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Xiao-Jing Han, Si-Bo Duan, Zhao-Liang Li
An analysis of the atmospheric impact on ground brightness temperature (Tg) is performed for numerous land surface types at commonly-used frequencies (i.e., 1.4 GHz, 6.93 GHz, 10.65 GHz, 18.7 GHz, 23.8 GHz, 36.5 GHz and 89.0 GHz). The results indicate that the atmosphere has a negligible impact on Tg at 1.4 GHz for land surfaces with emissivities greater than 0.7, at 6.93 GHz for land surfaces with emissivities greater than 0.8, and at 10.65 GHz for land surfaces with emissivities greater than 0.9 if a root mean square error (RMSE) less than 1 K is desired...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
Ying Qiu, Xiang Li, Ming Luo, Daigao Chen, Jiamin Wang, Jing Xu, Qi Yang, Shaohua Yu
We experimentally demonstrate on-chip mode-selective wavelength conversions based on the degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) nonlinear effect in a few-mode silicon waveguide. A multimode waveguide with tapered directional coupler based mode (de)multiplexers is designed and fabricated. Using signals with advanced modulation formats all-optical wavelength conversions of 102.6-Gb/s OFDM-QPSK signals are verified. Experimental results show that only small optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties are observed after wavelength conversion of both modes, which are less than 2 dB for OFDM-QPSK at 7% forward error correction (FEC) threshold...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
Manon Rostykus, Ferréol Soulez, Michael Unser, Christophe Moser
Lensless quantitative phase imaging is of high interest for obtaining a large field of view (FOV), typically the size of the camera chip, to observe biological cell material with high contrast. It has the potential to be widely spread due to its inherent simplicity. However, the tradeoff is the added complexity due to the illumination. Current illumination systems are several centimeters away from the sample, use mechanics to obtain super resolution (i.e., smaller than the detector pixel size) or different illumination directions, and block the view to the sample...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
Jan Aubrecht, Pavel Peterka, Pavel Koška, Ondřej Podrazký, Filip Todorov, Pavel Honzátko, Ivan Kašík
Self-sweeping of laser wavelength corresponding to holmium emission near 2100 nm is reported. The sweeping occurred in ~4 nm interval with rate ~0.7 nm/s from longer towards shorter wavelengths. Origins of the selection of the sweeping direction are discussed. The laser wavelength drift with time was registered by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. To our knowledge it is the first observation of self-swept fiber laser beyond 2000 nm.
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
Wendy S L Lee, Korbinian Kaltenecker, Shruti Nirantar, Withawat Withayachumnankul, Markus Walther, Madhu Bhaskaran, Bernd M Fischer, Sharath Sriram, Christophe Fumeaux
As an alternative to metallic resonators, dielectric resonators can increase radiation efficiencies of metasurfaces at terahertz frequencies. Such subwavelength resonators made from low-loss dielectric materials operate on the basis of oscillating displacement currents. For full control of electromagnetic waves, it is essential that dielectric resonators operate around their resonant modes. Thus, understanding the nature of these resonances is crucial towards design implementation. To this end, an array of silicon resonators on a quartz substrate is designed to operate in transmission at terahertz frequencies...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
Di Yang, Bo Yu, Haiyan Sun, Lihong Qiu
Posttranslational modifications including histone methylation regulate gene transcription through directly affecting the structure of chromatin. Trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) is observed at the promoters of a wide variety of important genes, especially for mammalian development, and contributes to gene silencing. Demethylase Jumonji domain-containing 3 (Jmjd3) catalyzes the transition of H3K27me3 to H3K27me1, therefore from a repressive to an active status of gene expression. Jmjd3 plays important roles in cell differentiation, inflammation, and tumorigenesis by targeting distinct transcription factors...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Valerie L Tryon, Marsha R Penner, Shawn W Heide, Hunter O King, Joshua Larkin, Sheri J Y Mizumori
Distinguishing spatial contexts is likely essential for the well-known role of the hippocampus in episodic memory. We studied whether types of hippocampal neural organization thought to underlie context discrimination is impacted by learned economic considerations of choice behavior. Hippocampal place cells and theta activity were recorded as rats performed a maze-based probability discounting task that involved choosing between a small certain reward or a large probabilistic reward. Different spatial distributions of place fields were observed in response to changes in probability, the outcome of the rats' choice, and whether or not rats were free to make that choice...
