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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544583/improving-the-occupational-skills-of-students-with-intellectual-disability-by-applying-video-prompting-combined-with-dance-pads
#1
Mei-Lan Lin, Ming-Shan Chiang, Ching-Hsiang Shih, Meng-Fang Li
BACKGROUND: Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are prone to inattention, are slow in learning and reaction, and have deficits in memory skills. Providing proper vocational education and training for individuals with intellectual disability is able to enhance their occupational skills. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study applied video prompting to provide instructional prompts to help participants accurately perform an assigned occupational activity. A control system installed with developed software was used to turn a standard dance pad into a sensor to detect the participants' standing position and to automatically trigger video prompting...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541081/meta-analysis-of-the-effects-of-academic-interventions-and-modifications-on-student-behavior-outcomes
#2
Kristy Warmbold-Brann, Matthew K Burns, June L Preast, Crystal N Taylor, Lisa N Aguilar
The current study examined the effect of academic interventions and modifications on behavioral outcomes in a meta-analysis of 32 single-case design studies. Academic interventions included modifying task difficulty, providing instruction in reading, mathematics, or writing, and contingent reinforcement for academic performance. There was an overall small to moderate effect (ϕ = .56) on behavioral outcomes, with a stronger effect on increasing time on task (ϕ = .64) than on decreasing disruptive behavior (ϕ = ...
May 25, 2017: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533617/estimated-lower-speed-boundary-at-which-the-walk-ratio-constancy-is-broken-in-healthy-adults
#3
Rumi Murakami, Yohei Otaka
[Purpose] The ratio of step length to cadence (walk ratio) is invariant over a wide range of speeds. However, no studies have investigated details of the change in the walk ratio at slow speeds. It is necessary to explore how walking behavior changes at a low speed to understand the slow walking observed in various conditions such as aging and pathological conditions. In this study, changes in the walk ratio at slow speeds were investigated, and a lower boundary was estimated at which the walk ratio constancy is broken...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529495/determining-the-association-between-language-and-cognitive-tests-in-poststroke-aphasia
#4
Kylie J Wall, Toby B Cumming, David A Copland
BACKGROUND: Individuals with aphasia are often excluded from studies exploring poststroke cognition because so many of the standard cognitive assessments rely on language ability. Our primary objective was to examine the association between performance on cognitive tests and performance on comprehension and naming tests in poststroke aphasia. Second, we aimed to determine the association between language performance and a real-life measure of cognition (Kettle Test). Third, we explored the feasibility of administering cognitive tests in aphasia...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529279/comparing-the-occlusal-contact-area-of-individual-teeth-during-low-level-clenching
#5
Hideta Nishimori, Takashi Iida, Hirona Kamiyama, Yoshihiro Komoda, Ryoko Obara, Takashi Uchida, Misao Kawara, Osamu Komiyama
The aim of this study was to investigate the occlusal contact area (OCA) in individual teeth during low-level tooth clenching in 24 healthy participants. Before measurements were made, the 100% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was determined. At baseline, all subjects were instructed to close their mouth and touch the opposing teeth with minimal force. Occlusal contact was recorded during three jaw motor tasks (baseline, 20% MVC, and 40% MVC) using a blue silicone material. OCA thickness was determined from images and defined on five levels: level 1 (0-149 µm), level 2 (0-89 µm), level 3 (0-49 µm), level 4 (0-29 µm), and level 5 (0-4 µm)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525805/typical-integration-of-emotion-cues-from-bodies-and-faces-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Rebecca Brewer, Federica Biotti, Geoffrey Bird, Richard Cook
Contextual cues derived from body postures bias how typical observers categorize facial emotion; the same facial expression may be perceived as anger or disgust when aligned with angry and disgusted body postures. Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are thought to have difficulties integrating information from disparate visual regions to form unitary percepts, and may be less susceptible to visual illusions induced by context. The current study investigated whether individuals with ASD exhibit diminished integration of emotion cues extracted from faces and bodies...
May 16, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525796/beneficial-effects-of-training-in-self-distancing-and-perspective-broadening-for-people-with-a-history-of-recurrent-depression
#7
Emma Travers-Hill, Barnaby D Dunn, Laura Hoppitt, Caitlin Hitchcock, Tim Dalgleish
Cognitive training designed to recalibrate maladaptive aspects of cognitive-affective processing associated with the presence of emotional disorder can deliver clinical benefits. This study examined the ability of an integrated training in self-distancing and perspective broadening (SD-PB) with respect to distressing experiences to deliver such benefits in individuals with a history of recurrent depression (≥3 prior episodes), currently in remission. Relative to an overcoming avoidance (OA) control condition, SD-PB: a) reduced distress to upsetting memories and to newly encountered events, both during training when explicitly instructed to apply SD-PB techniques, and after-training in the absence of explicit instructions; b) enhanced capacity to self-distance from and broaden perspectives on participants' experiences; c) reduced residual symptoms of depression...
