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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448597/reconstructing-grassland-fire-history-using-sedimentary-charcoal-considering-count-size-and-shape
#1
Berangere A Leys, Julie L Commerford, Kendra K McLauchlan
Fire is a key Earth system process, with 80% of annual fire activity taking place in grassland areas. However, past fire regimes in grassland systems have been difficult to quantify due to challenges in interpreting the charcoal signal in depositional environments. To improve reconstructions of grassland fire regimes, it is essential to assess two key traits: (1) charcoal count, and (2) charcoal shape. In this study, we quantified the number of charcoal pieces in 51 sediment samples of ponds in the Great Plains and tested its relevance as a proxy for the fire regime by examining 13 potential factors influencing charcoal count, including various fire regime components (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445845/the-capacity-and-effectiveness-of-diosmectite-and-charcoal-in-trapping-the-compounds-causing-the-most-frequent-intoxications-in-acute-medicine-a-comparative-study
#2
Michaela Mináriková, Veronika Fojtikova, Eliška Vyskočilová, Jan Sedláček, Milan Šikut, Lucie Borek-Dohalska, Marie Stiborová, Marketa Martinkova
The aim of the study was to compare the adsorption ability of two adsorbent materials, namely diosmectite and activated charcoal towards selected model compounds that are most commonly involved in acute intoxication. Eleven model compounds were selected: acetylsalicylic acid, α-amanitin, amlodipine, digoxin, phenobarbital, ibuprofen, imipramine, carbamazepine, oxazepam, promethazine, and theophylline. Of the tested compounds, promethazine and imipramine were the most effectively adsorbed to diosmectite. Their adsorption to diosmectite (0...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444601/somatic-embryogenesis-from-bud-and-leaf-explants-of-date-palm-phoenix-dactylifera-l-cv-najda
#3
Mouaad Amine Mazri, Ilham Belkoura, Reda Meziani, Boutaïna Mokhless, Souad Nour
An efficient regeneration system through somatic embryogenesis was developed for date palm cv. Najda. Adventitious bud and proximal leaf segments cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various combinations of auxins and cytokinins induced embryogenesis after at least 6 months of culture. Somatic embryogenesis induction seemed correlated with the type of the explant, the induction period and the auxin used. The highest rate of somatic embryogenesis (86.0%) was obtained on bud explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 45...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441624/various-soil-amendments-and-environmental-wastes-affect-the-im-mobilization-and-phytoavailability-of-potentially-toxic-elements-in-a-sewage-effluent-irrigated-sandy-soil
#4
Sabry M Shaheen, Mohamed S Shams, Mohamed R Khalifa, Mohamed A El-Dali, Jörg Rinklebe
Contamination of long-term sewage effluent irrigated soils by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is a serious concern due to its high environmental and health risk. Our scientific hypothesis is that soil amendments can cause contradictory effects on the element mobilization and phytoavailability depending on the type of element and amendment. Therefore, we aimed to assess the impact of the application (1%) of several low cost amendments and environmental wastes on the (im)mobilization, availability, and uptake of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn by sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in a long term sewage effluent irrigated sandy soils collected from Egypt...
April 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429198/managing-the-perioperative-patient-on-direct-oral-anticoagulants
#5
Jordan Leitch, Janet van Vlymen
PURPOSE: Patients are increasingly treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for the prevention of stroke due to non-valvular atrial fibrillation and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. When these patients present for urgent or emergent surgical procedures, they present a challenge to the anesthesiologist who must manage perioperative risk due to anticoagulation. The purpose of this module is to review the literature surrounding the perioperative management of DOACs. Timing, laboratory monitoring, and availability of reversal agents are important considerations to optimize patients being treated with DOACs who require emergent surgery...
