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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103288/child-staff-ratios-in-early-childhood-education-and-care-settings-and-child-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Michal Perlman, Brooke Fletcher, Olesya Falenchuk, Ashley Brunsek, Evelyn McMullen, Prakesh S Shah
Child-staff ratios are a key quality indicator in early childhood education and care (ECEC) programs. Better ratios are believed to improve child outcomes by increasing opportunities for individual interactions and educational instruction from staff. The purpose of this systematic review, and where possible, meta-analysis, was to evaluate the association between child-staff ratios in preschool ECEC programs and children's outcomes. Searches of Medline, PsycINFO, ERIC, websites of large datasets and reference sections of all retrieved articles were conducted up to July 3, 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101732/the-analysis-of-knee-joint-loading-during-drop-landing-from-different-heights-and-under-different-instruction-sets-in-healthy-males
#2
Dmitry Verniba, Jason D Vescovi, David A Hood, William H Gage
BACKGROUND: Mechanical loading during exercise has been shown to promote tissue remodeling. Safe and accessible exercise may be beneficial to populations at risk of diminished bone and joint health. We examined the effect of drop height and instruction on knee loading during a drop-landing task and proposed a task that makes use of drop heights that may be appropriate for rehabilitation purposes and functional in daily life to examine transient knee joint loads. METHODS: Twenty males (22...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098558/platelet-derived-growth-factor-pdgf-signaling-directs-cardiomyocyte-movement-toward-the-midline-during-heart-tube-assembly
#3
Joshua Bloomekatz, Reena Singh, Owen Wj Prall, Ariel C Dunn, Megan Vaughan, Chin-San Loo, Richard P Harvey, Deborah Yelon
Communication between neighboring tissues plays a central role in guiding organ morphogenesis. During heart tube assembly, interactions with the adjacent endoderm control the medial movement of cardiomyocytes, a process referred to as cardiac fusion. However, the molecular underpinnings of this endodermal-myocardial relationship remain unclear. Here, we show an essential role for platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (Pdgfra) in directing cardiac fusion. Mutation of pdgfra disrupts heart tube assembly in both zebrafish and mouse...
January 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098410/juror-decision-making-in-death-penalty-sentencing-when-presented-with-defendant-s-history-of-child-abuse-or-neglect
#4
Lisa L Bell Holleran, Tyler J Vaughan, Donna M Vandiver
Previous studies have found aggravating, mitigating, and null effects of defendant histories of abuse and neglect on punishment preferences in capital sentencing. Perceiving these defendants as more dangerous, jurors may be more likely to favor the death penalty when such evidence is presented. This is counter to the intuition that abuse or neglect reduces culpability, and therefore mitigates the severity of punishment. We investigated the effect of defendant childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect on the probability of a prospective juror preferring the death penalty in an between-subject experimental design...
January 18, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095555/megasessions-for-robotic-hair-restoration
#5
Joa O Carlos Pereira, Joa O Carlos Pereira Filho, Joa O Pedro Cabrera Pereira
A robotic system can select and remove individual hair follicles from the donor area with great precision and without fatigue. This report describes the use of the robotic system in a megasession for hair restoration. Patients were instructed to cut their hair to 1.0 to 1.2 mm before surgery. The robot selected and removed 600 to 800 grafts per hour so the follicular units (FU)s could be transplanted manually to recipient sites. The robot arm consists of a sharp inner punch and a blunt outer punch which together separate FUs from the sur- rounding tissue...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094320/improved-motor-performance-in-patients-with-acute-stroke-using-the-optimal-individual-attentional-strategy
#6
Takeshi Sakurada, Takeshi Nakajima, Mitsuya Morita, Masahiro Hirai, Eiju Watanabe
It is believed that motor performance improves when individuals direct attention to movement outcome (external focus, EF) rather than to body movement itself (internal focus, IF). However, our previous study found that an optimal individual attentional strategy depended on motor imagery ability. We explored whether the individual motor imagery ability in stroke patients also affected the optimal attentional strategy for motor control. Individual motor imagery ability was determined as either kinesthetic- or visual-dominant by a questionnaire in 28 patients and 28 healthy-controls...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092119/preserved-affective-sharing-but-impaired-decoding-of-contextual-complex-emotions-in-alcohol-dependence
#7
Delphine Grynberg, Pierre Maurage, Jean-Louis Nandrino
BACKGROUND: Prior research has repeatedly shown that alcohol dependence is associated with a large range of impairments in psychological processes, which could lead to interpersonal deficits. Specifically, it has been suggested that these interpersonal difficulties are underpinned by reduced recognition and sharing of others' emotional states. However, this pattern of deficits remains to be clarified. The present study thus aimed to investigate whether alcohol dependence is associated with impaired abilities in decoding contextual complex emotions and with altered sharing of others' emotions...