May 11, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522369/electroencephalographic-monitoring-during-sevoflurane-anaesthesia-in-an-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patient-with-locked-in-state
#8
Kazuko Hayashi, Ryuhei Araki, Akiko Tanaka
Recently, the cognitive abilities of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been found to be impaired along with the neurodegeneration of motor neurons. Electroencephalography (EEG) of end-stage ALS patients has reportedly shown specific features based on neuronal network modulations, differing from EEG of other patients with cognitive failure and dementia. However, EEG of end-stage ALS patients during anaesthesia has not yet been reported. A 64-year-old male ALS patient with locked-in state (LIS), supported by tracheostomy positive-pressure ventilation (TPPV) and enteral nourishment for 9years, underwent scheduled general anaesthesia for repair of a fractured mandible...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515979/comparison-of-video-guided-live-instructed-and-self-guided-foam-roll-interventions-on-knee-joint-range-of-motion-and-pressure-pain-threshold-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Scott W Cheatham, Morey J Kolber, Matt Cain
BACKGROUND: The use of foam rollers to provide tissue massage is a commonly used intervention by rehabilitation professionals for their patients and clients. Currently, there is no consensus on the optimal foam rolling treatment approach. Of particular interest are the effects of different instructional methods of foam rolling, as individuals ultimately perform these interventions independently outside of formal care. Finding the optimal instructional method may help improve the individual's understanding of the technique, allowing for a safe and effective intervention...
April 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514042/effect-of-crystallization-firing-on-marginal-gap-of-cad-cam-fabricated-lithium-disilicate-crowns
#10
Steven A Gold, Jack L Ferracane, Juliana da Costa
PURPOSE: To evaluate the marginal gaps of CAD/CAM (CEREC 3) produced crowns made from leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic (IPS Empress CAD) blocks (LG), and lithium-disilicate (IPS e.max CAD) blocks before (LD-B), and after (LD-A) crystallization firing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A human molar tooth (#19) was mounted with adjacent teeth on a typodont and prepared for a full-coverage ceramic crown. The typodont was assembled in the mannequin head to simulate clinical conditions...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513841/incorporating-multiple-secondary-targets-into-learning-trials-for-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Casey L Nottingham, Jason C Vladescu, Tiffany Kodak, April N Kisamore
The current study examined the outcome of presenting multiple secondary targets in learning trials for individuals with autism spectrum disorder. We compared conditions in which (a) a secondary target was presented in the antecedent and consequence of trials, (b) two secondary targets were presented in the consequence of trials, (c) one secondary target was presented in the consequence of each trial, and (d) no additional targets were presented trials. The participants acquired the majority of secondary targets...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512524/promoting-the-multidimensional-character-of-scientific-reasoning
#12
William S Bradshaw, Jennifer Nelson, Byron J Adams, John D Bell
This study reports part of a long-term program to help students improve scientific reasoning using higher-order cognitive tasks set in the discipline of cell biology. This skill was assessed using problems requiring the construction of valid conclusions drawn from authentic research data. We report here efforts to confirm the hypothesis that data interpretation is a complex, multifaceted exercise. Confirmation was obtained using a statistical treatment showing that various such problems rank students differently-each contains a unique set of cognitive challenges...
