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Johannes Thrul, Danielle E Ramo
BACKGROUND: Young adults underutilize current evidence-based smoking cessation strategies; yet social media are widely used and accepted among this population. A better understanding of whether and how young adults try to quit smoking in the context of a social media smoking cessation intervention could inform future intervention improvements. OBJECTIVES: We examined frequency, strategies used, and predictors of self-initiated 24-hour quit attempts among young adults participating in a Facebook intervention...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Vita Wonoputri, Cindy Gunawan, Sanly Liu, Nicolas Barraud, Lachlan Hartley Yee, May Lim, Rose Amal
In this study, we developed a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-solvent casted mixed metal copper and iron complexes capable of catalytic generation of the antibiofilm nitric oxide (NO) from endogenous nitrite. In the absence of additional reducing agent, we demonstrated that the presence of iron complex facilitates a redox cycling, converting the copper(II) complex to active copper(I) species, which catalyzes the generation of NO from nitrite. Assessed by protein assay and surface coverage analyses, the presence of the mixed metal complexes in systems containing water industry-relevant nitrite-producing nitrifying biofilms was shown to result in a 'non-toxic mode' of biofilm suppression, while confining the bacterial growth to the free-floating planktonic phase...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Teresa Stemeseder, Eva Klinglmayr, Stephanie Moser, Lisa Lueftenegger, Roland Lang, Martin Himly, Gertie J Oostingh, Joerg Zumbach, Arne C Bathke, Thomas Hawranek, Gabriele Gadermaier
BACKGROUND: Allergen specific IgE antibodies are a hallmark of type I allergy. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the sensitization profiles of an Austrian adolescent population utilizing molecule-based IgE diagnosis. METHODS: Serum samples of 501 non-selected pupils from Salzburg, Austria, were tested in ImmunoCAP ISAC(®) for IgE reactivity to 112 single allergens. Sensitization profiles were assessed and statistically coordinated with reported allergies...
October 18, 2016: Allergy
Courtney M Peterson, John W Apolzan, Courtney Wright, Corby K Martin
We conducted two studies to test the validity, reliability, feasibility and acceptability of using video chat technology to quantify dietary and pill-taking (i.e. supplement and medication) adherence. In study 1, we investigated whether video chat technology can accurately quantify adherence to dietary and pill-taking interventions. Mock study participants ate food items and swallowed pills, while performing randomised scripted 'cheating' behaviours to mimic non-adherence. Monitoring was conducted in a cross-over design, with two monitors watching in-person and two watching remotely by Skype on a smartphone...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Alia Alghwiri, Gregory Marchetti
PURPOSE: To investigate the point prevalence of upper back pain (UBP) and lower back pain (LBP) in Jordanian schoolteachers and to estimate the work-related reported disability. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was used to assess back pain in a convenience sample of teachers in Jordan. Crude and weighted prevalence estimates of self-reported spinal pain and limited productivity were described. Demographic and occupational factors associated with self-reported pain and limited productivity were identified by multinomial/logistic regression...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Matthias Oelke, Peter Anderson, Robert Wood, Tove Holm-Larsen
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the quality and timing of the diagnosis and treatment of nocturia in real-life practice in European and US-American patients to obtain better insights into the management of nocturia in different Western healthcare systems. METHODS: Data were drawn from the "LUTS Disease Specific Programme," a real-life survey of physicians and patients in France, Germany, Spain, UK and the USA. Physicians completed a patient record form for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) patients...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Eric S Orwoll, Jodi Lapidus, Patty Y Wang, Liesbeth Vandenput, Andrew Hoffman, Howard Fink, Gail A Laughlin, Maria Nethander, Östen Ljunggren, Andreas Kindmark, Mattias Lorentzon, Magnus Karlsson, Dan Mellström, Anthony Kwok, Sundeep Khosla, Timothy Kwok, Claes Ohlsson
Measurement of serum testosterone (T) levels is recommended in the evaluation of osteoporosis in older men and estradiol (E2) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are associated with the rate of bone loss and fractures, but the clinical utility of sex steroid and SHBG measurements for the evaluation of osteoporosis in men has not been examined. To evaluate whether measurements of T, E2 and/or SHBG are useful for the prediction of fracture risk or the rate of bone loss in older men, we analyzed longitudinal data from 5487 community-based men participating in the MrOS Study in the US, Sweden and Hong Kong...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Chris S Ivanoff, Krassimira Yaneva, Diana Luan, Bogomil Andonov, Reena R Kumar, Anirudha Agnihotry, Athena E Ivanoff, Dimitrios Emmanouil, Luiz Evaristo Ricci Volpato, Filip Koneski, Ilijana Muratovska, Huda A Al-Shehri, Sara M Al-Taweel, Michele Daly
BACKGROUND: Training culturally competent graduates who can practice effectively in a multicultural environment is a goal of contemporary dental education. The Global Oral Health Initiative is a network of dental schools seeking to promote global dentistry as a component of cultural competency training. OBJECTIVE: Before initiating international student exchanges, a survey was conducted to assess students' awareness of global dentistry and interest in cross-national clerkships...
