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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636112/fluorescent-carbon-nanoparticles-obtained-from-charcoal-via-green-methods-and-their-application-for-sensing-fe-3-in-an-aqueous-medium
#1
Rajesh Patidar, Babulal Rebary, Dhruti A Sanghani, Gopala Ram Bhadu, Parimal Paul
Two green methods (microwave and hydrothermal) were employed for the preparation of water dispersible fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) from activated charcoal. Microwave and hydrothermally synthesized carbon nanoparticles, (MW-CNPs) and (HT-CNPs), respectively were characterized by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. A detailed study of their fluorescence characteristics was made. MW-CNPs and HT-CNPs were tested for metal ion selectivity in aqueous medium. MW-CNPs showed selectivity for Fe(3+) among the tested metal ions and important studies such as for interference, linear range and limit of detection were carried out...
June 21, 2017: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630401/waterpipe-product-packaging-and-labelling-at-the-3rd-international-hookah-fair-does-it-comply-with-article-11-of-the-framework-convention-on-tobacco-control
#2
Mohammed Jawad, Andrea Darzi, Tamara Lotfi, Rima Nakkash, Ben Hawkins, Elie A Akl
We assessed compliance of waterpipe product packaging and labelling with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's Article 11. We evaluated samples collected at a trade fair against ten domains: health warning location, size, use of pictorials, use of colour, and packaging information on constituents and emissions. We also evaluated waterpipe accessories (e.g., charcoal) for misleading claims. Ten of 15 tobacco products had health warnings on their principal display areas, covering a median of 22.4 per cent (interquartile range 19...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627339/-evaluation-of-adsorption-effect-of-activated-charcoal-on-oral-paraquat-poisoning-an-experimental-study-on-large-animal
#3
Baisheng Sun, Yuezhong He, Yuhao Pei, Cong Zhang, Xigang Zhang, Zhan Yang
OBJECTIVE: To study the adsorption effect of activated charcoal suspension on paraquat (PQ) in gastrointestinal tract of beagles exposed to PQ. METHODS: Twenty healthy male beagles were randomly divided into experimental group and control group, with 6 beagles in each group. 20% PQ solution (a dose of 30 mg/kg) was prescribed through stomach for beagles in both groups. After exposure to PQ for 30 minutes, the beagles in experimental group were given activated charcoal suspension (1...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609563/bayesian-forecasting-tool-to-predict-the-need-for-antidote-in-acute-acetaminophen-overdose
#4
Julie Desrochers, Jessica Wojciechowski, Wendy Klein-Schwartz, Jogarao V S Gobburu, Mathangi Gopalakrishnan
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the leading cause of acute liver injury in the United States. Patients with elevated plasma acetaminophen concentrations (PAC) require hepatoprotective treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC). These patients have been primarily risk-stratified using the Rumack-Matthew nomogram. Previous studies of acute APAP overdoses found that the nomogram failed to accurately predict the need for the antidote. The objectives of this study were to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for APAP following acute overdose and evaluate the utility of population PK model-based Bayesian forecasting in NAC administration decisions...
June 13, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602189/one-step-electro-oxidative-preparation-of-graphene-quantum-dots-from-wood-charcoal-as-a-peroxidase-mimetic
#5
Narsingh R Nirala, Gaurav Khandelwal, Brijesh Kumar, Vinita, Rajiv Prakash, Vinod Kumar
In present study, we highlight one-step electrochemical synthesis of nearly uniform size (~ 5nm) of graphene quantum dots (E-GQDs) from wood charcoal and their further application as a peroxidase enzyme mimetic. The structural and optical properties of as-synthesized E-GQDs were probed by TEM, AFM, and spectroscopic techniques. Peroxidase enzyme mimetic potential of E-GQDs were examined for colorimetric detection of H2O2 and glucose. E-GQDs allowed a rapid and sensitive detection of glucose with a detection limit of 0...
October 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599961/charcoal-and-charcoal-based-dentifrices-a-literature-review
#6
REVIEW
John K Brooks, Nasir Bashirelahi, Mark A Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Sales of charcoal dentifrices and powders have rapidly emerged into the Internet marketplace. The authors conducted a literature review to examine the efficacy and safety of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices. METHODS: The authors searched the MEDLINE and Scopus databases for clinical studies on the use of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices and laboratory investigations on the bioactivity or toxicity of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices, published through February 2017...
June 7, 2017: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593080/urinary-trans-trans-muconic-acid-is-not-a-reliable-biomarker-for-low-level-environmental-and-occupational-benzene-exposures
#7
Amir Jalai, Zahra Ramezani, Karim Ebrahim
BACKGROUND: Benzene is a known occupational and environmental pollutant. Its urinary metabolite trans, trans-muconic acid (tt-MA) has been introduced by some environmental and occupational health regulatory associations as a biological index for the assessment of benzene exposure; however, recently, doubts have been raised about the specificity of tt-MA for low-level benzene exposures. In the present study, we investigated the association between urinary levels of tt-MA and inhalational exposure to benzene in different exposure groups...