February 27, 2017: Hippocampus
Ehsan Ban, Sijia Zhang, Vahhab Zarei, Victor H Barocas, Beth A Winkelstein, Catalin R Picu
The spinal facet capsular ligament (FCL) is primarily comprised of heterogeneous arrangements of collagen fibers. This complex fibrous structure and its evolution under loading play a critical role in determining the mechanical behavior of the FCL. A lack of analytical tools to characterize the spatial anisotropy and heterogeneity of the FCL's microstructure has limited the current understanding of its structure-function relationships. Here, the collagen organization was characterized using spatial correlation analysis of its optically-obtain fiber orientation field...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Philip C Haycock, Stephen Burgess, Aayah Nounu, Jie Zheng, George N Okoli, Jack Bowden, Kaitlin Hazel Wade, Nicholas J Timpson, David M Evans, Peter Willeit, Abraham Aviv, Tom R Gaunt, Gibran Hemani, Massimo Mangino, Hayley Patricia Ellis, Kathreena M Kurian, Karen A Pooley, Rosalind A Eeles, Jeffrey E Lee, Shenying Fang, Wei V Chen, Matthew H Law, Lisa M Bowdler, Mark M Iles, Qiong Yang, Bradford B Worrall, Hugh Stephen Markus, Rayjean J Hung, Chris I Amos, Amanda B Spurdle, Deborah J Thompson, Tracy A O'Mara, Brian Wolpin, Laufey Amundadottir, Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon, Antonia Trichopoulou, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Eiliv Lund, Eric J Duell, Federico Canzian, Gianluca Severi, Kim Overvad, Marc J Gunter, Rosario Tumino, Ulrika Svenson, Andre van Rij, Annette F Baas, Matthew J Bown, Nilesh J Samani, Femke N G van t'Hof, Gerard Tromp, Gregory T Jones, Helena Kuivaniemi, James R Elmore, Mattias Johansson, James Mckay, Ghislaine Scelo, Robert Carreras-Torres, Valerie Gaborieau, Paul Brennan, Paige M Bracci, Rachel E Neale, Sara H Olson, Steven Gallinger, Donghui Li, Gloria M Petersen, Harvey A Risch, Alison P Klein, Jiali Han, Christian C Abnet, Neal D Freedman, Philip R Taylor, John M Maris, Katja K Aben, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Sita H Vermeulen, John K Wiencke, Kyle M Walsh, Margaret Wrensch, Terri Rice, Clare Turnbull, Kevin Litchfield, Lavinia Paternoster, Marie Standl, Gonçalo R Abecasis, John Paul SanGiovanni, Yong Li, Vladan Mijatovic, Yadav Sapkota, Siew-Kee Low, Krina T Zondervan, Grant W Montgomery, Dale R Nyholt, David A van Heel, Karen Hunt, Dan E Arking, Foram N Ashar, Nona Sotoodehnia, Daniel Woo, Jonathan Rosand, Mary E Comeau, W Mark Brown, Edwin K Silverman, John E Hokanson, Michael H Cho, Jennie Hui, Manuel A Ferreira, Philip J Thompson, Alanna C Morrison, Janine F Felix, Nicholas L Smith, Angela M Christiano, Lynn Petukhova, Regina C Betz, Xing Fan, Xuejun Zhang, Caihong Zhu, Carl D Langefeld, Susan D Thompson, Feijie Wang, Xu Lin, David A Schwartz, Tasha Fingerlin, Jerome I Rotter, Mary Frances Cotch, Richard A Jensen, Matthias Munz, Henrik Dommisch, Arne S Schaefer, Fang Han, Hanna M Ollila, Ryan P Hillary, Omar Albagha, Stuart H Ralston, Chenjie Zeng, Wei Zheng, Xiao-Ou Shu, Andre Reis, Steffen Uebe, Ulrike Hüffmeier, Yoshiya Kawamura, Takeshi Otowa, Tsukasa Sasaki, Martin Lloyd Hibberd, Sonia Davila, Gang Xie, Katherine Siminovitch, Jin-Xin Bei, Yi-Xin Zeng, Asta Försti, Bowang Chen, Stefano Landi, Andre Franke, Annegret Fischer, David Ellinghaus, Carlos Flores, Imre Noth, Shwu-Fan Ma, Jia Nee Foo, Jianjun Liu, Jong-Won Kim, David G Cox, Olivier Delattre, Olivier Mirabeau, Christine F Skibola, Clara S Tang, Merce Garcia-Barcelo, Kai-Ping Chang, Wen-Hui Su, Yu-Sun Chang, Nicholas G Martin, Scott Gordon, Tracey D Wade, Chaeyoung Lee, Michiaki Kubo, Pei-Chieng Cha, Yusuke Nakamura, Daniel Levy, Masayuki Kimura, Shih-Jen Hwang, Steven Hunt, Tim Spector, Nicole Soranzo, Ani W Manichaikul, R Graham Barr, Bratati Kahali, Elizabeth Speliotes, Laura M Yerges-Armstrong, Ching-Yu Cheng, Jost B Jonas, Tien Yin Wong, Isabella Fogh, Kuang Lin, John F Powell, Kenneth Rice, Caroline L Relton, Richard M Martin, George Davey Smith
Importance: The causal direction and magnitude of the association between telomere length and incidence of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases is uncertain owing to the susceptibility of observational studies to confounding and reverse causation. Objective: To conduct a Mendelian randomization study, using germline genetic variants as instrumental variables, to appraise the causal relevance of telomere length for risk of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases. Data Sources: Genomewide association studies (GWAS) published up to January 15, 2015...
