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Antonella Putignano, Thierry Gustot
Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure (ACLF) is a recently defined syndrome that occurs frequently in patients with cirrhosis and is associated with a poor short-term prognosis. Currently, management of patients with ACLF is mainly supportive. Despite medical progress, this syndrome frequently leads to multi-organ failure, sepsis, and, ultimately, death. The results of attempts to use liver transplantation (LT) to manage this critical condition have been poorly reported but are promising. Currently, selection criteria of ACLF patients for LT, instructions for prioritization on the waiting list, and objective indicators for removal of ACLF patients from the waiting list in cases of clinical deterioration are poorly defined...
October 17, 2016: Liver Transplantation
Julia Schellong, Franziska Epple, Kerstin Weidner, Andrea Möllering
A non-neglectable portion of people that have fled to Germany have been subjected to expulsion, violence, torture and grave human loss. In some of them, signs of secondary mental problems are obvious. In the light of the efforts at integration, these diseases must not be neglected. Outlined are the federal legal requirements and how the cost coverage, as well as the admission to health care system, is structured. Additionally, 2 exemplary regional models for psychosomatic health care are being introduced: Dresden's "Stepped Care Model for Psychologically Vulnerable Refugees" includes phased offers for prevention and treatment of acute mental crises, as well as somatoform disorders in refugees and their volunteer helpers...
October 17, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Debbie Van Biesen, Florentina Hettinga, Katina McCulloch, Yves C Vanlandewijck
PURPOSE: To understand how athletes invest their energy over a race, differences in pacing ability between athletes with and without intellectual impairment (II) were explored using a novel field test. METHODS: Well-trained runners (n=67) participated in this study, including 34 runners with II (age = 24.4 ± 4.5 years; IQ = 63.1 ± 7.7) and 33 runners without II (age = 31.4 ± 11.2 years). The ability to perform at a pre-planned submaximal pace was assessed. Two 400m running trials were performed on an athletics track, with an individually standardized velocity...
October 5, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Dana Wong, Kelly Sinclair, Elizabeth Seabrook, Adam McKay, Jennie Ponsford
PURPOSE: Smartphones have great potential as a convenient, multifunction tool to support cognition and independence following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there has been limited investigation of their helpful and less helpful aspects for people with TBI. We aimed to investigate patterns of smartphone use amongst individuals with TBI, identify potential barriers to use, and examine the relationships between smartphone use and daily functioning. METHOD: Twenty-nine participants with TBI and 33 non-injured participants completed the Smartphone Survey, and measures of subjective and objective cognitive functioning, mood, and community integration...
October 17, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
Ryan S Hsi, Thomas Sanford, David S Goldfarb, Marshall L Stoller
PURPOSE: Kidney stone prevention relies on the 24-hour urine collection to diagnose metabolic abnormalities and direct dietary and pharmacologic therapy. While its use is guideline-supported for high risk and interested patients, evidence that the test can accurately predict recurrence or treatment response is limited. We sought to critically reassess the role of the 24-hour urine collection in stone prevention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In addition to a MEDLINE® search to identify controlled studies of dietary and pharmacologic interventions, evidence supporting the AUA and EAU guidelines for metabolic stone prevention were evaluated...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Urology
Michelle L Ipjian, Carol S Johnston
OBJECTIVES: Many individuals are advised to adhere to specific diet plans for their personal health; hence, it is important that tools are available to support these behaviors. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist health care professionals in educating their clients on specific dietary modifications. This pilot study focused on a single dietary modification, reducing sodium intake, to determine whether a commercial health app is useful for promoting dietary change. METHODS: Thirty healthy adults (age 34...
August 24, 2016: Nutrition
Sabrina Schuck, Natasha Emmerson, Hadar Ziv, Penelope Collins, Sara Arastoo, Mark Warschauer, Francis Crinella, Kimberley Lakes
Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) receive approximately 80% of instruction in the general education classroom, where individualized behavioral management strategies may be difficult for teachers to consistently deliver. Mobile device apps provide promising platforms to manage behavior. This pilot study evaluated the utility of a web-based application (iSelfControl) designed to support classroom behavior management. iSelfControl prompted students every 'Center' (30-minutes) to self-evaluate using a universal token-economy classroom management system focused on compliance, productivity, and positive relationships...
2016: PloS One
Daniel S Lemke, Elaine K Fielder, Deborah C Hsu, Cara B Doughty
INTRODUCTION: Simulation-based medical education (SBME) improves medical knowledge compared with no intervention. In traditional SBME, more time is spent debriefing than practicing skills. Rapid cycle deliberate practice (RCDP) simulation allows learners to practice skills repetitively, receive brief interspersed feedback, and has been shown to improve individual performance of resuscitation skills in simulation; it has not been compared with traditional simulation methods. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare traditional and RCDP SBME...