October 18, 2016: International Dental Journal
Cheng K Fred Wen, Stephanie Hsieh, Jimi Huh, Lauren Cook Martinez, Jamie N Davis, Marc Weigensberg, Donna Spruijt-Metz
BACKGROUND: Dietary fiber and sugar intake have been shown to affect metabolic health in overweight Hispanic youth. Evidence on the influence of culture on fiber and sugar intake in Hispanic youth is limited. METHODS: The associations among score for levels of assimilation, neighborhood ethnic characteristics, and daily total and added dietary sugar and dietary fiber intake were assessed using regression analyses. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-four Hispanic youth (age = 13...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Laura Q Rogers, Kerry S Courneya, Phillip M Anton, Patricia Hopkins-Price, Steven Verhulst, Randall S Robbs, Sandra K Vicari, Edward McAuley
BACKGROUND: Most breast cancer survivors do not meet physical activity recommendations. Understanding mediators of physical activity behavior change can improve interventions designed to increase physical activity in this at-risk population. PURPOSE: Study aims were to determine the 3-month Better Exercise Adherence after Treatment for Cancer (BEAT Cancer) behavior change intervention effects on social cognitive theory constructs and the mediating role of any changes on the increase in accelerometer-measured physical activity previously reported...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Richard W Handel
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent-Restructured Form (MMPI-A-RF; Archer, Handel, Ben-Porath, & Tellegen, 2016) is a new broadband measure of adolescent psychopathology and personality. The MMPI-A-RF is the adolescent counterpart of the MMPI-2-RF (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011). The goal of the MMPI-2-RF development project was to capture the clinically significant substance of the MMPI-2 item pool with a psychometrically sound measure linked to contemporary models of personality and psychopathology (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
N Berndt, H de Vries, L Lechner, F Van Acker, E S Froelicher, F Verheugt, A Mudde, C Bolman
BACKGROUND: Without assistance, smokers being admitted to the hospital for coronary heart disease often return to regular smoking within a year. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the 12-month effectiveness of a telephone and a face-to-face counselling intervention on smoking abstinence among cardiac patients. Differential effects for subgroups varying in their socioeconomic status and intention to quit smoking were also studied. METHODS: A randomised controlled trial was used...
