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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537887/dietary-factors-and-microrna-binding-site-polymorphisms-in-the-il13-gene-risk-and-prognosis-analysis-of-colorectal-cancer
#1
Yanming Yu, Junde Zhou, Chen Gong, Zhiping Long, Jingshen Tian, Lin Zhu, Jing Li, Hongyuan Yu, Fan Wang, Yashuang Zhao
Long-term dietary intake influences the structure and activity of microorganisms residing in the human gut. The immune response and gut microbiota have a mutual influence on the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study examines the association of gut microbiota-related dietary factors and polymorphisms in the microRNA-binding site of the interleukin 13 gene (IL13) with the risk and prognosis of CRC. Three polymorphisms (rs847, rs848, and rs1295685) were selected for genotyping in a case-control study (513 cases, 572 controls), and 386 CRC patients were followed up...
May 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534873/molecular-indicators-of-stress-induced-neuroinflammation-in-a-mouse-model-simulating-features-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#2
S Muhie, A Gautam, N Chakraborty, A Hoke, J Meyerhoff, R Hammamieh, M Jett
A social-stress mouse model was used to simulate features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The model involved exposure of an intruder (male C57BL/6) mouse to a resident aggressor (male SJL) mouse for 5 or 10 consecutive days. Transcriptome changes in brain regions (hippocampus, amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex and hemibrain), blood and spleen as well as epigenome changes in the hemibrain were assayed after 1- and 10-day intervals following the 5-day trauma or after 1- and 42-day intervals following the 10-day trauma...
May 23, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529239/formulation-optimization-of-gastro-retention-tablets-of-paeonol-and-efficacy-in-treatment-of-experimental-gastric-ulcer
#3
Xitong Zhang, Yue Zhang, Han Han, Jun Yang, Benliang Xu, Bing Wang, Tong Zhang
This study aims to develop a gastroretentive sustained-release drug delivery system of paeonol using floating properties and to investigate its therapeutic effects in rat models. The gastric retention tablets of paeonol (GRT-Ps) were prepared by a direct compression method, and the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize its formulation. The optimized formulation containing 15% NaHCO3 and a 2:1 ratio of paeonol and HPMC-K4M floated within 1 min and remained afloat for more than 8 h in the simulated gastric fluid (200 mL, pH=1...
May 19, 2017: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528560/design-and-implementation-of-a-community-health-worker-hiv-treatment-and-prevention-intervention-in-an-hiv-hot-spot-fishing-community-in-rakai-uganda
#4
Amanda Long, Ismail Mbabali, Heidi E Hutton, Alvin G Thomas, Eva Bugos, Jeremiah Mulamba, Kathy Rivet Amico, Fred Nalugoda, Ronald H Gray, Maria J Wawer, Gertrude Nakigozi, Larry W Chang
Innovative approaches are needed to increase engagement in HIV treatment and prevention services, particularly in HIV hot spots. Here, we detail our design, training approach, and early implementation experiences of a community-based HIV intervention called "health scouts." The intervention, utilizing a novel, theory-based approach, trained 10 community residents in an HIV hot spot fishing community to use motivational interviewing strategies and a mobile phone-based counseling application. During the first 3 months, 771 residents (median 82/health scout, range 27-160) were counseled...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526619/construct-validity-of-a-simple-laparoscopic-ovarian-cystectomy-model-using-a-validated-objective-structured-assessment-of-technical-skills
#5
Elizabeth Britton Chahine, Chan Hee Han, Tamika Auguste
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the construct validity and inter-rater reliability of a laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy simulator using a global rating scale. DESIGN: Prospective blinded observational study. DESIGN: Classification: II.3 SETTING: Academic teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 26 postgraduate year 1 - 4 gynecology and obstetrics residents were recruited. (15 junior residents, postgraduate year (PGY) 1 - 2 and 11 senior residents, PGY 3 - 4)...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526177/two-cell-populations-participate-in-clearance-of-damaged-hair-cells-from-the-sensory-epithelia-of-the-inner-ear
#6
REVIEW
Keiko Hirose, Mark A Rutherford, Mark E Warchol
The cochlea and the vestibular organs are populated by resident macrophages, but their role in inner ear maintenance and pathology is not entirely clear. Resident macrophages in other organs are responsible for phagocytosis of injured or infected cells, and it is likely that macrophages in the inner ear serve a similar role. Hair cell injury causes macrophages to accumulate within proximity of damaged regions of the inner ear, either by exiting the vasculature and entering the labyrinth or by the resident macrophages reorganizing themselves through local movement to the areas of injury...
April 28, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523117/evaluation-of-pediatric-residents-attitudes-toward-ethical-conflict-a-cross-sectional-study-in-tehran-iran
#7
Maliheh Kadivar, Marjan Mardani-Hamooleh, Shiva Shayestefar
Ethical conflicts are recognized as critical aspects in assessing competence in clinical communication. Moreover, pediatrics residents may face more problems, compared to other disciplines; due to the specific characteristics of the age group receiving services as well as the presence of their families. This study has been conducted with the aim of determining the attitude and perspective of pediatric residents toward ethical conflicts in the field of pediatrics. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on all residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (90 residents), selected through census method, in 2014...
