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Oliver hobert

Marie Gendrel, Emily G Atlas, Oliver Hobert
Neurotransmitter maps are important complements to anatomical maps and represent an invaluable resource to understand nervous system function and development. We report here a comprehensive map of neurons in the C. elegans nervous system that contain the neurotransmitter GABA, revealing twice as many GABA-positive neuron classes as previously reported. We define previously unknown glia-like cells that take up GABA, as well as 'GABA uptake neurons' which do not synthesize GABA but take it up from the extracellular environment, and we map the expression of previously uncharacterized ionotropic GABA receptors...
October 14, 2016: ELife
Meital Oren-Suissa, Emily A Bayer, Oliver Hobert
Whether and how neurons that are present in both sexes of the same species can differentiate in a sexually dimorphic manner is not well understood. A comparison of the connectomes of the Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite and male nervous systems reveals the existence of sexually dimorphic synaptic connections between neurons present in both sexes. Here we demonstrate sex-specific functions of these sex-shared neurons and show that many neurons initially form synapses in a hybrid manner in both the male and hermaphrodite pattern before sexual maturation...
May 12, 2016: Nature
Oliver Hobert
Our present day understanding of nervous system development is an amalgam of insights gained from studying different aspects and stages of nervous system development in a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate model systems, with each model system making its own distinctive set of contributions. One aspect of nervous system development that has been among the most extensively studied in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is the nature of the gene regulatory programs that specify hardwired, terminal cellular identities...
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Oliver Hobert
The analysis of the developmental programs that define many different neuron types in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has revealed common themes in how distinct terminal differentiation programs are controlled. Rather than being controlled in a piece-meal manner, terminal identity features of a mature neuron are often coregulated by so-called terminal selector transcription factors. Here, I summarize the terminal selector concept and emphasize core features of this concept in the C. elegans system such as coregulation of terminal effector batteries, combinatorial control mechanisms, and the coupling of initiation and maintenance of neuronal identity...
2016: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Kelly Howell, Oliver Hobert
The integrity of neural circuits must be maintained throughout the lifetime of an organism. In this issue of Neuron, Cherra and Jin (2016) characterize a small, two-Ig domain protein, ZIG-10, and its role in maintaining synaptic density in a specific set of C. elegans neurons.
January 20, 2016: Neuron
Paola Arlotta, Oliver Hobert
Homeosis is classically defined as the transformation of one body part into something that resembles another body part. We propose here to broaden the concept of homeosis to the many neuronal cell identity transformations that have been uncovered over the past few years upon removal of specific regulatory factors in organisms from Caenorhabditis elegans to Drosophila, zebrafish, and mice. The concept of homeosis provides a framework for the evolution of cell type diversity in the brain.
December 2015: Trends in Neurosciences
Amel Alqadah, Yi-Wen Hsieh, Berta Vidal, Chieh Chang, Oliver Hobert, Chiou-Fen Chuang
Diversification of neuron classes is essential for functions of the olfactory system, but the underlying mechanisms that generate individual olfactory neuron types are only beginning to be understood. Here we describe a role of the highly conserved HMG-box transcription factor SOX-2 in postmitotic specification and alternative differentiation of the Caenorhabditis elegans AWC and AWB olfactory neurons. We show that SOX-2 partners with different transcription factors to diversify postmitotic olfactory cell types...
October 14, 2015: EMBO Journal
Nikolaos Stefanakis, Ines Carrera, Oliver Hobert
While neuronal cell types display an astounding degree of phenotypic diversity, most if not all neuron types share a core panel of terminal features. However, little is known about how pan-neuronal expression patterns are genetically programmed. Through an extensive analysis of the cis-regulatory control regions of a battery of pan-neuronal C. elegans genes, including genes involved in synaptic vesicle biology and neuropeptide signaling, we define a common organizational principle in the regulation of pan-neuronal genes in the form of a surprisingly complex array of seemingly redundant, parallel-acting cis-regulatory modules that direct expression to broad, overlapping domains throughout the nervous system...
August 19, 2015: Neuron
Berta Vidal, Anthony Santella, Esther Serrano-Saiz, Zhirong Bao, Chiou-Fen Chuang, Oliver Hobert
Neurogenesis involves deeply conserved patterning molecules, such as the proneural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Sox proteins and specifically members of the SoxB and SoxC groups are another class of conserved transcription factors with an important role in neuronal fate commitment and differentiation in various species. In this study, we examine the expression of all five Sox genes of the nematode C. elegans and analyze the effect of null mutant alleles of all members of the SoxB and SoxC groups on nervous system development...
July 15, 2015: Development
Patricia M Gordon, Oliver Hobert
Neuron identity transformations occur upon removal of specific regulatory factors in many different cellular contexts, thereby revealing the fundamental principle of alternative cell identity choices made during nervous system development. One common molecular interpretation of such homeotic cell identity transformations is that a regulatory factor has a dual function in activating genes defining one cellular identity and repressing genes that define an alternative identity. We provide evidence for an alternative, competition-based mechanism...
July 27, 2015: Developmental Cell
Kelly Howell, John G White, Oliver Hobert
Synapse formation is a process tightly controlled in space and time. How gene regulatory mechanisms specify spatial and temporal aspects of synapse formation is not well understood. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, two subtypes of the D-type inhibitory motor neuron (MN) classes, the dorsal D (DD) and ventral D (VD) neurons, extend axons along both the dorsal and ventral nerve cords. The embryonically generated DD motor neurons initially innervate ventral muscles in the first (L1) larval stage and receive their synaptic input from cholinergic motor neurons in the dorsal cord...