April 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427112/acute-encephalopathy-in-a-2-year-old-pot-bellied-pig-following-accidental-intoxication-with-clonazepam
#6
Emilie L Setlakwe, Amy L Johnson
OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of successful management of clonazepam toxicity causing encephalopathy in a pot-bellied pig. CASE SUMMARY: A 2-year-old female pot-bellied pig weighing 13.5 kg was presented for evaluation of clinical signs of acute encephalopathy. Based on the animal's history and clinical signs, a tentative diagnosis of benzodiazepine (BZP) intoxication was made. The results of a urinary drug screening test designed to detect illicit substances in human urine indicated benzodiazepine exposure...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425455/the-effect-of-hydraulic-flowback-and-produced-water-on-gill-morphology-oxidative-stress-and-antioxidant-response-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#7
Tamzin A Blewett, Alyssa M Weinrauch, Perrine L M Delompré, Greg G Goss
Hydraulic fracturing fluid are complex mixtures containing high concentrations of salts (up to 330,000 ppm), organic, and metal contaminants. However, little data exist on the potential mechanisms of toxicity of these flowback and produced wastewaters (FPW) on aquatic biota. Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to either control, FPW (2.5 or 7.5%), FPW that had been treated with activated charcoal (AC), or a custom salt-matched control (SW; replicating only the salt content of FPW) for 48 hours. Gill histology revealed decreases in interlamellar cell mass (ILCM) and mean lamellar length in all treatments (FPW, AC and SW) compared to control, indicative of hyperosmotic stress...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421311/long-term-soil-alteration-in-historical-charcoal-hearths-affects-tuber-melanosporum-mycorrhizal-development-and-environmental-conditions-for-fruiting
#8
Sergi Garcia-Barreda, Sara Molina-Grau, Ricardo Forcadell, Sergio Sánchez, Santiago Reyna
Abandoned charcoal hearths constitute a very particular habitat for spontaneous fruiting of Tuber melanosporum, leading some harvesters to hypothesise that the fungus could benefit from the alterations that these soils underwent. However, ecological mechanisms involved in this relation are not fully elucidated yet. As a first step to understand it, the influence of long-term soil alteration on the symbiotic stage of T. melanosporum and on selected soil properties considered key to fruiting was assessed by conducting a greenhouse bioassay and a field observational study...
April 18, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419893/carbon-monoxide-related-fatalities-a-60-year-single-institution-experience
#9
Martin Janík, Michaela Ublová, Štepánka Kučerová, Petr Hejna
OBJECTIVE: Though carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings account currently for a relatively small percentage of total non-natural deaths in Europe, they represent a serious public health burden and significant component of avoidable mortality in many countries. Our aim was to investigate long-term trends and to determine epidemiologic characteristics of the CO-related deaths in the Czech Republic, recorded at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Hradec Králové. METHODS: This was an autopsy-based single-centre retrospective cohort study of all fatalities caused by CO poisoning over six decades (1947-2006)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413934/commonly-used-air-filters-fail-to-eliminate-secondhand-smoke-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-responses
#10
Thivanka Muthumalage, Karen Pritsos, Kenneth Hunter, Chris Pritsos
Secondhand smoke (SHS) causes approximately 50,000 deaths per year. Despite all the health warnings, smoking is still allowed indoors in many states exposing both workers and patrons to SHS on a daily basis. The opponents of smoking bans suggest that the present day air filtration systems remove the health hazards of exposure to SHS. In this study, using an acute SHS exposure model, we looked at the impact of commonly used air filters (MERV 8 pleated and MERV 8 pleated activated charcoal) on SHS by assessing the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response in C57BL/6 mice...
