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Imran Hanif
This study explores the impact of fossil fuels consumption, solid fuels consumption for cooking purposes, economic growth, and carbon emissions on human health, with a key emphasis on the occurrence of tuberculosis and the high mortality rate in Sub-Saharan Africa. For its practical insights, the study develops a system Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) for a panel of 34 middle- and lower-middle-income countries from 1995 to 2015. The study adopts a flexible methodology to tackle endogeneity in the variables...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Samantha Reddy, Oliver T Zishiri
Virulence-associated genes have been recognised and detected in Campylobacter species. The majority of them have been proven to be associated with pathogenicity. This study aimed to detect the presence of virulence genes associated with pathogenicity and responsible for invasion, expression of adherence, colonisation and production of the cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Commercial chicken faecal samples were randomly sampled from chicken farms within the Durban metropolitan area in South Africa...
February 15, 2018: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
Weifeng Cao, Yujue Wang, Jianquan Luo, Junxiang Yin, Yinhua Wan
α,ω-Dicarboxylic acids (DC) are versatile chemical intermediates with different chain length. For biosynthesis of DC, to obtain the highly pure product via crystallization, it is required to remove pigments and proteins in fermentation broth. However, a trade-off between decolorization/deproteinization ratio and DC recovery during the purification process was found, which impeded DC production by fermentation. When ultrafiltration (UF) was applied to treat α,ω-dodecanedioic acid (DC12 ) broth, 93.4% of DC12 recovery, 80...
May 16, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Entesar Al-Hetlani, Mohamed O Amin, Metwally Madkour, Ahmed Abdel Nazeer
SALDI-MS analysis of pharmaceutical drug molecules (amitriptyline, imipramine and promazine) using carbon-based substrates, namely, activated charcoal (AC), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon black (CB), graphene (rGO), graphene oxide (GO) and graphite, was explored and compared with the conventional organic matrix of MALDI. CB exhibited superior performance with respect to the other substrates in terms of detection sensitivity. Despite the effectiveness of CB to detect all drug molecules, it demonstrated a number of background signals, which may be an issue for the analysis of other molecules in the future...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
Dharminder Singh, Sanjeev Yadav, V M Rajesh, Pravakar Mohanty
This work was focused on finding the groundnut shell (GNS) gasification performance in a fluidized bed gasifier with bubbling air as gasification medium. Groundnut shell in powder form (a mixture of different particle size as given in Table 8) was gasified using naturally available river sand as bed material, top of the bed feeding, conventional charcoal as bed heating medium, and two cyclones for proper cleaning and cooling the product gas. Experiments were performed using different operating conditions such as equivalence ratio (ER) between 0...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Technology
Saeid Nekoonam, Mohammad Naji, Keywan Mortezaee, Fardin Amidi
AR-mediated androgen signaling plays a key role in female reproductive system. Granulosa-lutein cells (GCs) are the main sites for expression of androgen receptor (AR). There is also a close relation between AKT signaling and AR. Here, we assayed the role for a synthetic AR ligand methyltrienolone (R1881) in expressions of AKTs and AR. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) was performed in 20 normal women. Mural GCs were isolated by filtration method, cultured, and passaged. Then, the cells were starved for 48 h with 10% charcoal stripped FBS...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Nan Lin, Zhicong Cai, Weijin Yang, Youxu Zhou, Yu Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Robert Porter, Kayla Dewey
BACKGROUND: Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic with a long half-life. Overdose can result in protracted somnolence and cardiac disturbances, particularly QT interval prolongation. METHODS: This is a single case report of a 14-year-old boy who took an overdose of aripiprazole and developed QRS widening. CASE: A 14-year-old boy intentionally ingested 20 tablets of aripiprazole (5 mg). He was brought to the emergency department when his ingestion was discovered...
May 5, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Herbert L Fred, Hendrik A van Dijk
The column in this issue is supplied by Herbert L. Fred, M.D., M.A.C.P., and Hendrik A. van Dijk, both from McGovern Medical School-UT Health, Houston, Texas. Dr. Fred is emeritus professor of medicine and a well-known medical educator and diagnostician. A graduate of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, he has authored just under 500 publications including six books. Mr. van Dijk, former director of the University of Texas Health Science Center Medical School's Graphic Communications Group, has devoted 50 years to biomedical communications and is a national expert in that field...
October 2017: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
Amha Admasie, Abera Kumie, Alemayehu Worku
Background: Acute respiratory tract infection is the most common illness in childhood. Ninety-five percent (99% of rural and 80% of urban) of households in Ethiopia primarily use solid fuel for cooking. This study investigated the effect of household fuel use and house ventilation on acute respiratory infection in children, Wolaita-Sodo, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A community based case-control study design was used, covering a sample of 1144 children with ratio of 1 : 3 (286 cases and 858 controls) aged between 0 and 59 months...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Mingjie Xie, Guofeng Shen, Amara L Holder, Michael D Hays, James J Jetter
Household cookstove emissions are an important source of carbonaceous aerosols globally. The light-absorbing organic carbon (OC), also termed brown carbon (BrC), from cookstove emissions can impact the Earth's radiative balance, but is rarely investigated. In this work, PM2.5 filter samples were collected during combustion experiments with red oak wood, charcoal, and kerosene in a variety of cookstoves mainly at two water boiling test phases (cold start CS, hot start HS). Samples were extracted in methanol and extracts were examined using spectrophotometry...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Mariana Pardo, Travis Lanaux, Rachel Davy, Carsten Bandt
OBJECTIVE: To describe the successful use of charcoal hemoperfusion (HP) and hemodialysis (HD) in a dog in the treatment of methotrexate (MTX) toxicosis. CASE SUMMARY: An American Pit Bull Terrier accidentally ingested 56.8 mg/m2 of MTX. The patient's initial serum MTX concentration was 0.11 μmol/L. At this dosage, myelosuppression and gastrointestinal epithelial necrosis have been reported. Charcoal HP and HD in series were used to enhance elimination of MTX...
