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Satariya Trakulsrichai, Charuwan Sriapha, Achara Tongpoo, Umaporn Udomsubpayakul, Sunun Wongvisavakorn, Sahaphume Srisuma, Winai Wananukul
Objective: To describe and analyze the clinical characteristics and outcome of amatoxin poisoning cases. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of amatoxin poisoning cases from Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System, from May 2013 to August 2015. Results: There were 30 consultations with a total of 55 poisoning cases. Most cases were male and from the north-east region. Hepatitis, acute kidney injury, jaundice, and coagulopathy accounted for 74%, 46...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
Suphatchaya Lamkhao, Gobwute Rujijanagul, Chamnan Randorn
The visible light driven photoactivity of g-C3N4 can be enhanced using charcoal as a supporter. Charcoal/g-C3N4 composite materials were prepared by the simultaneous thermal condensation of melamine and charcoal. The effect of different atmospheres (O2, air, and argon) on the reaction was investigated. The effect of different weight ratios of charcoal to melamine (1:1 and 1:4 wt%) was also investigated. The physical properties of the charcoal/g-C3N4 materials were analyzed using XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, BET and FTIR techniques...
November 6, 2017: Chemosphere
Won Hwa Kim, Hye Jung Kim, Jin Hyang Jung, Ho Yong Park, Jeeyeon Lee, Wan Wook Kim, Ji Young Park, Yee Soo Chae, Soo Jung Lee
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review our experience with ultrasound (US)-guided localization of axillary lymph nodes using activated charcoal for the guidance of axillary surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in clinically node-positive breast cancer patients. METHODS: Between April 2016 and April 2017, US-guided localization of the most suspicious axillary lymph nodes at restaging US using activated charcoal (Charcotrace™) was performed in 45 consecutive, clinically node-positive breast cancer patients who had less than two suspicious nodes after NAC and axillary surgery with sentinel node biopsy...
November 13, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Ambreen Aleem, Khalid Hussain Janbaz
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cyperus species are famous for their traditional uses and very commonly used for their anti-spasmodic and anti-diarrheal activities. Cyperus niveus Retz. is used in local traditional system of medicine in Pakistan to treat various gastrointestinal ailments. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to validate the traditional uses and to provide the possible mechanisms for the medicinal use of Cyperus niveus Retz. in gastrointestinal ailments...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Tejs Jansen, Lotte C G Hoegberg, Thomas Eriksen, Christian Haarmark, Kim Dalhoff, Bo Belhage
Coated Activated Charcoal Hemoperfusion (CAC-HP) does not reduce the plasma concentration in amitriptyline (AT)-poisoned pigs. The aim of this non-blinded, randomised, controlled animal trial was to determine if CAC-HP reduces the pathological ECG changes caused by AT poisoning. Fourteen female Danish Land Race pigs (mean weight 27.7 kg, range 20-35 kg (CAC-HP) and 24.4 kg, range 18-30 kg (control group, CG), n=7 in each group were included. After randomisation, the pigs were anaesthetised and intravenously poisoned with AT...
November 8, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Camila Rodrigues Ferraz, Denise Brentan Silva, Ligia Carolina da Silva Prado, Hudson Armando Nunes Canabrava, Luiz Borges Bispo-da-Silva
We investigated the antidiarrhoeic effect of the aqueous extract of Annona crassiflora leaves (AEAC). The AEAC decreased the diarrhoeic stools and enteropooling induced by castor oil, without altering total faecal output; moreover, the distance travelled by charcoal meal in the intestine was increased. Twenty-eight compounds were identified by LC-DAD-MS in the AEAC, including flavonoids, alkaloids and proanthocyanidins. In addition, two oligomeric series of condensed tannins of up to nine flavan-3-ol units were characterised by MALDI-MS...
November 8, 2017: Natural Product Research
Jung-Whan Chon, Young-Ji Kim, Farzana Rashid, Kidon Sung, Saeed Khan, Hyunsook Kim, Kun-Ho Seo
Overgrowth of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) on Campylobacter media prevents the latter's selective isolation, thereby making the improvement of Campylobacter-selective media necessary. We evaluated tazobactam (an ESBL inhibitor) to supplement Bolton enrichment broth (Tz-Bolton broth) for the selective isolation of Campylobacter in chicken carcass rinses. First, using 20 strains of ESBL-producing E. coli and 13 Campylobacter strains, we found 4 μg/mL of tazobactam to be optimal for inhibiting the ESBL-producing E...