February 23, 2017: JAMA Oncology
Corrine I Voils, Maren K Olsen, Jennifer M Gierisch, Megan A McVay, Janet M Grubber, Leslie Gaillard, Jamiyla Bolton, Matthew L Maciejewski, Elizabeth Strawbridge, William S Yancy
Background: Weight regain after successful weight loss interventions is common. Objective: To establish the efficacy of a weight loss maintenance program compared with usual care in obese adults. Design: 2-group, parallel, randomized trial stratified by initial weight loss (<10 kg vs. ≥10 kg), conducted from 20 August 2012 to 18 December 2015. Outcome assessors were blinded to treatment assignment. ( NCT01357551). Setting: 3 primary care clinics at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Durham and Raleigh, North Carolina...
February 21, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
Changquan Zhang, Shengjie Chen, Xinyu Ren, Yan Lu, Derui Liu, Xiuling Cai, Qianfeng Li, Jiping Gao, Qiaoquan Liu
OsGBSSI, encoded by the Waxy (Wx) gene, is the key enzyme in synthesis of amylose chains. Transgenic rice lines with varying GBSSI activity were previously developed via site-directed mutagenesis of the Wx gene in the glutinous cultivar Guanglingxiangnuo (GLXN). In this study, grain morphology, molecular structure, and physicochemical properties were investigated in four transgenic lines with modified OsGBSSI activity and differences in amylose content. A milky opaque appearance was observed in low and non-amylose rice grains due to air spaces in the starch granules...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Layla Simón, Abi K Funes, Martín A Yapur, María E Cabrillana, María A Monclus, Paola V Boarelli, Amanda E Vincenti, Tania E Saez Lancellotti, Miguel W Fornés
Hypercholesterolemia is a marker for several adult chronic diseases. Recently we demonstrated that sub/infertility is also associated to Hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. Seminal alterations included: abnormal sperm morphology, decreased sperm number and declined percentage of motile sperm, among others. In this work, our objective was to evaluate the effects of hypercholesterolemia on testicular efficiency and spermiogenesis, as the latter are directly related to sperm number and morphology respectively. Tubular efficiency was determined by comparing total number of spermatogenic cells with each cell type within the proliferation/differentiation compartments...
2017: PloS One
Fumio Matsuda, Syohei Kinoshita, Shunsuke Nishino, Atsumi Tomita, Hiroshi Shimizu
Central carbon metabolism is controlled by modulating the protein abundance profiles of enzymes that maintain the essential systems in living organisms. In this study, metabolic adaptation mechanisms in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated by direct determination of enzyme abundance levels in 30 wild type and mutant strains. We performed a targeted proteome analysis using S. cerevisiae strains that lack genes encoding the enzymes responsible for central carbon metabolism. Our analysis revealed that at least 30% of the observed variations in enzyme abundance levels could be explained by global regulatory mechanisms...