October 17, 2016: Netherlands Heart Journal
Ivy Shiue
There has been a growing interest in how the built environment affects health and well-being. Housing characteristics are associated with human health while environmental chemicals could have mediated the effects. However, it is unclear if and how residence duration might have a role in health and well-being. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the associations among residence duration, common chronic diseases, and cognitive function in older adults in a national and population-based setting...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sheri J Hartman, Shira I Dunsiger, Beth C Bock, Britta A Larsen, Sarah Linke, Dori Pekmezi, Becky Marquez, Kim M Gans, Andrea S Mendoza-Vasconez, Bess H Marcus
Spanish-speaking Latinas have some of the lowest rates of meeting physical activity guidelines in the U.S. and are at high risk for many related chronic diseases. The purpose of the current study was to examine the maintenance of a culturally and individually-tailored Internet-based physical activity intervention for Spanish-speaking Latinas. Inactive Latinas (N  =  205) were randomly assigned to a 6-month Tailored Physical Activity Internet Intervention or a Wellness Contact Control Internet Group, with a 6-month follow-up...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Ritch C Savin-Williams, Brian M Cash, Mark McCormack, Gerulf Rieger
This exploratory study assessed physiological, behavioral, and self-report measures of sexual and romantic indicators of sexual orientation identities among young men (mean age = 21.9 years) with predominant same-sex sexual and romantic interests: those who described themselves as bisexual leaning gay (n = 11), mostly gay (n = 17), and gay (n = 47). Although they were not significantly distinguishable based on physiological (pupil dilation) responses to nude stimuli, on behavioral and self-report measures a descending linear trend toward the less preferred sex (female) was significant regarding sexual attraction, fantasy, genital contact, infatuation, romantic relationship, sex appeal, and gazing time to the porn stimuli...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Drew A Kingston, Franklyn J Graham, Raymond A Knight
Hypersexuality, or extreme normophilic sexual urges and behaviors, is a controversial construct that was recently considered as a candidate disorder for the DSM-5 and was rejected. It was also rejected for inclusion in Section III (Conditions for Further Study). Nonetheless, it has been found to be an important predictor of recidivism among sex offenders, and it continues to be discussed widely in the literature. In the present study, we investigated the developmental roots of this construct in a sample of 529 adult male sexual offenders, who were administered the Multidimensional Assessment of Sex and Aggression...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Tyrel J Starks, Michael A Castro, Juan P Castiblanco, Brett M Millar
The existing literature has identified that beliefs about the interpersonal meaning of condom use are a significant predictor of condomless anal sex (CAS). Some have suggested that condom use in this context may function as a form of nonverbal communication. This study utilized attachment theory as a framework and tested a hypothesized model linking adult attachment to CAS through communication skills and condom expectancies. An online survey was completed by 122 single, HIV-negative gay and bisexual (GB) men living in the U...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Daniel Joel Shaw, Kristína Czekóová, Michaela Porubanová
Accurate distinction between self and other representations is fundamental to a range of social cognitive capacities, and understanding individual differences in this ability is an important aim for psychological research. This demands accurate measures of self-other distinction (SOD). The present study examined an experimental paradigm employed frequently to measure SOD in the action domain; specifically, we evaluated the rotated finger-action stimuli used increasingly to measure automatic imitation (AI). To assess the suitability of these stimuli, we compared AI elicited by different action stimuli to the performance on a perspective-taking task believed to measure SOD in the perception domain...
October 17, 2016: Psychological Research
Maya B Mathur, Michael Gould, Nayer Khazeni
Background: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements are thought to induce "boomerang effects," meaning they reduce the perceived effectiveness of a potential alternative option: non-pharmaceutical treatment via lifestyle change. Past research has observed such effects using artificially created, text-only advertisements that may not adequate capture the complex, conflicting portrayal of lifestyle change in real television advertisements. In other risk domains, individual "problem status" often moderates boomerang effects, such that subjects who currently engage in the risky behavior exhibit the strongest boomerang effects...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Mayadah B Shehadeh, Ghadeer A R Y Suaifan, Eman A Hammad
Misconception about antibiotics use among the public has been widely outlined to be a main reason for inappropriate use of antibiotics including failure to complete treatment, skipping of doses, re-use of leftover medicines and overuse of antibiotics. The study was devised to evaluate whether education might be a potential strategy to promote safer use of antibiotics and reducing self-medication. Two hundred seventy one adults were asked to complete two questionnaires; a pre and posteducation. The questionnaires comprised of three parts consisting of 17 statements assessing the knowledge on: appropriate use, safe use and resistance of antibiotics...
September 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
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