June 2017: Safety and Health At Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573386/uremic-toxicity-and-bone-in-ckd
#8
REVIEW
Suguru Yamamoto, Masafumi Fukagawa
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially those on dialysis treatment, are at high risk of bone fracture. In CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with advanced CKD induces bone abnormalities, and skeletal resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH) starts in the early stages of kidney disease. Uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate reduce the expression of PTH receptor as well as PTH-induced cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate production in osteoblasts...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573238/kirkia-acuminata-oliv-a-review-of-its-ethnobotany-and-pharmacology
#9
Alfred Maroyi
BACKGROUND: Local communities in sub-Saharan Africa have a long history of medicinal plant usage. Like in other parts of the developing world, rural and urban communities are still dependent on herbal medicines for primary health care, and the use of herbal medicines is still an integral part of their daily life and socio-cultural life style. The objective of this paper is to summarise information on the ethnobotany and pharmacology of Kirkia acuminata Oliv. throughout its distributional range...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572829/investigating-potential-modes-of-actions-of-mimusops-kummel-fruit-extract-and-solvent-fractions-for-their-antidiarrheal-activities-in-mice
#10
Mulugeta Molla, Negero Gemeda, Solomon M Abay
BACKGROUND: Fruits of Mimusops kummel A. DC. (Sapotaceae) are traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea. The present study aimed at investigating modes of actions of this fruits for antidiarrheal action to guide future drug development process. METHODS: Fractions of chloroform, n-butanol, and water were obtained from 80% methanol extract, which was prepared by maceration. Antidiarrheal activities and the modes of actions were investigated in mice. RESULTS: In castor oil induced diarrheal model, the extract delayed onset of diarrhea and reduced number and weight of feces at all tested doses significantly...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571191/a-successfully-treated-case-of-criminal-thallium-poisoning
#11
Tetsuya Yumoto, Kohei Tsukahara, Hiromichi Naito, Atsuyoshi Iida, Atsunori Nakao
Thallium was once commonly used as a household rodent or ant killer, but many countries have banned such use due to unintentional or criminal poisonings of humans. A common initial clinical manifestation of thallium poisoning is gastrointestinal symptoms followed by delayed onset of neurological symptoms and alopecia. These clinical characteristics can provide important diagnostic clues regarding thallium poisoning. Here, we report a 23-year-old woman who was poisoned by a business colleague when she unknowingly drank tea containing the toxic substance several times...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554113/no-significant-interactions-between-nitrogen-stimulation-and-ozone-inhibition-of-isoprene-emission-in-cathay-poplar
#12
Xiangyang Yuan, Bo Shang, Yansen Xu, Yue Xin, Yuan Tian, Zhaozhong Feng, Elena Paoletti
Isoprene emission from plants subject to a combination of ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) has never been investigated. Cathay poplar (Populus cathayana) saplings were exposed to O3 (CF, charcoal-filtered air, NF, non-filtered ambient air and E-O3, non-filtered air +40ppb) and N treatments (N0, 0kgNha(-1)year(-1), N50, 50kgNha(-1)year(-1) and N100, 100kgNha(-1)year(-1)) for 96days. Increasing O3 exposure decreased isoprene emission (11.5% in NF and 57.9% in E-O3), as well as light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Asat) and chlorophyll content, while N load increased isoprene emission (19...
May 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552005/cooking-fuel-and-risk-of-under-five-mortality-in-23-sub-saharan-african-countries-a-population-based-study
#13
Patrick Opiyo Owili, Miriam Adoyo Muga, Wen-Chi Pan, Hsien-Wen Kuo
Relationship between cooking fuel and under-five mortality has not been adequately established in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We therefore investigated the association between cooking fuel and risk of under-five mortality in SSA, and further investigated its interaction with smoking. Using the most recent Demographic Health Survey data of 23 SSA countries (n = 783,691), Cox proportional hazard was employed to determine the association between cooking fuel and risk of under-five deaths. The adjusted hazard ratios were 1...