October 6, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Natsuki Saito, Takemasa Yokoyama, Hideki Ohira
Although empathy is important for social interactions, individuals with alexithymia have low empathic ability, particularly where advanced empathy is concerned (empathic concern, perspective taking). It has been argued that awareness of the self-other distinction enhances advanced empathy, and alexithymics are thought to inadequately distinguish the self from others. We therefore tested whether the self-other distinction increases advanced empathy in alexithymics. To this end, we presented painful hand images over participants' own hands, and required participants to estimate felt pain intensity and their affective states...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Michael B Lewis, Emily Dunn
People tend to mimic the facial expression of others. It has been suggested that this helps provide social glue between affiliated people but it could also aid recognition of emotions through embodied cognition. The degree of facial mimicry, however, varies between individuals and is limited in people with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). The present study sought to investigate the effect of promoting facial mimicry during a facial-emotion-recognition test. In two experiments, participants without an ASC diagnosis had their autism quotient (AQ) measured...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Luz A Padilla, Renee A Desmond, C Michael Brooks, John W Waterbor
A key outcome measure of cancer research training programs is the number of cancer-related peer-reviewed publications after training. Because program graduates do not routinely report their publications, staff must periodically conduct electronic literature searches on each graduate. The purpose of this study is to compare findings of an innovative computer-based automated search program versus repeated manual literature searches to identify post-training peer-reviewed publications. In late 2014, manual searches for publications by former R25 students identified 232 cancer-related articles published by 112 of 543 program graduates...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Fabian Grabenhorst, Istvan Hernadi, Wolfram Schultz
The amygdala is a prime valuation structure yet its functions in advanced behaviors are poorly understood. We tested whether individual amygdala neurons encode a critical requirement for goal-directed behavior: the evaluation of progress during sequential choices. As monkeys progressed through choice sequences toward rewards, amygdala neurons showed phasic, gradually increasing responses over successive choice steps. These responses occurred in the absence of external progress cues or motor preplanning. They were often specific to self-defined sequences, typically disappearing during instructed control sequences with similar reward expectation...
October 12, 2016: ELife
Eyal Aronoff, Robert Hillyer, Michael Leon
We have previously shown in two randomized clinical trials that environmental enrichment is capable of ameliorating symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and in the present study, we determined whether this therapy could be effective under real-world circumstances. 1,002 children were given daily Sensory Enrichment Therapy, by their parents, using personalized therapy instructions given over the Internet. Parents were asked to assess the symptoms of their child every 2 weeks for up to 7 months. An intention-to-treat analysis showed significant overall gains for a wide range of symptoms in these children, including learning, memory, anxiety, attention span, motor skills, eating, sleeping, sensory processing, self-awareness, communication, social skills, and mood/autism behaviors...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Gabriel Aldaz, Sunil Puria, Larry J Leifer
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that hearing aid wearers can successfully self-train their instruments' gain-frequency response and compression parameters in everyday situations. Combining hearing aids with a smartphone introduces additional computing power, memory, and a graphical user interface that may enable greater setting personalization. To explore the benefits of self-training with a smartphone-based hearing system, a parameter space was chosen with four possible combinations of microphone mode (omnidirectional and directional) and noise reduction state (active and off)...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Jiahui Wang, Matthew H Schneps, Pavlo D Antonenko, Chen Chen, Marc Pomplun
This study explores a proposition that individuals with dyslexia develop enhanced peripheral vision to process visual-spatial information holistically. Participants included 18 individuals diagnosed with dyslexia and 18 who were not. The experiment used a comparative visual search design consisting of two blocks of 72 trials. Each trial presented two halves of the display each comprising three kinds of shapes in three colours to be compared side-by-side. Participants performed a conjunctive search to ascertain whether the two halves were identical...
October 7, 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Kim J Curyto, Sue M McCurry, Katherine Luci, Bradley E Karlin, Linda Teri, Michele J Karel
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS XX contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
D G Dotov, S Bayard, V Cochen de Cock, C Geny, V Driss, G Garrigue, B Bardy, S Dalla Bella
INTRODUCTION: Rhythmic auditory cueing improves certain gait symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cues are typically stimuli or beats with a fixed inter-beat interval. We show that isochronous cueing has an unwanted side-effect in that it exacerbates one of the motor symptoms characteristic of advanced PD. Whereas the parameters of the stride cycle of healthy walkers and early patients possess a persistent correlation in time, or long-range correlation (LRC), isochronous cueing renders stride-to-stride variability random...
September 28, 2016: Gait & Posture
Kostas Hadjidimitrakis, Federica Bertozzi, Rossella Breveglieri, Claudio Galletti, Patrizia Fattori
Neurons in the posterior parietal cortex of macaques show spatial tuning during several phases of an instructed delay reaching task, but their reference frames have been studied mostly during fixed periods without addressing how they evolve across task phases. In parietal area V6A, we reported recently that during the late delay and hand movement periods, most neurons represent target location either in body-centered frame of reference, or in mixed body/hand-centered coordinates, with no evidence of hand-centered representations...
October 1, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Danielle Cornacchio, Amy E Pinkham, David L Penn, Philip D Harvey
Patients with severe mental illnesses manifest substantial deficits in self-assessment of the abilities that impact everyday functioning. This study compares patients with schizophrenia to healthy individuals on their social cognitive performance, their assessment of that performance, and the convergence between performance and indicators of effort in solving tasks. Patients with schizophrenia (n=57) and healthy controls (HC; n=47) completed the Bell-Lysaker Emotion Recognition Test (BLERT), a psychometrically sound assessment of emotion recognition...
September 29, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Isabelle Peretz
The past decade of research has provided compelling evidence that musical engagement is a fundamental human trait, and its biological basis is increasingly scrutinized. In this endeavor, the detailed study of individuals who have musical deficiencies is instructive because of likely neurogenetic underpinnings. Such individuals have 'congenital amusia', an umbrella term for lifelong musical disabilities that cannot be attributed to intellectual disability, lack of exposure, or brain damage after birth. Key points are reviewed here that have emerged during recent years regarding the neurobiology of the disorder, focusing on the importance of recurrent processing between the right inferior frontal cortex and the auditory cortex for conscious monitoring of musical pitch, and how this relates to developmental cognitive disorders in general...
September 29, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
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