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Jackie Stephen Haynes
This article introduces the important issue of assessing and managing malodour. A literature review was undertaken and implications for practice identified in relation to CliniSorb. This paper presents an up-to-date 10-patient, single-site non-comparative clinical evaluation of CliniSorb using both quantitative and qualitative evidence from patients and clinicians. The data presented in this paper is used to discuss the embarrassing issue of malodour and highlights the importance for the clinician to consider this when planning patient care...
March 22, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Paramita Bera, Syamali Chakrabarti, Nitin K Gaikwad, Nithya N Kutty, Monica Barman, Adinpunya Mitra
Emitted scent volatile profile of an orchid species Zygopetalum maculatum was studied using dynamic headspace sampling technique with four different adsorbent matrices, namely Porapak Type Q polymer (mesh size: 80/100), Tenax (mesh size: 60/80), activated charcoal and graphite. In addition, developmental variations in scent emissions and endogenous volatile levels were also investigated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of 21 volatile compounds in the headspace, which was predominantly enriched with benzenoid compounds...
March 19, 2018: Natural Product Research
Andrew Young, Archana Viswanath, Mythili Kalladka, Junad Khan, Eli Eliav, Scott R Diehl
Individual differences have been observed in responses to opioid drugs, including common side effects. In this study, the inbred mouse strains A/J and C57BL/6J were used to determine whether their specific strain differences correlate with differences in susceptibility to respiratory depression and constipation. To measure the effects of morphine on respiration, morphine at 15 and 40 mg/kg was injected subcutaneously. Respiratory parameters were then measured 30 and 60 minutes later. To measure the effects on constipation, 5, 15, 40, and 60 mg/kg doses were administered subcutaneously three times daily for three days...
March 15, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Haibin Zhou, Haibo Meng, Lixin Zhao, Yujun Shen, Yueqing Hou, Hongsheng Cheng, Liqiu Song
In this study, two different biochars (sawdust charcoal (SDC) and wheat straw charcoal (WSC)) and biological humic acid (BHA) were used with different addition rates in pig manure composting to illustrate the effect on heavy metals passivation. And the composts were applied to rape (Brassica campestris L.) growth to illustrate the stability of the passivation. Results showed the concentration of Cu, Cd, and Pb increased after composting, whereas the passivation rates of Cu, Pb, and Cd reached a maximum of 94...
February 23, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Nancy A Scott, Taryn Vian, Jeanette L Kaiser, Thandiwe Ngoma, Kaluba Mataka, Elizabeth G Henry, Godfrey Biemba, Mary Nambao, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: The WHO recommends maternity waiting homes (MWH) as one intervention to improve maternal and newborn health. However, persistent structural, cultural and financial barriers in their design and implementation have resulted in mixed success in both their uptake and utilization. Guidance is needed on how to design a MWH intervention that is acceptable and sustainable. Using formative research and guided by a sustainability framework for health programs, we systematically collected data from key stakeholders and potential users in order to design a MWH intervention in Zambia that could overcome multi-dimensional barriers to accessing facility delivery, be acceptable to the community and be financially and operationally sustainable...
2018: PloS One
Belay Mekonnen, Assefa Belay Asrie, Zewdu Birhanu Wubneh
Background: Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of preventable death in developing countries and mainly affects children and infants. It has been reported that the leaf of Justicia schimperiana is used as an antidiarrheal agent in Libo Kemekem district, northwest Ethiopia. Method: The 80% methanolic leaf extract of J. schimperiana was evaluated for its activity against castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility in mice. Results: Significant reduction ( p < 0...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego, Matt W Smith, Quanbao Zhao, Tsai Garcia-Perez, Craig Frear, Manuel Garcia-Perez
Anaerobically digested fibrous solid (AD fiber) is an abundant material that offers potential to produce value-added products such as biochar. The objective of this paper is to better understand how thermochemical processing conditions affect the capacity of biochars derived from AD fiber to adsorb H2 S from biogas. AD fiber was pyrolyzed in an electric tube reactor at temperatures up to 600 °C and 60 min. The chars were employed for H2 S scrubbing tests from a synthetic biogas. Results showed that the chars' capacity for H2 S removal is comparable to that of activated carbon...