April 2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507866/establishing-content-validity-of-the-cleft-q-a-new-patient-reported-outcome-instrument-for-cleft-lip-palate
#13
Elena Tsangaris, Karen W Y Wong Riff, Tim Goodacre, Christopher R Forrest, Marieke Dreise, Jonathan Sykes, Tristan de Chalain, Karen Harman, Aisling O'Mahony, Andrea L Pusic, Lehana Thabane, Achilleas Thoma, Anne F Klassen
BACKGROUND: The CLEFT-Q is a new patient-reported outcome instrument designed to measure outcomes that matter to patients. The aim of this qualitative study was to establish content validity of the CLEFT-Q in patients who differ by age and culture. METHODS: Patients aged between 6 and 29 years were recruited from plastic surgery clinics in Canada, India, Ireland, the Philippines, the Netherlands and the United States. Healthcare providers and other experts participated in a focus group or provided individual feedback...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506957/computer-administered-safety-planning-for-individuals-at-risk-for-suicide-development-and-usability-testing
#14
Edwin D Boudreaux, Gregory K Brown, Barbara Stanley, Rajani S Sadasivam, Carlos A Camargo, Ivan W Miller
BACKGROUND: Safety planning is a brief intervention that has become an accepted practice in many clinical settings to help prevent suicide. Even though it is quick compared to other approaches, it frequently requires 20 min or more to complete, which can impede adoption. A self-administered, Web-based safety planning application could potentially reduce clinician time, help promote standardization and quality, and provide enhanced ability to share the created plan. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to design, build, and test the usability of a Web-based, self-administered safety planning application...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506146/the-impact-of-shoulder-abduction-loading-on-volitional-hand-opening-and-grasping-in-chronic-hemiparetic-stroke
#15
Yiyun Lan, Jun Yao, Julius P A Dewald
BACKGROUND: Up to 60% of individuals with moderate to severe chronic hemiparetic stroke experience excessive involuntary wrist/finger flexion that constrains functional hand movements including hand opening. It's not known how stroke-induced brain injury impacts volitional hand opening and grasping forces as a result of the expression of abnormal coupling between shoulder abduction and wrist/finger flexion or the flexion synergy. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to understand how shoulder abduction loading affects volitional hand opening and grasping forces in individuals with moderate to severe chronic hemiparetic stroke...
June 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504014/the-development-of-a-patient-specific-method-for-physiotherapy-goal-setting-a-user-centered-design
#16
Anita Stevens, Albère Köke, Trudy van der Weijden, Anna Beurskens
PURPOSE: To deliver client-centered care, physiotherapists need to identify the patients' individual treatment goals. However, practical tools for involving patients in goal setting are lacking. The purpose of this study was to improve the frequently used Patient-Specific Complaints instrument in Dutch physiotherapy, and to develop it into a feasible method to improve physiotherapy goal setting. METHODS: An iterative user-centered design was conducted in co-creation with the physiotherapists and patients, in three phases...
May 13, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503739/the-bleeding-on-brushing-index-a-novel-index-in-preventive-dentistry
#17
Tobias Rosenauer, Constanze Wagenschwanz, Matthias Kuhn, Anna Kensche, Sandra Stiehl, Christian Hannig
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a dichotomous index, based on a special interdental brushing tool, to detect initial pathological processes in interproximal areas. Furthermore, different techniques of interdental hygiene were compared. METHODS: Participants (n = 108) were instructed to clean their teeth using the Bass technique and were randomly assigned to three groups according to the type of interdental cleaning used: group A, use of interdental brushes; group B, no interdental hygiene (the control group); and group C, use of dental floss...
May 15, 2017: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500220/environmental-enrichment-rescues-binocular-matching-of-orientation-preference-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#18
Jared Levine, Hui Chen, Yu Gu, Jianhua Cang
Neural circuits are shaped by experience during critical periods of development. Sensory deprivation during these periods permanently compromises an organism's ability to perceive the outside world. In the mouse visual system, normal visual experience during a critical period in early life drives the matching of individual cortical neurons' orientation preferences through the two eyes, likely a key step in the development of binocular vision. Here, in mice of both sexes, we show that the binocular matching process is completely blocked by monocular deprivation spanning the entire critical period...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496504/epidemiology-of-psychiatric-disorders-in-iranian-children-and-adolescents-ircap-and-its-relationship-with-social-capital-life-style-and-parents-personality-disorders-study-protocol
#19
Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Nastaran Ahmadi, Koorosh Kamali, Ali Khaleghi, Ameneh Ahmadi
Objective: We aimed at designing a cross sectional study to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Iranian children and adolescents (IRCAP) and to determine its relationship with social capital, life style, and parents' personality disorders. Method: This cross sectional study was a national project implemented in all provinces of Iran. In this community-based study, using ‎multistage cluster sampling method, we selected 1000 children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years in each province. The total sample size reached to 31 000...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493921/mapping-the-emotional-face-how-individual-face-parts-contribute-to-successful-emotion-recognition
#20
Martin Wegrzyn, Maria Vogt, Berna Kireclioglu, Julia Schneider, Johanna Kissler
Which facial features allow human observers to successfully recognize expressions of emotion? While the eyes and mouth have been frequently shown to be of high importance, research on facial action units has made more precise predictions about the areas involved in displaying each emotion. The present research investigated on a fine-grained level, which physical features are most relied on when decoding facial expressions. In the experiment, individual faces expressing the basic emotions according to Ekman were hidden behind a mask of 48 tiles, which was sequentially uncovered...
2017: PloS One
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