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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329438/patient-perspectives-on-how-physicians-communicate-diagnostic-uncertainty-an-experimental-vignette-study
#1
Viraj Bhise, Ashley N D Meyer, Shailaja Menon, Geeta Singhal, Richard L Street, Traber D Giardina, Hardeep Singh
Objective: We evaluated the effects of three different strategies for communicating diagnostic uncertainty on patient perceptions of physician competence and visit satisfaction. Design/Setting: Experimental vignette-based study design involving pediatric cases presented to a convenience sample of parents living in a large US city. Participants/Intervention(s): Three vignettes were developed, each describing one of three different ways physicians communicated diagnostic uncertainty to parents-(i) explicit expression of uncertainty ('not sure' about diagnosis), (ii) implicit expression of uncertainty using broad differential diagnoses and (iii) implicit expression of uncertainty using 'most likely' diagnoses...
January 10, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328762/patients-experiences-with-at-home-preoperative-skin-disinfection-before-elective-hip-replacement-surgery
#2
Maria Qvistgaard, Sofia Almerud Österberg, Kristiina Heikkilä, Ann-Britt Thorén, Jenny Lovebo
The aim of the study was to describe patients' experiences with preoperative skin disinfection carried out in their home before elective hip replacement surgery with the aim of lowering the microbial burden and avoiding surgical site infections. The literature was reviewed for relevant studies. Optimal preparations before surgery depend on patients being able to assimilate preoperative information and instructions. The study was based on 14 interviews with patients who had undergone elective hip replacement surgery...
July 2017: Journal of Perioperative Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328501/cognitive-control-functions-in-individuals-with-obesity-with-and-without-binge-eating-disorder
#3
Ines Kollei, Martina Rustemeier, Stefanie Schroeder, Sebastian Jongen, Stephan Herpertz, Sabine Loeber
OBJECTIVE: Deficits in cognitive control are thought to contribute to the maintenance of obesity (OB). Cognitive control is referred to as impulsivity and binge-eating disorder (BED) is characterized by high levels of impulsivity. The present study sought to elucidate which cognitive control functions differentiate between severe OB with and without BED also taking into account hunger as a moderating factor. METHOD: The study included 48 individuals with OB and BED (OB + BED), 48 individuals with OB and no BED (OB - BED) and 48 normal-weight controls (NWC)...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327652/acquisition-of-a-mental-strategy-to-control-a-virtual-tail-via-brain-computer-interface
#4
Ayaka Fujisawa, Shoko Kasuga, Takaharu Suzuki, Junichi Ushiba
The objective of the present study was to clarify the variation in and properties of mental images and policies used to regulate specific image selection when learning to control a brain-computer interface. Healthy volunteers performed a reaching task with a virtually generated monkey tail-like object on a computer monitor by regulating event-related desynchronization (ERD) on the buttock area of the sensorimotor cortex as recorded by electroencephalogram (EEG). Participants were instructed to find a free image by which the tail was well controlled...
January 12, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327424/the-choreography-of-group-affiliation
#5
Jorina von Zimmermann, Staci Vicary, Matthias Sperling, Guido Orgs, Daniel C Richardson
When two people move in synchrony, they become more social. Yet it is not clear how this effect scales up to larger numbers of people. Does a group need to move in unison to affiliate, in what we term unitary synchrony; or does affiliation arise from distributed coordination, patterns of coupled movements between individual members of a group? We developed choreographic tasks that manipulated movement synchrony without explicitly instructing groups to move in unison. Wrist accelerometers measured group movement dynamics and we applied cross-recurrence analysis to distinguish the temporal features of emergent unitary synchrony (simultaneous movement) and distributed coordination (coupled movement)...
January 12, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321971/processing-and-regulation-of-negative-emotions-in-anorexia-nervosa-an-fmri-study
#6
Maria Seidel, Joseph A King, Franziska Ritschel, Ilka Boehm, Daniel Geisler, Fabio Bernardoni, Matthias Beck, Sophie Pauligk, Ronald Biemann, Alexander Strobel, Thomas Goschke, Henrik Walter, Veit Roessner, Stefan Ehrlich
Theoretical models and recent advances in the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) have increasingly focused on the role of alterations in the processing and regulation of emotions. To date, however, our understanding of these changes is still limited and reports of emotional dysregulation in AN have been based largely on self-report data, and there is a relative lack of objective experimental evidence or neurobiological data. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the hemodynamic correlates of passive viewing and voluntary downregulation of negative emotions by means of the reappraisal strategy detachment in AN patients...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315452/a-case-for-the-brace-a-critical-comprehensive-and-up-to-date-review-of-static-progressive-stretch-dynamic-and-turnbuckle-braces-for-the-management-of-elbow-knee-and-shoulder-pathology
#7
Nipun Sodhi, Benjamin Yao, Anton Khlopas, Iyooh U Davidson, Assem A Sultan, Linsen T Samuel, Suela Lamaj, Jared M Newman, Robert Pivec, Kristy A Fisher, Benjamin Gaal, Michael A Mont
BACKGROUND: Non-operative management of the elbow, shoulder, and knee typically includes braces, such as the: static progressive stretch (SPS), turnbuckle, and dynamic. However, a paucity of literature exists comparing these three bracing modalities. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the current literature on the various bracing modalities for physicians and patients managing elbow, shoulder, or knee joint complications. Specifically, we compared the use of 1) static progressive stretch, 2) dynamic, and 3) turnbuckle braces for the a) elbow, b) knee, and c) shoulder...