2017: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520816/high-prevalence-of-elevated-blood-lead-levels-in-both-rural-and-urban-iowa-newborns-spatial-patterns-and-area-level-covariates
#8
Margaret Carrel, David Zahrieh, Sean G Young, Jacob Oleson, Kelli K Ryckman, Brian Wels, Donald L Simmons, Audrey Saftlas
Lead in maternal blood can cross the placenta and result in elevated blood lead levels in newborns, potentially producing negative effects on neurocognitive function, particularly if combined with childhood lead exposure. Little research exists, however, into the burden of elevated blood lead levels in newborns, or the places and populations in which elevated lead levels are observed in newborns, particularly in rural settings. Using ~2300 dried bloods spots collected within 1-3 days of birth among Iowa newborns, linked with the area of mother's residence at the time of birth, we examine the spatial patterns of elevated (>5 μg/dL) blood lead levels and the ecological-level predictors of elevated blood lead levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515868/postglacial-recolonization-shaped-the-genetic-diversity-of-the-winter-moth-operophtera-brumata-in-europe
#9
Jeremy C Andersen, Nathan P Havill, Adalgisa Caccone, Joseph S Elkinton
Changes in climate conditions, particularly during the Quaternary climatic oscillations, have long been recognized to be important for shaping patterns of species diversity. For species residing in the western Palearctic, two commonly observed genetic patterns resulting from these cycles are as follows: (1) that the numbers and distributions of genetic lineages correspond with the use of geographically distinct glacial refugia and (2) that southern populations are generally more diverse than northern populations (the "southern richness, northern purity" paradigm)...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507790/cd69-is-a-direct-hif-1%C3%AE-target-gene-in-hypoxia-as-a-mechanism-enhancing-expression-on-tumor-infiltrating-t-lymphocytes
#10
Sara Labiano, Florinda Meléndez-Rodríguez, Asís Palazón, Álvaro Teijeira, Saray Garasa, Iñaki Etxeberria, M Ángela Aznar, Alfonso R Sánchez-Paulete, Arantza Azpilikueta, Elixabet Bolaños, Carmen Molina, Hortensia de la Fuente, Patricia Maiso, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid, Manuel Ortiz de Landázuri, Julián Aragonés, Ignacio Melero
CD69 is an early activation marker on the surface of T lymphocytes undergoing activation by cognate antigen. We observed intense expression of CD69 on tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes that reside in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment and hypothesized that CD69 could be, at least partially, under the control of the transcriptional hypoxia response. In line with this, human and mouse CD3-stimulated lymphocytes cultured under hypoxia (1% O2) showed increased expression of CD69 at the protein and mRNA level. Consistent with these findings, mouse T lymphocytes that had recently undergone hypoxia in vivo, as denoted by pimonidazole staining, were more frequently CD69(+) in the tumor and bone marrow hypoxic tissue compartments...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502109/reproductive-performance-of-resident-and-migrant-males-females-and-pairs-in-a-partially-migratory-bird
#11
Hannah Grist, Francis Daunt, Sarah Wanless, Sarah J Burthe, Mark A Newell, Mike P Harris, Jane M Reid
1.Quantifying among-individual variation in life-history strategies, and associated variation in reproductive performance and resulting demographic structure, is key to understanding and predicting population dynamics and life-history evolution. Partial migration, where populations comprise a mixture of resident and seasonally-migrant individuals, constitutes a dimension of life-history variation that could be associated with substantial variation in reproductive performance. However, such variation has rarely been quantified due to the challenge of measuring reproduction and migration across a sufficient number of seasonally-mobile males and females...
May 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501114/evaluation-of-palliative-care-training-and-skills-retention-by-medical-students
#12
Priti P Parikh, Mary T White, Lynne Buckingham, Kathryn M Tchorz
BACKGROUND: Training in palliative and end-of-life care has been introduced in medical education; however, the impact of such training and the retention of skills and knowledge have not been studied in detail. This survey study examines long-term follow-up on end-of-life communication skills training, evaluation, and skills retention in medical students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During the surgical clerkship, all third-year medical students received communication skills training in palliative care using simulated patients...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489618/core-competencies-or-a-competent-core-a-scoping-review-and-realist-synthesis-of-invasive-bedside-procedural-skills-training-in-internal-medicine
#13
Ryan Brydges, Lynfa Stroud, Brian M Wong, Eric S Holmboe, Kevin Imrie, Rose Hatala
PURPOSE: Invasive bedside procedures are core competencies for internal medicine, yet no formal training guidelines exist. The authors conducted a scoping review and realist synthesis to characterize current training for lumbar puncture, arthrocentesis, paracentesis, thoracentesis, and central venous catheterization. They aimed to collate how educators justify using specific interventions, establish which interventions have the best evidence, and offer directions for future research and training...