January 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092044/high-throughput-quantification-of-sh2-domain-phosphopeptide-interactions-with-cellulose-peptide-conjugate-microarrays
#8
Brett W Engelmann
The Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain family primarily recognizes phosphorylated tyrosine (pY) containing peptide motifs. The relative affinity preferences among competing SH2 domains for phosphopeptide ligands define "specificity space," and underpins many functional pY mediated interactions within signaling networks. The degree of promiscuity exhibited and the dynamic range of affinities supported by individual domains or phosphopeptides is best resolved by a carefully executed and controlled quantitative high-throughput experiment...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088763/scater-pre-processing-quality-control-normalization-and-visualization-of-single-cell-rna-seq-data-in-r
#9
Davis J McCarthy, Kieran R Campbell, Aaron T L Lun, Quin F Wills
MOTIVATION: Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) is increasingly used to study gene expression at the level of individual cells. However, preparing raw sequence data for further analysis is not a straightforward process. Biases, artifacts and other sources of unwanted variation are present in the data, requiring substantial time and effort to be spent on pre-processing, quality control (QC) and normalization. RESULTS: We have developed the R/Bioconductor package scater to facilitate rigorous pre-processing, quality control, normalization and visualization of scRNA-seq data...
January 14, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088351/neural-activity-reveals-perceptual-grouping-in-working-memory
#10
Laura R Rabbitt, Daniel M Roberts, Craig G McDonald, Matthew S Peterson
There is extensive evidence that the contralateral delay activity (CDA), a scalp recorded event-related brain potential, provides a reliable index of the number of objects held in visual working memory. Here we present evidence that the CDA not only indexes visual object working memory, but also the number of locations held in spatial working memory. In addition, we demonstrate that the CDA can be predictably modulated by the type of encoding strategy employed. When individual locations were held in working memory, the pattern of CDA modulation mimicked previous findings for visual object working memory...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087496/digital-pills-to-measure-opioid-ingestion-patterns-in-emergency-department-patients-with-acute-fracture-pain-a-pilot-study
#11
Peter R Chai, Stephanie Carreiro, Brendan J Innes, Rochelle K Rosen, Conall O'Cleirigh, Kenneth H Mayer, Edward W Boyer
BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to prescribed regimens for opioid analgesic agents contributes to increasing opioid abuse and overdose death. Opioids are frequently prescribed on an as-needed basis, placing the responsibility to determine opioid dose and frequency with the patient. There is wide variability in physician prescribing patterns because of the lack of data describing how patients actually use as-needed opioid analgesics. Digital pill systems have a radiofrequency emitter that directly measures medication ingestion events, and they provide an opportunity to discover the dose, timing, and duration of opioid therapy...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077307/impulsivity-and-test-meal-intake-among-women-with-bulimia-nervosa
#12
Robyn Sysko, Rachel Ojserkis, Janet Schebendach, Suzette M Evans, Tom Hildebrandt, B Timothy Walsh
Many patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) also meet criteria for a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD). In order to understand possible mechanisms contributing to the co-occurrence and perpetuation of these disorders, this study investigated the importance of impulsivity and test meal intake among patients with BN by comparing women with BN only (n = 18), BN and current/past AUDs (n = 13), and healthy controls (n = 12). All participants completed assessments of eating disorder symptoms, frequency of alcohol use, binge eating, and purging via questionnaires and semi-structured interviews over two sessions...
January 7, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076252/a-clinical-aid-for-detecting-skin-cancer-the-triage-amalgamated-dermoscopic-algorithm-tada
#13
T Rogers, M L Marino, S W Dusza, S Bajaj, R P Usatine, M A Marchetti, A A Marghoob
PURPOSE: Family physicians (FPs) frequently evaluate skin lesions but may not have the necessary training to accurately and confidently identify lesions that require skin biopsy or specialist referral. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of a new, simplified dermoscopy algorithm for skin cancer detection. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, observation study, attendees of a dermoscopy course evaluated 50 polarized dermoscopy images of skin lesions (27 malignant and 23 benign) using the Triage Amalgamated Dermoscopic Algorithm (TADA)...
