heat-related hospitalizations (HH) among the elderly in presence of strong seasonality and by assessing the effects caused by the first and subsequent seasonal heatwaves. We empirically derived the thresholds for a heatwave episode in Boston MSA based on 16 years of daily observations...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069390/continuous-direct-compression-as-manufacturing-platform-for-sustained-release-tablets
#9
B Van Snick, J Holman, C Cunningham, A Kumar, J Vercruysse, T De Beer, J P Remon, C Vervaet
This study presents a framework for process and product development on a continuous direct compression manufacturing platform. A challenging sustained release formulation with high content of a poorly flowing low density drug was selected. Two HPMC grades were evaluated as matrix former: standard Methocel CR and directly compressible Methocel DC2. The feeding behavior of each formulation component was investigated by deriving feed factor profiles. The maximum feed factor was used to estimate the drive command which strongly depended upon the density of the material...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068988/disability-support-and-long-term-social-care-of-an-elderly-spanish-population-2008-2009-an-epidemiologic-analysis
#10
J Almazán-Isla, M Comín-Comín, E Alcalde-Cabero, C Ruiz, E Franco, R Magallón, J Damián, J de Pedro-Cuesta, L A Larrosa-Montañes
BACKGROUND: Though poorly known, relationships between disability, need of help (dependency) and use of social services are crucial aspects of public health. The objective of this study was to describe the links between disability, officially assessed dependency, and social service use by an industrial population, and identify areas of inequity. METHODS: We took advantage of a door-to-door survey conducted in the Cinco Villas district, Spain, in 2008-2009, which provided data on disability, morbidity, and service use among 1216 residents aged ≥50 years, and officially assessed dependency under the 2006 Dependency Act (OAD)...
January 9, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062350/discordance-of-patient-reported-and-clinician-ordered-resuscitation-status-in-patients-hospitalized-with-acute-decompensated-heart-failure
#11
Kathleen A Young, Sara E Wordingham, Jacob J Strand, Vėronique L Roger, Shannon M Dunlay
CONTEXT: Accurate documentation of preferences for cardiopulmonary resuscitation at hospital admission is critical to ensure that patients receive resuscitation or not in accordance with their wishes. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify and characterize inconsistencies in patient-reported and clinician-ordered resuscitation status in patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). METHODS: Southeastern Minnesota residents hospitalized with ADHF were prospectively enrolled into a study that included the administration of face-to-face questionnaires from January 2014 through February 2016...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059945/airway-management-with-a-stereotactic-headframe-in-situ-a-mannequin-study
#12
Melissa Brockerville, Zoe Unger, Nathan C Rowland, Francesco Sammartino, Pirjo H Manninen, Lashmi Venkatraghavan
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic headframe-based imaging is often needed for target localization during surgery for insertion of deep brain stimulators. A major concern during this surgery is the need for emergency airway management while an awake or sedated patient is in the stereotactic headframe. The aim of our study was to determine the ease of emergency airway management with a stereotactic headframe in situ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an observational study using a mannequin...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056986/goals-of-care-conversation-teaching-in-residency-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-postgraduate-program-directors
#13
Amanda Roze des Ordons, Aliya Kassam, Jessica Simon
BACKGROUND: Residents are commonly involved in establishing goals of care for hospitalized patients. While education can improve the quality of these conversations, whether and how postgraduate training programs integrate such teaching into their curricula is not well established. The objective of this study was to characterize perceptions of current teaching and assessment of goals of care conversations, and program director interest in associated curricular integration. METHODS: An electronic survey was sent to all postgraduate program directors at the University of Calgary...