March 10, 2018: Waste Management
Wei Ling Lau, Javad Savoj, Michael B Nakata, Nosratola D Vaziri
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), influx of urea and other retained toxins exerts a change in the gut microbiome. There is decreased number of beneficial bacteria that produce short-chain fatty acids, an essential nutrient for the colonic epithelium, concurrent with an increase in bacteria that produce uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulphate, p -cresyl sulphate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Due to intestinal wall inflammation and degradation of intercellular tight junctions, gut-derived uremic toxins translocate into the bloodstream and exert systemic effects...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Xin Ke, Qinghua Bao, Yifang Qi, Xiaoyan Huang, Haijun Zhang
The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of ammonia nitrogen, metals and organic contaminants in sediment collected from the Liaohe River Protected Areas. The TIE was applied to 16 samples. The zeolite, resin, and coconut charcoal were used to mask toxicity of the three kinds of pollutants, respectively. Then quantitative analyses together with a battery of bioassays were performed to evaluate toxic effects. At last, the spiking tests were used to confirm the major contributors to toxicity. The results of toxicity identification showed the ammonia nitrogen, γ-HCHs, As and Cd may cause toxic hazards to benthic organisms...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Michele Fabri de Resende, Taila Figueredo Brasil, Beata Emoke Madari, Annibal Duarte Pereira Netto, Etelvino Henrique Novotny
The interest in charcoal for agricultural use (biochar) has sharply increased in recent years. However, biochar can contain groups of compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are considered persistent pollutants, and are formed concomitantly with biochar during its production by pyrolysis. Soil samples were collected in three experimental areas at different intervals (1, 3, 5 or 6 years) after the application of 16 Mg ha-1 of biochar. The total concentrations of PAHs; benzo[a]pyrene; and the estimated total cancer risk in biochar treated plots were larger than found in the control ones, but they decreased over time, equaling the control values after three years in the high C content soil (11...
February 23, 2018: Chemosphere
Yuntong Kou, Mike Halpenny, Heidi Elmoazzen, Sandra Ramirez-Arcos
BACKGROUND: Bacterial contamination of cord blood (CB) represents a safety risk for transplantation patients. CB sterility testing at Canadian Blood Services' Cord Blood Bank is performed using a 1:1 mix of CB-derived plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). Culture bottles of an automated culture system, which lack antimicrobial neutralization properties, are used for bacterial screening of CB. This process is unsuitable for CB-containing antibiotics, potentially resulting in false-negative results...
March 7, 2018: Transfusion
Julieta L Rojo, Martina Linari, Kelly A Young, Marina C Peluffo
PURPOSE: We hypothesized that the chemokine SDF1/CXCR4 system was present in feline cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and that COCs cultured with SDF1 would directly upregulate gene expression in the ovulatory cascade. METHODS: Ovaries (n = 50) were obtained from adult domestic cats during the breeding season and COCs were recovered from antral follicles. Because IVM media triggers cumulus-oocyte expansion, culture conditions needed to be optimized to study periovulatory genes...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Jabbar Abbas Ahmed Al-Saaidi, Khalisa Khadim Khudair, Sura Safe Aubaes Al-Kafaji
Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate the impacts of active and passive immunization against synthetic inhibin and steroid-free bovine follicular fluid, respectively, on reproductive fecundity out of breeding season in Iraqi Awassi ewes. Methods: Follicular fluid was aspired from mature bovine follicles, treated with activated charcoal, and used for immunization of male rabbits for obtaining steroid free bovine follicular fluid (SFBFF) antiserum...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Nathalie Marquez, Maria Lorena Giachero, Adrien Gallou, Humberto Debat, Sylvie Canenbrouck, Julio Di Rienzo, Maria Pozo, Daniel A Ducasse, Stéphane Declerck
Macrophomina phaseolina is a soil borne fungal pathogen with a wide host range that causes charcoal rot in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr). Control of the disease is a challenge, due to the absence of genetic resistance and effective chemical control. Alternative or complementary measures are needed, such as the use of biological control agents, in an integrated approach. Several studies have demonstrated the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in enhancing plant resistance or tolerance to biotic stresses, decreasing the symptoms and pressure caused by various pests and diseases, among which M...