November 3, 2017: Poultry Science
Mathias B Forrester
OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that ingestion of even small amounts of minoxidil by young children may result in serious adverse effects. The intent of this study was to describe pediatric minoxidil exposures reported to a statewide poison center system. METHODS: Cases were minoxidil exposures among patients 5 years or younger reported to Texas poison centers during 2000 to 2014. The distribution by various demographic and clinical factors was determined. RESULTS: Of 125 total cases, 58% were male and 78% aged 1 to 2 years...
July 3, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
Ricardo Rodríguez-Varela, Torsten Günther, Maja Krzewińska, Jan Storå, Thomas H Gillingwater, Malcolm MacCallum, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Keith Dobney, Cristina Valdiosera, Mattias Jakobsson, Anders Götherström, Linus Girdland-Flink
The origins and genetic affinity of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands, commonly known as Guanches, are poorly understood. Though radiocarbon dates on archaeological remains such as charcoal, seeds, and domestic animal bones suggest that people have inhabited the islands since the 5(th) century BCE [1-3], it remains unclear how many times, and by whom, the islands were first settled [4, 5]. Previously published ancient DNA analyses of uniparental genetic markers have shown that the Guanches carried common North African Y chromosome markers (E-M81, E-M78, and J-M267) and mitochondrial lineages such as U6b, in addition to common Eurasian haplogroups [6-8]...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Juan-Ying Li, Wenxuan Shi, Zhenhua Li, Yiqin Chen, Liu Shao, Ling Jin
Mariculture product safety in relation to sediment quality has attracted increasing attention because of the accumulation of potentially hazardous chemicals, including pyrethroid insecticides, in sediment. Passive sampling has been widely used to assess the bioavailability of sediment-associated hydrophobic organic contaminants and predict their body residue in benthic organisms. Therefore, in this study, we introduced polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer as a biomimetic "chemometer" for freely-dissolved concentrations (Cfree) to assess the efficacy of different carbon sorbents in reducing the bioavailability of pyrethroids in the process of sediment remediation...
November 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
James Fay
The purpose of this study was to compare personal exposures to isoflurane from participants' breathing zone samples during animal anesthesia procedures by the method of anesthetic gas delivery and the waste anesthetic gas (WAG) control method utilized. WAG control methods included passive scavenging using charcoal canisters, active scavenging using a building vacuum system, and various local exhaust ventilation systems such as laboratory fume hoods and capture hoods. Methods of anesthesia delivery included induction chambers, face masks (also known as nose cones), and intubation...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Jeong Mi Moon, Byeong Jo Chun, Min Ho Shin, Seung Do Lee
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether the serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and troponin I levels at emergency department (ED) presentation predict long-term neurologic outcomes after acute charcoal-burning carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. METHODS: This retrospective study included 220 patients suffering from charcoal-burning CO poisoning. The demographics, serum NT-proBNP and troponin I levels at ED presentation, treatment, clinical course during hospitalization, and long-term neurologic outcomes were collected...
October 25, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Derrick Robertson, Crystal Dixon, Angela Aungst, Bradlee McCoy, Natalie Moreo, Lise Casady, Janice Maldonado
BACKGROUND: Teriflunomide is an oral disease modifying therapy approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Teriflunomide' s pharmacokinetics (PK) contribute to its slow elimination, on average taking 6-8 months, though it can take up to 2 years in some instances. This slow elimination can become problematic in certain clinical situations - such as during pregnancy, when teriflunomide has potential teratogenic effects. In such scenarios, an accelerated elimination procedure (AEP) is recommended...