December 22, 2017: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313062/art-or-science-an-evidence-based-approach-to-human-facial-beauty-a-quantitative-analysis-towards-an-informed-clinical-aesthetic-practice
#8
REVIEW
Harpal Harrar, Simon Myers, Ali M Ghanem
BACKGROUND: Patients often seek guidance from the aesthetic practitioners regarding treatments to enhance their 'beauty'. Is there a science behind the art of assessment and if so is it measurable? Through the centuries, this question has challenged scholars, artists and surgeons. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study aims to undertake a review of the evidence behind quantitative facial measurements in assessing beauty to help the practitioner in everyday aesthetic practice...
January 8, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310635/effect-of-oral-functional-training-on-immunological-abilities-of-older-people-a-case-control-study
#9
Mitsue Sato, Masahiro Sugimoto, Yuko Yamamoto, Juri Saruta, Keiichi Tsukinoki
BACKGROUND: Oral functional ability decreases with age, and systemic immunological ability and quality of life can also deteriorate. Continuous moderate whole-body exercise for older people is known to improve oral functional and their immunological abilities. Here, we evaluated the effect of oral exercise as an alternative training method for highly older people who cannot perform whole-body exercises. METHODS: Unstimulated whole saliva samples had been collected for three times before training as baseline data and one time after 3 and 6 weeks of training each...
January 8, 2018: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309023/a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-evaluate-approaches-to-auditory-rehabilitation-for-blast-exposed-veterans-with-normal-or-near-normal-hearing-who-report-hearing-problems-in-difficult-listening-situations
#10
Gabrielle H Saunders, Melissa T Frederick, Michelle L Arnold, ShienPei C Silverman, Theresa H Chisolm, Paula J Myers
BACKGROUND: Blast exposure is a major source of injury among Service members in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. Many of these blast-exposed veterans report hearing-related problems such as difficulties understanding speech in noise and rapid speech, and following instructions and long conversations that are disproportionate to their measured peripheral hearing sensitivity. Evidence is mounting that these complaints result from damage to the central auditory processing system. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of audiological rehabilitative interventions for blast-exposed veterans with normal or near-normal peripheral hearing and functional hearing difficulties...
January 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307100/the-general-adaptation-syndrome-a-foundation-for-the-concept-of-periodization
#11
REVIEW
Aaron J Cunanan, Brad H DeWeese, John P Wagle, Kevin M Carroll, Robert Sausaman, W Guy Hornsby, G Gregory Haff, N Travis Triplett, Kyle C Pierce, Michael H Stone
Recent reviews have attempted to refute the efficacy of applying Selye's general adaptation syndrome (GAS) as a conceptual framework for the training process. Furthermore, the criticisms involved are regularly used as the basis for arguments against the periodization of training. However, these perspectives fail to consider the entirety of Selye's work, the evolution of his model, and the broad applications he proposed. While it is reasonable to critically evaluate any paradigm, critics of the GAS have yet to dismantle the link between stress and adaptation...
January 6, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302087/moving-from-novice-to-expertise-and-its-implications-for-instruction
#12
REVIEW
Adam M Persky, Jennifer D Robinson
Objective: To address the stages of expertise development, what differentiates a novice from an expert, and how the development and differences impact how we teach our classes or design the curriculum. This paper will also address the downside of expertise and discuss the importance of teaching expertise relative to domain expertise. Summary: Experts develop through years of experience and by progressing from novice, advance beginner, proficient, competent, and finally expert. These stages are contingent on progressive problem solving, which means individuals must engage in increasingly complex problems, strategically aligned with the learner's stage of development...