March 2, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Kais Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Dhekra Grami, Mohamed Amri, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
The phytochemical composition and the effect of the green and ripe Opuntia ficus-indica juice on some gastrointestinal (GI) physiological parameters such as stomach emptying and small-intestinal motility and permeability were determined in rats administered multiple concentrations of the prickly pear juice (5, 10, and 20 mL kg-1 , b.w., p.o.). Other separate groups of rats were received, respectively; sodium chloride (0.9%, b.w., p.o.), clonidine (α-2 -adrenergic agonist, 1 mg kg-1 , b.w., i.p.), yohimbine (α-2 -adrenergic antagonist, 2 mg kg-1 , b...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
Meenu R Mridula, Ashalatha S Nair, K Satheesh Kumar
In this paper, we compared the efficacy of observation based modeling approach using a genetic algorithm with the regular statistical analysis as an alternative methodology in plant research. Preliminary experimental data on in vitro rooting was taken for this study with an aim to understand the effect of charcoal and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on successful rooting and also to optimize the two variables for maximum result. Observation-based modelling, as well as traditional approach, could identify NAA as a critical factor in rooting of the plantlets under the experimental conditions employed...
February 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Chad L Yost, Lily J Jackson, Jeffery R Stone, Andrew S Cohen
The temporal proximity of the ∼74 ka Toba supereruption to a putative 100-50 ka human population bottleneck is the basis for the volcanic winter/weak Garden of Eden hypothesis, which states that the eruption caused a 6-year-long global volcanic winter and reduced the effective population of anatomically modern humans (AMH) to fewer than 10,000 individuals. To test this hypothesis, we sampled two cores collected from Lake Malawi with cryptotephra previously fingerprinted to the Toba supereruption. Phytolith and charcoal samples were continuously collected at ∼3-4 mm (∼8-9 yr) intervals above and below the Toba cryptotephra position, with no stratigraphic breaks...
March 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Habtamu Temesgen, Wei Wu, Abiyot Legesse, Eshetu Yirsaw, Belew Bekele
Characterized by high population density on a rugged topography, the Gedeo-Abaya landscape dominantly contains a multi-strata traditional agroforests showing the insight of Gedeo farmers on natural resource management practices. Currently, this area has been losing its resilience and is becoming unable to sustain its inhabitants. Based on both RS-derived and GIS-computed land-use/cover changes (LUCC) as well as socioeconomic validations, this article explored the LUCC and agroecological-based driver patterns in Gedeo-Abaya landscape from 1986 to 2015...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Angela L Chiew, Christian Gluud, Jesper Brok, Nick A Buckley
BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most widely used non-prescription analgesic in the world. Paracetamol is commonly taken in overdose either deliberately or unintentionally. In high-income countries, paracetamol toxicity is a common cause of acute liver injury. There are various interventions to treat paracetamol poisoning, depending on the clinical status of the person. These interventions include inhibiting the absorption of paracetamol from the gastrointestinal tract (decontamination), removal of paracetamol from the vascular system, and antidotes to prevent the formation of, or to detoxify, metabolites...
February 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Y M Ananda Y Bandara, Dilooshi K Weerasooriya, Sanzhen Liu, Christopher R Little
The cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) secreted by necrotrophs are important virulence factors. Although not unequivocally demonstrated, it has been suggested that necrotrophs induce hosts to cooperate in disease development through manipulation of host CWDEs. The necrotrophic fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. (MP), causes charcoal rot disease in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. An RNA-seq experiment was conducted to investigate the behavior of sorghum CWDEs encoding genes after MP inoculation. Results revealed MP's ability to significantly up-regulate pectin methylesterase-, polygalacturonase-, cellulase-, endoglucanase-, and glycosyl hydrolase-encoding genes in a charcoal rot susceptible sorghum genotype (Tx7000), but not in a resistant genotype (SC599)...
February 21, 2018: Phytopathology
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