2017: PloS One
Tomasz Zaprutko, Dorota Kopciuch, Krzysztof Kus, Piotr Merks, Monika Nowicka, Izabela Augustyniak, Elżbieta Nowakowska
BACKGROUND: Medications and their prices are key issues for healthcare. Although access to medicines at affordable prices had been specified as a key objective of the European Health Policy, it seems that these goals have not been achieved. Therefore, we attempted an evaluation of affordability of selected medicines at full prices. METHODS: The analysis concerned 2012 and was conducted between 2013 and 2015 in all the European Union (EU) countries divided into 3 groups depending on the date of their accession to the EU...
2017: PloS One
Zdenek Svoboda, Lucia Bizovska, Miroslav Janura, Eliska Kubonova, Katerina Janurova, Nicolas Vuillerme
Considering that most of the falls in elderly population arise during walking, tests derived from walking performance would be desirable for comprehensive fall risk assessment. The analysis of spatial temporal parameters and the center of pressure displacement, which represents the interaction between the human body and the ground, would be beneficial. The aim of this study was to compare spatial temporal gait parameters and their variability and the variability of the center of pressure displacement between elderly fallers and nonfallers during gait at self-selected, defined and fast speeds...
2017: PloS One
Xiangmei Zhao, Xianzhi Yang, Chuanyu Gao, Yingjie Chu, Lei Yang, Lixiao Tian, Lin Li
BACKGROUND This study sought to compare the 30-day and 1-year survival of patients diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), whose symptom onset to in-hospital first medical contact (IHFMC) was 3-6 h, who received either in-hospital thrombolysis (IHT) in the nearest county hospital or direct transfer to a larger hospital in Henan province, China for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients were allocated into 2 groups: one group received IHT in the local county hospital, whereas the other group were transferred to the PCI centers to receive PPCI...
February 27, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Sébastien Peter, Sven Zur Oven-Krockhaus, Manikandan Veerabagu, Virtudes Mira-Rodado, Kenneth W Berendzen, Alfred J Meixner, Klaus Harter, Frank E Schleifenbaum
The yellow fluorescent protein YFP is frequently used in a protein complementation assay called Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC), employed to visualize protein-protein interactions. In this analysis, two different, nonfluorescent fragments of YFP are genetically attached to proteins of interest. Upon interaction of these proteins, the YFP fragments are brought into proximity close enough to reconstitute their original structure, enabling fluorescence. BiFC allows for a straightforward readout of protein-protein interactions and furthermore facilitates their functional investigation by in vivo imaging...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Vilma Sukiene, Natalie von Goetz, Andreas C Gerecke, Martine I Bakker, Christiaan J E Delmaar, Konrad Hungerbuehler
Two small-scale field studies were conducted to investigate the transfer of substances from products into dust due to direct and air-mediated transfer. The project focused on semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), which are frequently found in and re-emitted from dust. For the field studies, four artificial products containing deuterium-labelled SVOCs (eight phthalates and adipates) were installed in residential indoor environments. Two plastic products were installed vertically to consider substance transfer due to evaporation into air...
February 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Jaime W DuMont, Amy Marquardt, Austin Cano, Steven M George
The thermal atomic layer etching (ALE) of SiO2 was performed using sequential reactions of trimethylaluminum (TMA) and hydrogen fluoride (HF) at 300°C. Ex situ x-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements revealed that the etch rate during SiO2 ALE was dependent on reactant pressure. SiO2 etch rates of 0.027, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.31 Å/cycle were observed at static reactant pressures of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 4.0 Torr, respectively. Ex situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements were in agreement with these etch rates versus reactant pressure...
February 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Fabricio S Bergamin, Juliano P Almeida, Giovanni Landoni, Filomena R B G Galas, Julia T Fukushima, Evgeny Fominskiy, Clarice H L Park, Eduardo A Osawa, Maria P E Diz, Gisele Q Oliveira, Rafael A Franco, Rosana E Nakamura, Elisangela M Almeida, Edson Abdala, Maristela P Freire, Roberto K Filho, Jose Otavio C Auler, Ludhmila A Hajjar
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a restrictive strategy of RBC transfusion reduces 28-day mortality when compared with a liberal strategy in cancer patients with septic shock. DESIGN: Single center, randomized, double-blind controlled trial. SETTING: Teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Adult cancer patients with septic shock in the first 6 hours of ICU admission. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to the liberal (hemoglobin threshold, < 9g/dL) or to the restrictive strategy (hemoglobin threshold, < 7g/dL) of RBC transfusion during ICU stay...
February 24, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
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