May 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542442/pedogenetic-processes-in-anthrosols-with-pretic-horizon-amazonian-dark-earth-in-central-amazon-brazil
#14
Rodrigo S Macedo, Wenceslau G Teixeira, Marcelo M Corrêa, Gilvan C Martins, Pablo Vidal-Torrado
Anthrosols known as Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE) have borne witness to the intensification of sedentary patterns and the demographic increase in Central Amazon. As a result, a recurring pattern has been observed of mounds with ADE arising from domestic activities and the disposal of waste. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the relationship of these anthropic activities with pedogenetic formation processes of ADE in the municipality of Iranduba, Brazil. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were taken from two areas of ADE (pretic horizon) and from a non-anthropic pedon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542219/late-neolithic-phytolith-and-charcoal-records-of-human-activities-and-vegetation-change-in-shijiahe-culture-tanjialing-site-china
#15
Xiao Hong Zhu, Bing Li, Chun Mei Ma, Cheng Zhu, Li Wu, Hui Liu
There is significant archaeological evidence marking the collapse of the Shijiahe culture in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in China during the late Neolithic Period. However, the causes for this cultural collapse remain unclear. Our sedimentary records from a 3.3 m long profile and 76 phytolith and charcoal samples from the Tanjialing archaeological sites provide records of interactions between an ancient culture and vegetation change. During the early Shijiahe culture (c, 4850-4400 cal BP), the climate was warm and humid...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541004/the-effect-of-peripheral-crf-peptide-and-water-avoidance-stress-on-colonic-and-gastric-transit-in-guinea-pigs
#16
Zahid Hussain, Hae Won Kim, Cheal Wung Huh, Young Ju Lee, Hyojin Park
Functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common gastrointestinal (GI) diseases; however, there is frequent overlap between FD and IBS patients. Emerging evidence links the activation of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors with stress-related alterations of gastric and colonic motor function. Therefore, we investigated the effect of peripheral CRF peptide and water avoidance stress (WAS) on upper and lower GI transit in guinea pigs. Dosages 1, 3, and 10 μg/kg of CRF were injected intraperitoneally (IP) in fasted guinea pigs 30 minutes prior to the intragastric administration of charcoal mix to measure upper GI transit...
July 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539097/removal-of-organic-matter-from-stabilized-landfill-leachate-using-coagulation-flocculation-fenton-coupled-with-activated-charcoal-adsorption
#17
Ahmad Razali Ishak, Fauziah Shahul Hamid, Sharifah Mohamad, Kheng Soo Tay
The treatment of stabilized landfill leachate (SLL) by conventional biological treatment is often inefficient due to the presence of bio-recalcitrant substances. In this study, the feasibility of coagulation-flocculation coupled with the Fenton reaction in the treatment of SLL was evaluated. The efficiency of the selected treatment methods was evaluated through total organic carbon (TOC) removal from SLL. With ferric chloride as the coagulant, coagulation-flocculation was found to achieve the highest TOC removal of 71% at pH 6...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535126/activated-charcoal-significantly-reduces-the-amount-of-colchicine-released-from-gloriosa-superba-in-simulated-gastric-and-intestinal-media
#18
Shukry Zawahir, Indika Gawarammana, Paul I Dargan, Mahfoudh Abdulghni, Andrew H Dawson
BACKGROUND: Poisoning with Gloriosa superba, a plant containing colchicine, is common in Sri Lanka. OBJECTIVES: This study was to estimate release of colchicine from 5 g of different parts of Gloriosa superba in simulated gastric and intestinal media, and examine the binding efficacy of activated charcoal (AC) to colchicine within this model. METHODS: A USP dissolution apparatus-II was used to prepare samples for analysis of colchicine using HPLC...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534032/cooking-fuel-and-respiratory-symptoms-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-rural-uganda
#19
Crystal M North, Linda Valeri, Peter W Hunt, A Rain Mocello, Jeffrey N Martin, Yap Boum, Jessica E Haberer, David R Bangsberg, David C Christiani, Mark J Siedner
Household air pollution (HAP) and chronic HIV infection are each associated with significant respiratory morbidity. Little is known about relationships between HAP and respiratory symptoms among people living with HIV. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between cooking fuel type and chronic respiratory symptoms in study participants from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes Study. Study participants were enrolled at the time of antiretroviral therapy initiation and seen quarterly from 2005 to 2014 for health-focused questionnaires, CD4 count and HIV viral load...
April 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531860/boosting-biomethane-yield-and-production-rate-with-graphene-the-potential-of-direct-interspecies-electron-transfer-in-anaerobic-digestion
#20
Richen Lin, Jun Cheng, Jiabei Zhang, Junhu Zhou, Kefa Cen, Jerry D Murphy
Interspecies electron transfer between bacteria and archaea plays a vital role in enhancing energy efficiency of anaerobic digestion (AD). Conductive carbon materials (i.e. graphene nanomaterial and activated charcoal) were assessed to enhance AD of ethanol (a key intermediate product after acidogenesis of algae). The addition of graphene (1.0g/L) resulted in the highest biomethane yield (695.0±9.1mL/g) and production rate (95.7±7.6mL/g/d), corresponding to an enhancement of 25.0% in biomethane yield and 19...
September 2017: Bioresource Technology
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