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Smain Chemat, Abdallah Aissa, Abdenour Boumechhour, Omar Arous, Hamid Ait-Amar
This study proposes an ultrasound-horn system for the extraction of a natural active compound "artemisinin" from Artemisia annua L. leaves as an alternative to hot maceration technique. Ultrasound leaching improves artemisinin recovery at all temperatures where only ten minutes is required to recover 70% (4.42mgg(-1)) compared to 60min of conventional hot leaching for the same yield. For instance, ultrasound treatment at 30°C produced a higher yield than the one obtained by conventional maceration at 40°C...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
J D Rodgers, E Simpkin, R Lee, F A Clifton-Hadley, A B Vidal
Broiler chicken flocks are a significant source of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli that result in the major public health problem of campylobacteriosis. Accurate estimates of the prevalence of both C. coli and C. jejuni in flocks would enhance epidemiological understanding, risk assessment and control options. This study combined results from a panel of 10 detection tests (direct culture, enrichment and PCR) on caecal samples from flocks at slaughter. A parallel interpretation approach was used to determine the presence of Campylobacter spp...
October 22, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
Chun Yeh, Ching-Heng Ting, Ming-Luen Doong, Chin-Wen Chi, Shou-Dong Lee, Chih-Yen Chen
PURPOSE: Urocortin 3 is a key neuromodulator in the regulation of stress, anxiety, food intake, gut motility, and energy homeostasis, while ghrelin elicits feeding behavior and enhances gastric emptying, adiposity, and positive energy balance. However, the interplays between urocortin 3 and ghrelin on food intake and gastric emptying remain uninvestigated. METHODS: We examined the differential effects of central O-n-octanoylated ghrelin, des-Gln(14)-ghrelin, and urocortin 3 on food intake, as well as on charcoal nonnutrient semiliquid gastric emptying in conscious rats that were chronically implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) catheters...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Michael S Toce, Michele M Burns, Katherine A O'Donnell
CONTEXT: Exploratory buprenorphine ingestions in young children have been associated with clinically significant toxicity. However, detailed data on the clinical presentation and management of these patients are lacking. In an attempt to obtain more comprehensive data, we sought to examine a single center cohort of patients with report of buprenorphine exposure and provide descriptive analysis of rates of respiratory depression, time to respiratory depression, interventions, disposition, and outcomes...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Paulo Henrique Santos Gonçalves, Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque, Patrícia Muniz de Medeiros
An increasing number of studies have aimed to clarify the factors leading human groups to prioritize the use of some woody plant species compared to others. Some of these studies have tested the apparency hypothesis in aiming to understand this phenomenon. According to the apparency hypothesis, the most commonly available local plant species on a forest path are the most useful to that local human population. However, the sparse and diverse nature of the results from studies investigating the factors that influence human exploitation of plant resources motivated us to perform a meta-analysis on the apparency hypothesis...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Yoshihiro Nabeshima, Daisuke Onozuka, Takanari Kitazono, Akihito Hagihara
It is well known that certain types of media reports about suicide can result in imitative suicides. In the last two decades, Japan has experienced two suicide epidemics and the subsequent excessive media coverage of these events. However, the quality of the media suicide reports has yet to be evaluated in terms of the guidelines for media suicide coverage. Thus, the present study analyzed Japanese newspaper articles (n = 4007) on suicides by charcoal burning or hydrogen sulfide gas between 11 February 2003 and 13 March 2010...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sandeep Tak, Manoj Lakhotia, Alok Gupta, Amit Sagar, Gopal Bohra, Rajesh Bajari
A 55-year-old male presented with history of nausea, vomiting, palpitation paresthesis and profuse sweating in emergency department 2h after ingestion of "Bachnaag" (Aconite) root. Examination revealed shock with irregular pulses. Initial ECG showed frequent multifocal ventricular ectopics (VE), which later turned to short runs of ventricular tachycardia (VT). Immediate gastric lavage was done and activated charcoal given. Patient was treated with fluid resuscitation without any improvement in blood pressure...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Tareq Abu-Izneid, Aneela Maalik, Saud Bawazeer, Ajmal Khan, Abdur Rauf, Taibi Ben Hadda, Haroon Khan, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan, Imran Khan, Mohammad S Mubarak, Ghias Uddin, Alia Bahadar, Shujaat Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Pistacia integerrima has many medicinal uses in therapeutic as well as folk medicine. P. integerrima has been used for the treatment of different ailments such as blood purifier, anti-inflammatory, and as remedy for gastrointestinal disorders such as vomiting and diarrhea, expectorant, cough, asthma and fever. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this research work was to evaluate the effect of pistagremic acid (PA) isolated from the galls of Pistacia integerima in acute toxicity and gastrointestinal (GIT) motility tests...
October 7, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
S Gibiino, A Trappoli, B Balzarro, A R Atti, D De Ronchi
A 71-year-old man developed coma with severe respiratory failure, hypotension, and tachycardia induced by the intentional ingestion of quetiapine fumarate extended release (XR) 20 g. At the time, he had been treated for bipolar depression with venlafaxine 75 mg/day, lamotrigine 100 mg/day, pregabalin 75 mg/day, and quetiapine XR 400 mg/day for approximately 1 year. Comorbidities were hypertension treated with metoprolol, diabetes mellitus type 2 treated with metformin, and benign prostatic hyperplasia treated with silodosin...