July 2, 2015: Nature
Sabrina Murgan, Willi Kari, Ute Rothbächer, Magali Iché-Torres, Pauline Mélénec, Oliver Hobert, Vincent Bertrand
Transcription factors of the TCF family are key mediators of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. TCF usually activates transcription on cis-regulatory elements containing TCF binding sites when the pathway is active and represses transcription when the pathway is inactive. However, some direct targets display an opposite regulation (activated by TCF in the absence of Wnt), but the mechanism behind this atypical regulation remains poorly characterized. Here, we use the cis-regulatory region of an opposite target gene, ttx-3, to dissect the mechanism of this atypical regulation...
June 22, 2015: Developmental Cell
Paschalis Kratsios, Bérangère Pinan-Lucarré, Sze Yen Kerk, Alexis Weinreb, Jean-Louis Bessereau, Oliver Hobert
During nervous system development, postmitotic neurons face the challenge of generating and structurally organizing specific synapses with appropriate synaptic partners. An important unexplored question is whether the process of synaptogenesis is coordinated with the adoption of specific signaling properties of a neuron. Such signaling properties are defined by the neurotransmitter system that a neuron uses to communicate with postsynaptic partners, the neurotransmitter receptor type used to receive input from presynaptic neurons, and, potentially, other sensory receptors that activate a neuron...
May 18, 2015: Current Biology: CB
Daniel P Woods, Thomas S Ream, Gregory Minevich, Oliver Hobert, Richard M Amasino
We show that in the temperate grass, Brachypodium distachyon, PHYTOCHROME C (PHYC), is necessary for photoperiodic flowering. In loss-of-function phyC mutants, flowering is extremely delayed in inductive photoperiods. PHYC was identified as the causative locus by utilizing a mapping by sequencing pipeline (Cloudmap) optimized for identification of induced mutations in Brachypodium. In phyC mutants the expression of Brachypodium homologs of key flowering time genes in the photoperiod pathway such as GIGANTEA (GI), PHOTOPERIOD 1 (PPD1/PRR37), CONSTANS (CO), and florigen/FT are greatly attenuated...
September 2014: Genetics
Oded Rechavi, Leah Houri-Ze'evi, Sarit Anava, Wee Siong Sho Goh, Sze Yen Kerk, Gregory J Hannon, Oliver Hobert
Evidence from animal studies and human famines suggests that starvation may affect the health of the progeny of famished individuals. However, it is not clear whether starvation affects only immediate offspring or has lasting effects; it is also unclear how such epigenetic information is inherited. Small RNA-induced gene silencing can persist over several generations via transgenerationally inherited small RNA molecules in C. elegans, but all known transgenerational silencing responses are directed against foreign DNA introduced into the organism...
July 17, 2014: Cell
Marnie E Halpern, Oliver Hobert, Christopher V E Wright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2014: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Evan S Deneris, Oliver Hobert
The identity of specific cell types in the nervous system is defined by the expression of neuron type-specific gene batteries. How the expression of such batteries is initiated during nervous system development has been under intensive study over the past few decades. However, comparatively little is known about how gene batteries that define the terminally differentiated state of a neuron type are maintained throughout the life of an animal. Here we provide an overview of studies in invertebrate and vertebrate model systems that have carved out the general and not commonly appreciated principle that neuronal identity is maintained in postmitotic neurons by the sustained, and often autoregulated, expression of the same transcription factors that initiate terminal differentiation in a developing organism...
July 2014: Nature Neuroscience
Archana Nagarajan, Ye Ning, Kaja Reisner, Zafir Buraei, Jan Petter Larsen, Oliver Hobert, Maria Doitsidou
Progressive neurodegenerative diseases are among the most frequently occurring aging-associated human pathologies. In a screen for Caenorhabditis elegans mutant animals that lack their normal complement of dopaminergic neurons, we identified two strains with progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons during postembryonic life. Through whole-genome sequencing we show that both strains harbor dominant (d), gain-of-function mutations in the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) mechanosensory channel trp-4, a member of the invertebrate and vertebrate TRPN-type of the TRP family channels...
April 23, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Lori Glenwinkel, Di Wu, Gregory Minevich, Oliver Hobert
The identification of the regulatory targets of transcription factors is central to our understanding of how transcription factors fulfill their many key roles in development and homeostasis. DNA-binding sites have been uncovered for many transcription factors through a number of experimental approaches, but it has proven difficult to use this binding site information to reliably predict transcription factor target genes in genomic sequence space. Using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and other related nematode species as a starting point, we describe here a bioinformatic pipeline that identifies potential transcription factor target genes from genomic sequences...
May 2014: Genetics
Oliver Hobert
Despite their gross morphological symmetry, animal nervous systems can perceive and process information in a left/right asymmetric manner. How left/right asymmetric functional features develop in the context of a bilaterally symmetric structure is a very poorly understood problem, in part because very few morphological or molecular correlates of functional asymmetries have been identified so far in vertebrate or invertebrate nervous systems. One of the very few systems in which a molecular correlate for functional lateralization has been uncovered is the taste sensory system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is composed of a pair of bilaterally symmetric neurons, ASE left (ASEL) and ASE right (ASER)...
June 2014: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
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