November 2016: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070785/understanding-behavioural-rigidity-in-autism-spectrum-conditions-the-role-of-intentional-control
#14
Edita Poljac, Vincent Hoofs, Myrthe M Princen, Ervin Poljac
Although behavioural rigidity belongs to the core symptoms of autism spectrum conditions, little is known about its underlying cognitive mechanisms. The current study investigated the role of intentional control mechanisms in behavioural rigidity in autism. Autistic individuals and their matched controls were instructed to repeatedly choose between two simple cognitive tasks and to respond accordingly to the subsequently presented stimulus. Results showed that autistic participants chose to repeat tasks more often than their controls and when choosing to switch, they demonstrated larger performance costs...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070688/pharmacists-and-patients-feedback-on-empirically-designed-prescription-warning-labels-a-qualitative-study
#15
Olayinka O Shiyanbola, Paul D Smith, Yen-Ming Huang, Sonal Ghura Mansukhani
Background Recommendations call for the inclusion of both patient and provider input in the redesign of prescription labels. Pharmacist opinions on prescription warning labels are important because they are the health providers who would eventually distribute and explain the revised labels during medication counseling. They may be the first health provider to notice a patient's misunderstanding on how to safely use their prescription medications. Objectives To explore the perspectives of patients and pharmacists on five newly designed PWLs, and examine if there were similarities and differences between patients' and pharmacists' perspectives...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069921/visual-stimulus-speed-does-not-influence-the-rapid-emergence-of-direction-selectivity-in-ferret-visual-cortex
#16
Neil J Ritter, Nora M Anderson, Stephen D Van Hooser
: Sensory experience is necessary for the development of some receptive field properties of neurons in primary sensory cortical areas. However, it remains unclear whether the parameters of an individual animal's experience play an instructive role and influence the tuning parameters of cortical sensory neurons as selectivity emerges, or rather if experience merely permits the completion of processes that are fully seeded at the onset of experience. Here we have examined whether the speed of visual stimuli that are presented to visually naïve ferrets can influence the parameters of speed tuning and direction selectivity in cortical neurons...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065192/cognition-and-culture-in-evolutionary-context
#17
Fernando Colmenares, María Victoria Hernández-Lloreda
In humans and other animals, the individuals' ability to adapt efficiently and effectively to the niches they have actively contributed to construct relies heavily on an evolved psychology which has been shaped by biological, social, and cultural processes over evolutionary time. As expected, although many of the behavioral and cognitive components of this evolved psychology are widely shared across species, many others are species-unique. Although many animal species are known to acquire group-specific traditions (or cultures) via social learning, human culture is unique in terms of its contents and characteristics (observable and unobservable products, cumulative effects, norm conformity, and norm enforcement) and of its cognitive underpinnings (imitation, instructed teaching, and language)...
January 9, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060230/return-to-function-complication-and-reoperation-rates-following-primary-pectoralis-major-tendon-repair-in-military-service-members
#18
Drew W Nute, Nicholas Kusnezov, John C Dunn, Brian R Waterman
BACKGROUND: Pectoralis major tendon ruptures have become increasingly common injuries among young, active individuals over the past 30 years; however, there is presently a paucity of reported outcome data. We investigated the ability to return to full preoperative level of function, complications, reoperation rates, and risk factors for failure following surgical repair of the pectoralis major tendon in a cohort of young, highly active individuals. METHODS: All U...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058947/the-learning-curve-for-veterinary-surgery-residents-performing-hemilaminectomy-surgeries-in-dogs
#19
Owen T Fink, Raymond C Boston, Tracy Wu, Dorothy Cimino Brown, Jeffrey J Runge
OBJECTIVE To describe the learning curve for veterinary surgery residents performing hemilaminectomy surgeries in dogs. DESIGN Retrospective case review and learning curve evaluation. SAMPLE 13 individuals who completed a 3-year surgery residency program at a university teaching hospital and who had no prior experience performing hemilaminectomies. PROCEDURES The 13 residents performed hemilaminectomies on 399 dogs between July 2006 and July 2013. Medical records were reviewed, and operative time was recorded...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057502/variations-of-the-morris-water-maze-task-to-comparatively-assess-human-and-rodent-place-navigation
#20
Robby Schoenfeld, Thomas Schiffelholz, Christian Beyer, Bernd Leplow, Nigel Foreman
Performance in the Morris water maze has been widely used in routine behavioural studies of rodents. Since the advent of computer-based virtual environments, adaptations of the water maze have become available for human research. Despite decades of comparative neuroscience, formal comparisons of human and animal place navigation performance are rarely. We studied 36 subjects, 18 young male mice in a Morris water maze and 18 male students in a virtual version. Quantitative measures (escape latencies, distances and platform crossings) indicated no discernable differences between human and rodent performance, reinforcing the task's general validity and its implied cross-species comparability...
January 2, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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