December 2015: Drug Saf Case Rep
Deborah Azrael, Alexander Mukamal, Amy P Cohen, David Gunnell, Catherine Barber, Matthew Miller
INTRODUCTION: Identifying the source and specific type of gas used in suicides is difficult using most data systems owing to limitations in ICD-10 coding. The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), with its rich collection of both coded and free-text variables, has the potential to overcome these limitations. This study used a multipronged approach to identify gas-specific suicides in NVDRS and to track the incidence of these suicides over time. METHODS: Using suicide cases from the 16 NVDRS states that participated throughout 2005-2012, free-text and code searches were conducted for four types of variables-incident narratives, coroner/medical examiner cause-of-death statements, cause-of-death codes, and substance names-to identify suicides by carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen sulfide, and four other gases...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Jin-Jin Lu, Bing-Jie Jia, Lin Yang, Wen Zhang, Xin Dong, Ping Li, Jun Chen
It has been proved that the purine metabolic pathway has been implicated in various biological disorders including gout, diabetes, coronary heart diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. The analysis of the purine metabolic pathway in organisms reveals important alterations under different physiological and pathological conditions, which contributes to the pathological study, diagnosis, and therapy of related diseases. In the present study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-UV-MS/MS) method was developed for conducting the comprehensive analysis of the metabolite profiles of the purine pathway in rat plasma through a single analysis...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Eleanor U Hobley, Adrian J Le Gay Brereton, Brian Wilson
Fire alters ecosystem carbon cycling and generates pyrogenic matter such as charcoal, which can be incorporated into soils. The incorporation and cycling of charcoal in soils is a potential carbon sink, but studies investigating charcoal and carbon dynamics in soils are still lacking. We investigated soil carbon, charcoal and nitrogen dynamics in the top 20cm of a sandy soil within a eucalypt forest in eastern Australia at three sites representing a chronosequence from 3months to 14years post-fire. In the short-term, fire removed litter, but resulted in an increase in both the charcoal and non-charcoal SOC content of the soils, which we attribute to above-ground charcoal generation and its incorporation into the soil profile, as well as below-ground root mortality...
October 8, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Michelle D Sakala, Raymond B Dyer, Rafel Tappouni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
Ndinomholo Hamatui, Rajen N Naidoo, Nnenesi Kgabi
BACKGROUND: Charcoal processing activities can increase the risk of adverse respiratory outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine dose-response relationships between occupational exposure to charcoal dust, respiratory symptoms and lung function among charcoal-processing workers in Namibia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 307 workers from charcoal factories in Namibia. All respondents completed interviewer-administered questionnaires...
August 15, 2016: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Alma Akhmetova, Timur Saliev, Iain U Allan, Matthew J Illsley, Talgat Nurgozhin, Sergey Mikhalovsky
The process of wound healing is often accompanied by bacterial infection or critical colonization, resulting in protracted inflammation, delayed reepithelization, and production of pungent odors. The malodor produced by these wounds may lower health-related quality of life and produce psychological discomfort and social isolation. Current management focuses on reducing bacterial activity within the wound site and absorbing malodorous gases. For example, charcoal-based materials have been incorporated into dressing for direct adsorption of the responsible gases...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
Amelia R Adelsperger, Krista J Bigiarelli-Nogas, Irina Toore, Craig J Goergen
A traditional vaporizer depends on flowing gas and atmospheric pressure for passive anesthetic vaporization. Newly developed direct injection vaporizers utilize a syringe pump to directly administer volatile anesthetics into a gas stream. Unlike a traditional vaporizer, it can be used at very low flow rates, making it ideal for use on mice and rats. The equipment's capability to use low flow rates could result in a substantial cost savings due to the reduced need for anesthetic agents, compressed gas, and charcoal scavenging filters(1)...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Amsalu Degu, Ephrem Engidawork, Workineh Shibeshi
BACKGROUND: Traditional healers in Ethiopia use a wide range of medicinal plants with antidiarrheal properties. Among these, Croton macrostachyus is one such plant claimed to have an antidiarrheal activity in Ethiopian folklore medicine. Previous studies showed that the crude extract is endowed with the claimed property. The present study was undertaken to further the claim by screening different fractions for the said activity so that it could serve as a basis for subsequent studies...
September 29, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Barbara S Tauk, Jonathan D Foster
OBJECTIVE: To describe the efficacy of serial charcoal hemoperfusion and hemodialysis in removing ibuprofen from a dog with severe clinical signs of toxicity. CASE SUMMARY: A dog ingested a minimum of 2,200 mg/kg of ibuprofen resulting in progressive neurologic dysfunction that progressed to a comatose state by the time of presentation. Extracorporeal charcoal hemoperfusion coupled serially with hemodialysis was performed to remove ibuprofen from this patient. Serial charcoal hemoperfusion and hemodialysis therapy resulted in complete reversal of the neurologic dysfunction in this dog...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Dennis Gacigi Kinuthia, Anne W Muriithi, Peter Waweru Mwangi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY: Diarrhea remains one of the main killers of children aged below five years. Traditional antidiarrheal remedies form a potentially viable source of novel low cost efficacious treatments in low resource settings. There is therefore a pressing need to scientifically evaluate these remedies. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the in vivo and in vitro antidiarrheal activity of freeze dried Bidens biternata, a herb used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine in the management of diarrhea...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
O O Olujimi, G R E E Ana, O O Ogunseye, V T Fabunmi
Charcoal production is often accompanied with gaseous and particulate emission into the atmosphere and occupationally exposed workers could be affected. This cross sectional comparative study was carried out to assess the levels of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM2.5) generated during the phases of charcoal production and their relationship with certain biomarkers among charcoal workers (subjects) and non-charcoal workers (controls) such as carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb), forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and body mass index (BMI) in Igbo-Ora, Oyo State and Alabata, Ogun State, which are two of the major hubs of charcoal production in South Western Nigeria...
2016: SpringerPlus
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