November 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298258/long-term-outcomes-of-distal-femoral-extension-osteotomy-and-patellar-tendon-advancement-in-individuals-with-cerebral-palsy
#13
Elizabeth R Boyer, Jean L Stout, Jennifer C Laine, Sarah M Gutknecht, Lucas H Araujo de Oliveira, Meghan E Munger, Michael H Schwartz, Tom F Novacheck
BACKGROUND: We examined long-term outcomes across the domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for 2 groups of participants with cerebral palsy who demonstrated crouch gait at clinical gait analysis. One group underwent a distal femoral extension osteotomy with patellar tendon advancement (DFEO + PTA). The other group received other treatments (non-DFEO + PTA). METHODS: Fifty-one participants returned for a long-term gait analysis, physical examination, energy consumption test, knee radiographs, and questionnaires (median, 13 years post-DFEO + PTA or post-baseline [range, 8 to 21 years])...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298132/physical-therapy-protocols-for-arthroscopic-bankart-repair
#14
Steven F DeFroda, Nabil Mehta, Brett D Owens
BACKGROUND: Outcomes after arthroscopic Bankart repair can be highly dependent on compliance and participation in physical therapy. Additionally, there are many variations in physician-recommended physical therapy protocols. HYPOTHESIS: The rehabilitation protocols of academic orthopaedic surgery departments vary widely despite the presence of consensus protocols. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3...
January 1, 2018: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290745/virtual-pediatric-patient-activities-with-randomized-scenarios-as-an-instructional-tool-for-pharmacy-students
#15
Jeremy S Stultz, Michael Forder, Amy L Pakyz
OBJECTIVES: To assess student pharmacist best activity scores and related exam question performance based on the number of pediatric virtual patient activity (VPA) attempts. METHODS: A 40-point asthma VPA was implemented and included three possible randomized scenarios. A 60-point meningitis VPA was implemented and included three possible randomized scenarios followed by an additional three possible randomized scenarios only if the first scenario was correctly completed...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290547/the-influence-of-noise-on-the-vocal-dose-in-women
#16
Alessandra Terra Vasconcelos Rabelo, Juliana Nunes Santos, Bárbara Oliveira Souza, Ana Cristina Côrtes Gama, Max de Castro Magalhães
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate if noise interferes with the vocal dose in women without vocal complaints. STUDY DESIGN: This is an experimental and comparative study. METHODS: Data were collected on 27 women between 22 and 50 years of age without vocal complaints in a university classroom. Speech-language pathology evaluation was performed employing auditory-perceptual analysis and a vocal symptom questionnaire. The acoustics of the classroom were evaluated via both observation of the characteristics of the room and the quantification of background noise and reverberation time...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290346/predictive-factors-of-catheter-related-bloodstream-infection-in-patients-receiving-home-parenteral-nutrition
#17
Orawan Pichitchaipitak, Sineenuch Ckumdee, Siriluk Apivanich, Darunee Chotiprasitsakul, Prapimporn Chattranukulchai Shantavasinkul
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and predictive factors of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) acquired through a central venous catheter for delivery of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) therapy among a patient population in Thailand. METHODS: This retrospective review was conducted with adult patients with intestinal failure who received HPN from October 2002 to April 2014, at Ramathibodi Home Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Referral Center in Bangkok...
February 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290047/predictive-modeling-of-inpatient-mortality-in-departments-of-internal-medicine
#18
Naama Schwartz, Ali Sakhnini, Naiel Bisharat
Despite overwhelming data on predictors of inpatient mortality, it is unclear which variables are the most instructive in predicting mortality of patients in departments of internal medicine. This study aims to identify the most informative predictors of inpatient mortality, and builds a prediction model on an individual level, given a constellation of patient characteristics. We use a penalized method for developing the prediction model by applying the least-absolute-shrinkage and selection-operator regression...
December 30, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286467/fluorescence-mediated-tomography-for-the-detection-and-quantification-of-macrophage-related-murine-intestinal-inflammation
#19
Tobias M Nowacki, Dominik Bettenworth, Markus Brückner, Friederike Cordes, Frank Lenze, Anne Becker, Moritz Wildgruber, Michel Eisenblätter
Murine models of disease are indispensable to scientific research. However, many diagnostic tools such as endoscopy or tomographic imaging are not routinely employed in animal models. Conventional experimental readouts often rely on post mortem and ex vivo analyses, which prevent intra-individual follow-up examinations and increase the number of study animals needed. Fluorescence-mediated tomography enables the non-invasive, repetitive, quantitative, three-dimensional assessment of fluorescent probes. It is highly sensitive and permits the use of molecular makers, which allows for the specific detection and characterization of distinct molecular targets...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280957/emotional-encoding-context-leads-to-memory-bias-in-individuals-with-high-anxiety
#20
Christopher Lee, Myra A Fernandes
We investigated whether anxious individuals, who adopt an inherently negative mindset, demonstrate a particularly salient memory bias for words tainted by negative contexts. To this end, sequentially presented target words, overlayed onto negative or neutral pictures, were studied in separate blocks (within-subjects) using a deep or shallow encoding instruction (between-subjects). Following study, in Test 1, participants completed separate recognition test blocks for the words overlayed onto the negative and the neutral contexts...
December 27, 2017: Brain Sciences
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