April 16, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411426/thoron-mitigation-system-based-on-charcoal-bed-for-applications-in-thorium-fuel-cycle-facilities-part-2-development-characterization-and-performance-evaluation
#11
K Sudeep Kumara, B K Sahoo, J J Gaware, B K Sapra, Y S Mayya, N Karunakara
Exposure due to thoron ((220)Rn) gas and its decay products in a thorium fuel cycle facility handling thorium or (232)U/(233)U mixture compounds is an important issue of radiological concern requiring control and mitigation. Adsorption in a flow-through charcoal bed offers an excellent method of alleviating the release of (220)Rn into occupational and public domain. In this paper, we present the design, development, and characterization of a Thoron Mitigation System (TMS) for industrial application. Systematic experiments were conducted in the TMS for examining the (220)Rn mitigation characteristics with respect to a host of parameters such as flow rate, pressure drop, charcoal grain size, charcoal mass and bed depth, water content, and heat of the carrier gas...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411425/thoron-mitigation-system-based-on-charcoal-bed-for-applications-in-thorium-fuel-cycle-facilities-part-1-development-of-theoretical-models-for-design-considerations
#12
B K Sahoo, K Sudeep Kumara, N Karunakara, J J Gaware, B K Sapra, Y S Mayya
Regulating the environmental discharge of (220)Rn (historically known as thoron) and its decay products from thorium processing facilities is important for protection of environment and general public living in the vicinities. Activated charcoal provides an effective solution to this problem because of its high adsorption capacity to gaseous element like radon. In order to design and develop a charcoal based Thoron Mitigation System, a mathematical model has been developed in the present work for studying the (220)Rn transport and adsorption in a flow through charcoal bed and estimating the (220)Rn mitigation factor (MF) as a function of system and operating parameters...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403231/media-effects-on-suicide-methods-a-case-study-on-hong-kong-1998-2005
#13
Qijin Cheng, Feng Chen, Paul S F Yip
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that mass media's reports of new suicide methods will increase suicides using the same method. The same pattern seems not to apply to a conventional suicide method, unless it was used by a celebrity. OBJECTIVE: 1) to examine media effects on both new and non-new suicide methods during 1998 and 2005 in Hong Kong (HK), when a new method by burning charcoal (CB suicide) was spreading in the region. 2) to examine how CB competed with non-CB methods in terms of media coverage and "recruiting" suicidal persons in the socio-economic context...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400780/overexpression-of-a-new-osmotin-like-protein-gene-sindolp-confers-tolerance-against-biotic-and-abiotic-stresses-in-sesame
#14
Supriyo Chowdhury, Arpita Basu, Surekha Kundu
Osmotin-like proteins (OLPs), of PR-5 family, mediate defense against abiotic, and biotic stresses in plants. Overexpression in sesame of an OLP gene (SindOLP), enhanced tolerance against drought, salinity, oxidative stress, and the charcoal rot pathogen. SindOLP was expressed in all parts and localized to the cytosol. The transgenic plants recovered after prolonged drought and salinity stress, showing less electrolyte leakage, more water content, longer roots, and smaller stomatal aperture compared to control plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396325/metabolic-genetic-screens-reveal-multidimensional-regulation-of-virulence-gene-expression-in-listeria-monocytogenes-and-an-aminopeptidase-that-is-critical-for-prfa-protein-activation
#15
Sivan Friedman, Marika Linsky, Lior Lobel, Lev Rabinovich, Nadejda Sigal, Anat A Herskovits
Listeria monocytogenes is an environmental saprophyte and intracellular bacterial pathogen. Upon invading mammalian cells, the bacterium senses abrupt changes in its metabolic environment, which are rapidly transduced to regulation of virulence gene expression. To explore the relationship between L. monocytogenes metabolism and virulence, we monitored virulence gene expression dynamics across a library of genetic mutants grown under two metabolic conditions known to activate the virulent state: charcoal-treated rich medium containing glucose 1-phosphate and minimal defined medium containing limiting concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)...
April 10, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395261/size-fractionation-as-a-tool-for-separating-charcoal-of-different-fuel-source-and-recalcitrance-in-the-wildfire-ash-layer
#16
Giovanni Mastrolonardo, Victoria A Hudspith, Ornella Francioso, Cornelia Rumpel, Daniela Montecchio, Stefan H Doerr, Giacomo Certini
Charcoal is a heterogeneous material exhibiting a diverse range of properties. This variability represents a serious challenge in studies that use the properties of natural charcoal for reconstructing wildfires history in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that particle size is a sufficiently robust indicator for separating forest wildfire combustion products into fractions with distinct properties. For this purpose, we examined two different forest environments affected by contrasting wildfires in terms of severity: an eucalypt forest in Australia, which experienced an extremely severe wildfire, and a Mediterranean pine forest in Italy, which burned to moderate severity...