October 24, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Evan R Coffey, Didier Muvandimwe, Yolanda Hagar, Christine Wiedinmyer, Ernest Kanyomse, Ricardo Piedrahita, Katherine L Dickinson, Abraham Oduro, Michael P Hannigan
Household cooking using solid biomass fuels is a major global health and environmental concern. As part of the Research on Emissions Air quality Climate and Cooking Technologies in Northern Ghana study, we conducted 75 in-field uncontrolled cooking tests designed to assess emissions and efficiency of the Gyapa woodstove, Philips HD4012, threestone fire and coalpot (local charcoal stove). Emission factors (EFs) were calculated for carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and particulate matter (PM). Moreover, modified combustion (MCE), heat transfer (HTE) and overall thermal efficiencies (OTE) were calculated across a variety of fuel, stove and meal type combinations...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Kyungwon Lee
Bentazone is classified as a moderately hazardous (class II) herbicide by the World Health Organization. A 53-year-old Korean woman was transferred to the emergency department after a suicide attempt using approximately 500 mL of bentazone one hour prior to admission. Upon admission, she was alert and tachycardia of 125/min was observed. She was treated with gastric lavage and activated charcoal, during which she experienced diarrhea. Two hours after bentazone ingestion, cardiac arrest and muscle rigidity throughout the body occurred...
October 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
Shu-Xian Li, Chang-Zhou Chen, Ming-Fei Li, Xiao Xiao
Corncob was torrefied under nitrogen and carbon dioxide atmospheres at 220-300 °C, obtaining solid products with mass yields of 69.38-95.03% and 67.20-94.99% and higher heating values of 16.58-24.77 MJ/kg and 16.68-24.10 MJ/kg, respectively. The changes of physicochemical properties of the charcoal was evaluated by many spectroscopies, contact angle determination, and combustion test. Hemicelluloses were not detected for the torrefaction under the hard conditions. As the severity increased, C concentration raised while H and O concentrations reduced...
October 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Li Qu, You Li, Jing Zeng, Yonggang Sheng, Xionghai Yi, Jia Cheng
A method of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 20 pyrethroid residues in vegetable foods. The samples were extracted by acetone-n-hexane (1:1, v/v), cleaned up by activated charcoal column and quantified by external standard method. The correlation coefficients (r(2)) of all the 20 pyrethroid pesticides in the range of 0.005-1.0 mg/L were not less than 0.990. The limits of detection (LODs) were 2.0 μ g/kg when signal/noise (S/N) > 3...
July 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Chet R Bhatt, Christian L Goueguel, Jinesh C Jain, Harry M Edenborn, Dustin L McIntyre
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used for the analysis of charcoal blast furnace slags. Plasma was generated by an application of a 1064 nm wavelength Nd:YAG laser beam to the surface of pellets created from the slags. The presence of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, and Si was determined by identifying their characteristic spectral signatures. Multivariate analysis was performed for the quantification of these elements. The predicted LIBS results were found in agreement with the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry analysis...
October 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Chun-Wei Wang, Chiung-Chiao Huang, Pei-Hsin Chou, Yu-Ping Chang, Shouzuo Wei, Frederick Peter Guengerich, Yueh-Ching Chou, Sheng-Fan Wang, Ping-Shan Lai, Pavel Souček, Yune-Fang Ueng
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors for poor outcome in breast cancer therapy. To elucidate the influence of the main circulating oxysterols, cholesterol oxidation products, on the cell-killing effect of doxorubicin, cells were exposed to oxysterols at a subtoxic concentration. When cells were exposed to oxysterols in fetal bovine serum-supplemented medium, 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC), but not 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-HC), decreased the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin in MCF-7 (high estrogen receptor (ER)α/ERβ ratio) cells and the decreased cytotoxicity was restored by the P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
Matteo Creta, Katrien Poels, Laurens Thoelen, Karine Vranckx, Peter Collaerts, Fleur Jansen, Michel Vangeel, Lode Godderis, Radu-Corneliu Duca, Jeroen A J Vanoirbeek
Assessing dermal exposure of workers to noxious chemicals becomes increasingly important in industrial settings. Among various chemicals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are widely used in industrialized countries, but still there are no validated methodologies able to accurately quantify skin exposure. In this study, we developed a sensitive methodology based on activated charcoal cloth (ACC) to quantitatively assess skin exposure to 181 VOCs. The majority of the VOCs (156) showed a constant desorption efficiency (DE) of ~100% over the studied concentration range...
October 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
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