January 6, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045905/human-leukocytes-kill-brugia-malayi-microfilariae-independently-of-dna-based-extracellular-trap-release
#14
Ciaran J McCoy, Barbara J Reaves, Steeve Giguère, Ruby Coates, Balázs Rada, Adrian J Wolstenholme
BACKGROUND: Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori infect over 100 million people worldwide and are the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis. Some parasite carriers are amicrofilaremic whilst others facilitate mosquito-based disease transmission through blood-circulating microfilariae (Mf). Recent findings, obtained largely from animal model systems, suggest that polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) contribute to parasitic nematode-directed type 2 immune responses. When exposed to certain pathogens PMNs release extracellular traps (NETs) in the form of chromatin loaded with various antimicrobial molecules and proteases...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040913/novel-electric-thermophoretic-sampling-device-with-highly-repeatable-characteristics
#15
Michael Altenhoff, Christian Teige, Michael Storch, Stefan Will
A novel thermophoretic sampling device for probing nanoparticle aggregates in all types of flames as well as in particle-laden gases and aerosols is presented. For the motion of the sampling probe, a tubular electric linear motor is utilized, and its design and operation are described in detail. The spatial and temporal performance is determined from oscilloscope measurements and high-speed recordings of one motion profile featuring three different resident times. Motion sequences offering a minimum residence time of 3 ms and a maximum velocity of 4...
December 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031792/migratory-herds-of-wildebeests-and-zebras-indirectly-affect-calf-survival-of-giraffes
#16
Derek E Lee, Bernard M Kissui, Yustina A Kiwango, Monica L Bond
In long-distance migratory systems, local fluctuations in the predator-prey ratio can exhibit extreme variability within a single year depending upon the seasonal location of migratory species. Such systems offer an opportunity to empirically investigate cyclic population density effects on short-term food web interactions by taking advantage of the large seasonal shifts in migratory prey biomass.We utilized a large-mammal predator-prey savanna food web to evaluate support for hypotheses relating to the indirect effects of "apparent competition" and "apparent mutualism" from migratory ungulate herds on survival of resident megaherbivore calves, mediated by their shared predator...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008839/-microbiota-intestinal-stem-cells-dialog-a-key-element-for-intestinal-regeneration
#17
Aline Stedman, Giulia Nigro, Philippe J Sansonetti
The most abundant and well-studied microbiota on the human body resides in the intestinal tract. Its impact extends the limits of the mucosal interface as it plays an essential role in systemic functions such as development of the immune system. At the level of the intestine, commensal microbes play important metabolic functions and promote the integrity of the mucosal barrier. Moreover, a large number of studies points to a role of the microbiota in intestinal regeneration both under homeostatic conditions and after epithelial damage...
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007586/role-of-microglia-disturbances-and-immune-related-marker-abnormalities-in-cortical-circuitry-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia
#18
REVIEW
David W Volk
Studies of genetics, serum cytokines, and autoimmune illnesses suggest that immune-related abnormalities are involved in the disease process of schizophrenia. Furthermore, direct evidence of cortical immune activation, including markedly elevated levels of many immune-related markers, have been reported in the prefrontal cortex in multiple cohorts of schizophrenia subjects. Within the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, deficits in the basilar dendritic spines of layer 3 pyramidal neurons and disturbances in inhibitory inputs to pyramidal neurons have also been commonly reported...
December 19, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005362/depolymerization-pathways-for-branching-lignin-spirodienone-units-revealed-with-ab-initio-steered-molecular-dynamics
#19
Brendan D Mar, Heather J Kulik
Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, rich source of aromatic compounds, but direct utilization of raw lignin has been hampered by both the high heterogeneity and variability of linking bonds in this biopolymer. Ab initio steered molecular dynamics (AISMD) has emerged both as a fruitful direct computational screening approach to identify products that occur through mechanical depolymerization (i.e., in sonication or ball-milling) and as a sampling approach. By varying the direction of force and sampling over 750 AISMD trajectories, we identify numerous possible pathways through which lignin depolymerization may occur in pyrolysis or through catalytic depolymerization as well...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002051/macrotextured-spoked-surfaces-reduce-the-residence-time-of-a-bouncing-leidenfrost-drop
#20
Colin J Patterson, Samira Shiri, James C Bird
Liquid drops can bounce when they impact non-wetting surfaces. Recently, studies have demonstrated that the time that the bouncing drop contacts a superhydrophobic surface can be reduced by incorporating ridged macrotextures on the surface. Yet the existing models aimed at explaining this phenomenon offer incompatible predictions of the contact time when a drop impacts multiple intersecting macrotextures, or spokes. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the effects of the macrotexture on the drop hydrodynamics extend to non-wetting surfaces in which direct contact is avoided by a thin vapor layer...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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