April 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383578/a-novel-electroluminescent-device-based-on-a-reduced-graphene-oxide-wrapped-phosphor-zns-cu-al-and-hexagonal-boron-nitride-for-high-performance-luminescence
#17
Bipin Kumar Gupta, Satbir Singh, Garima Kedawat, Kanika, Pawan Kumar, Amit Kumar Gangwar, Tharangattu N Narayanan, Angel A Marti, Robert Vajtai, P M Ajayan
Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has recently emerged as a very promising family of exotic carbon material with augmented performance in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Herein, we report an efficient and novel inorganic electroluminescent device geometry, where a new phosphor composite, reduced graphene oxide wrapped ZnS:Cu,Al, acts as an active emitting layer and an exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) as a dielectric layer. The roles of rGO in the active layer as a conductive support and local electric field enhancing agent are attributed to its wrinkles being unraveled compared with other carbon exotic nano-forms such as carbon nanotubes, graphite, charcoal and activated carbon, which significantly improves the brightness of the device (∼50 cd m(-2) for 0...
April 6, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383285/strain-intermittency-due-to-avalanches-in-ferroelastic-and-porous-materials
#18
Viktor Soprunyuk, Sabine Puchberger, Andreas Tröster, Eduard Vives, Ekhard Salje, Wilfried Schranz
The avalanche statistics in porous materials and ferroelastic domain wall systems has been studied for slowly increasing compressive uniaxial stress with stress rates between 0.2 and 17 kPa/s. Velocity peaks v<sub>m</sub>=dh/dt are calculated from the measured strain drops and used to determine the corresponding Energy distributions N(E = v<sub>m</sub><sup>2</sup>). Power law distributions N(v<sub>m</sub><sup>2</sup>) ~(v<sub>m</sub><sup>2</sup>)<sup>-ε</sup> have been obtained over 4-6 decades...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381770/a-new-strategy-to-refine-crude-indian-sardine-oil
#19
S Charanyaa, Prasanna D Belur, I Regupathi
Current work aims to develop a refining process for removing phospholipids, free fatty acids (FFA), and metal ions without affecting n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) esters present in the crude Indian sardine oil. Sardine oil was subjected to degumming with various acids (orthophosphoric acid, acetic acid, and lactic acid), conventional and membrane assisted deacidification using various solvents (methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol) and bleaching with bleaching agents (GAC, activated earth and bentonite) and all the process parameters were further optimized...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381089/therapeutic-nanoparticles-based-on-curcumin-and-bamboo-charcoal-nanoparticles-for-chemo-photothermal-synergistic-treatment-of-cancer-and-radioprotection-of-normal-cells
#20
Jiani Xie, Yuan Yong, Xinghua Dong, Jiangfeng Du, Zhao Guo, Linji Gong, Shuang Zhu, Gan Tian, Shicang Yu, Zhanjun Gu, Yuliang Zhao
Low water solubility, extensive metabolism, and drug resistance are the existing unavoidable disadvantages of the insoluble drug curcumin in biomedical applications. Herein, we employed d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-functionalized near-infrared (NIR)-triggered photothermal mesoporous nanocarriers with bamboo charcoal nanoparticles (TPGS-BCNPs) to load and deliver curcumin for improving its bioavailability. This system could considerably increase the accumulation of curcumin in cancer cells for enhanced curcumin bioavailability via simultaneously promoting the cellular internalization of the as-synthesized composite (TPGS-BCNPs@curcumin) by the size effect of NPs and considerably triggering controlled curcumin release from TPGS-BCNPs@curcumin by NIR stimulation and reducing efflux of curcumin by the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition of TPGS, so as to enhance the therapeutic effect of curcumin and realize a better chemo-photothermal synergetic therapy in vitro and in vivo...
April 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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