May 9, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485074/integrated-and-implicit-how-residents-learn-canmeds-roles-by-participating-in-practice
#14
Nienke Renting, A N Janet Raat, Tim Dornan, Etienne Wenger-Trayner, Martha A van der Wal, Jan C C Borleffs, Rijk O B Gans, A Debbie C Jaarsma
CONTEXT: Learning outcomes for residency training are defined in competency frameworks such as the CanMEDS framework, which ultimately aim to better prepare residents for their future tasks. Although residents' training relies heavily on learning through participation in the workplace under the supervision of a specialist, it remains unclear how the CanMEDS framework informs practice-based learning and daily interactions between residents and supervisors. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore how the CanMEDS framework informs residents' practice-based training and interactions with supervisors...
May 9, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481570/integrated-behavioral-health-training-for-primary-care-clinicians-five-lessons-learned-from-a-negative-study
#15
Matthew P Martin
INTRODUCTION: There are very few studies examining the effectiveness of integrated behavioral health training for primary care clinicians. The purpose of this article is to review the findings of a negative study examining the effectiveness of medical resident training in integrated behavioral health and offer specific ideas for future research in workforce development. METHODS: Twenty-three family medicine residents from a community-based residency program in the mid-Atlantic region completed a required rotation in which they consulted with behavioral health in primary care, observed psychotherapy, read behavioral medicine books, and received individual instruction...
May 8, 2017: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479438/computational-fluid-dynamic-analysis-after-carotid-endarterectomy-patch-graft-versus-direct-suture-closure
#16
Maurizio Domanin, Adelaide Buora, Francesco Scardulla, Bruno Guerciotti, Laura Forzenigo, Pietro Biondetti, Christian Vergara
BACKGROUND: Closure tecnique after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) still remains an issue of debate. Routinely use of patch graft (PG) has been advocated to reduce restenosis, stroke, and death but its protective effect, particularly from late restenosis, is less evident and recent studies call into question this thesis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare PG and direct suture (DS) by means of computational fluid-dynamic (CFD). To identify carotid regions with flow recirculation more prone to restenosis development, we analyzed time averaged oscillatory shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT), that are well known indices correlated with plaque formation...
May 4, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476102/adaptation-of-the-recent-life-changes-questionnaire-rlcq-to-measure-stressful-life-events-in-adults-residing-in-an-urban-megapolis-in-pakistan
#17
Azmina Artani, Shireen Shehzad Bhamani, Iqbal Azam, Moiz AbdulSultan, Adeel Khoja, Ayeesha K Kamal
BACKGROUND: Contextually relevant stressful life events are integral to the quantification of stress. None such measures have been adapted for the Pakistani population. METHODS: The RLCQ developed by Richard Rahe measures stress of an individual through recording the experience of life changing events. We used qualitative methodology in order to identify contextually relevant stressors in an open ended format, using serial in-depth interviews until thematic saturation of reported stressful life events was achieved...
May 5, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469889/a-quality-improvement-approach-to-standardization-and-sustainability-of-the-hand-off-process
#18
Craig Fryman, Carine Hamo, Siddharth Raghavan, Nirvani Goolsarran
There is mounting evidence that communication and hand-off failures are a root cause of two-thirds of sentinel events in hospitals. Several studies have shown that non-standardized hand-offs have yielded poor patient outcomes and adverse events. At Stony Brook University Hospital, there were numerous reported adverse events related to poor hand-off during the transfer of patient responsibility from one resident caregiver to the next. A resident-conducted root cause analysis identified lack of a standardized hand-off process and formal training on safe and efficient hand-off among caregivers as key contributing factors...
2017: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461641/healthcare-use-and-direct-cost-of-giant-cell-arteritis-a-population-based-study
#19
Matthew J Koster, Sara J Achenbach, Cynthia S Crowson, Hilal Maradit-Kremers, Eric L Matteson, Kenneth J Warrington
OBJECTIVE: To determine the healthcare use and direct medical cost of giant cell arteritis (GCA) in a population-based cohort. METHODS: A well-defined, retrospective population-based cohort of Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA, residents diagnosed with GCA from 1982-2009 was compared to a matched referent cohort from the same population. Standardized cost data (inflation-adjusted to 2014 US dollars) for 1987-2014 and outpatient use data for 1995-2014 were obtained...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440285/ionizing-radiation-abrogates-the-pro-tumorigenic-capacity-of-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-co-implanted-in-xenografts
#20
Maria Tunset Grinde, Jørg Vik, Ketil André Camilio, Inigo Martinez-Zubiaurre, Turid Hellevik
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are abundantly present in solid tumors and affect tumorigenesis and therapeutic responses. In the context of clinical radiotherapy, the impact of irradiated CAFs to treatment outcomes is largely unexplored. Aiming at improving radiotherapy efficacy, we have here explored the effect of radiation on the inherent pro-tumorigenic capacity of CAFs in animals. Ionizing radiation was delivered to cultured CAFs as single-high or fractionated doses. Tumor development was compared in mice receiving A549 lung tumor cells admixed with irradiated or control CAFs...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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