May 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
S-S Zhao, D-X Ma, Y Zhu, J-H Zhao, Y Zhang, J-Q Chen, Z-L Sheng
BACKGROUND: Pomegranate peels have been widely used to treat diarrhea in China. The antidiarrheal activities of aqueous extracts of pomegranate peels have been evaluated. However, there have not been any bioactivity-guided fractionation studies on the antidiarrheal effect to identify the bioactive components of the extract. METHODS: Bioactivity-guided fractionation of an aqueous extract of pomegranate peels was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity, generating fractions dissolved in ethyl acetate, n-butyl alcohol, and the residual fraction...
May 2, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Lidan Fan, Mengyue Wang, Zhen Zhang, Gang Qin, Xiaoyi Hu, Qiang Chen
Natural bamboo charcoal (BC) powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE) by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm) distributed inside and on the surface of the membranes, indicating a three-dimension network formed in the polymer framework...
April 26, 2018: Materials
Alireza Mardomi, Mohammad Nouri, Laya Farzadi, Nosratollah Zarghami, Amir Mehdizadeh, Mehdi Yousefi, Dariush Shanebandi, Maghsod Shaaker, Masoud Darabi
Obtaining a better outcome in assisted reproductive technology remains to be attained. In the case of in vitro fertilization (IVF), oocyte maturity is paramount for achieving a successful pregnancy. Maternal serum supplementation of in vitro maturation (IVM) medium can increase the rate of oocyte IVM. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of whole and charcoal-stripped serum supplementation on IVM and the activity index of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) in cumulus cells enclosing the oocyte as a molecular indicator of oocyte quality...
April 27, 2018: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
Visittapong Yordsri, Chanchana Thanachayanont, Shunsuke Asahina, Yuuki Yamaguchi, Masahiro Kawasaki, Tetsuo Oikawa, Tadashi Nobuchi, Makoto Shiojiri
Green culms of bamboo and charcoal of Bambusa multiplex were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. A dynamic observation of the initial stage of carbonization was also performed in-situ by heating a radial longitudinal section of the bamboo culm at a rate of 20°C/min up to 500°C. EDS mapping of the green bamboo culms detected Si signals in the harder cells such as the epidermis (Ep), cortex (Cor) and vascular bundle sheath (Bs) and between these cells as silicon oxide particles...
April 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Javier Caballero, Cecilia Peralta, Antonella Molla, Eleodoro E Del Valle, Primitivo Caballero, Colin Berry, Verónica Felipe, Pablo Yaryura, Leopoldo Palma
Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium possessing an important and historical record as a human-pathogenic bacterium. However, several strains of this species exhibit interesting potential to be used as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. cereus strain CITVM-11.1, which consists of 37 contig sequences, accounting for 5,746,486 bp (with a GC content of 34.8%) and 5,752 predicted protein-coding sequences. Several of them could potentially be involved in plant-bacterium interactions and may contribute to the strong antagonistic activity shown by this strain against the charcoal root rot fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
Bin Wang, Bo Liu, Xing-Xiang Ji, Ming-Guo Ma
Visible-light-active bamboo biochar/TiO₂ composites were fabricated by the calcination method using C16 H36 O₄Ti as the titanium source and bamboo powder with different sizes as the carbon source. The TiO₂ nanoparticles were observed to disperse onto the surface of bamboo biochar fiber. The sizes of the bamboo powder played an important role in the microstructures and the properties of bamboo biochar/TiO₂ composites. The bamboo biochar/TiO₂ composites displayed the photocatalytic activities both under visible light irradiation and UV irradiation...
April 25, 2018: Materials
Shengbo Ge, Lishu Wang, Zhenling Liu, Shuaicheng Jiang, Xiongxiong Yang, Wei Yang, Wanxi Peng, Tay Cai
Employing the antibacterial property of industrial bamboo vinegar (IBV) and the photocatalytic degradation of TiO2 , bamboo macromolecules were pretreated and processed into nonvolatile and antibacterial bio board (NVABB). The NVABB was then analyzed by conducting Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. Results show that NVABB samples had average density of 0.96 g/cm3 , which is appropriate for application. In terms of physical and mechanical properties, the best NVABB sample obtained from IBV, TiO2 and bamboo had an IBV pretreatment time of 10 min, 2% TiO2 and 1% bamboo charcoal...
March 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Visittapong Yordsri, Chanchana Thanachayanont, Chabaiporn Junin, Masahiro Kawasaki, Shunsuke Asahina, Tetsuo Oikawa, Atsushi Saiki, Tadashi Nobuchi, Makoto Shiojiri
Green culms of Bambusa multiplex and the bamboo charcoal carbonized from the green culms at 700°C have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescent element analysis, analytical scanning electron microscopy, and analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), aiming at industrial applications as raw materials for functional devices and substances. It is revealed that the green culms and the charcoal contain a significant amount of Si, in particular, ∼18 wt % in the skin. The green culms comprise amorphous and crystalline celluloses...
April 20, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
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