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Biofluid dynamics

Yahui Yang, Siyuan Xing, Zecong Fang, Ruya Li, Helen Koo, Tingrui Pan
The latest development in wearable technologies has attracted much attention. In particular, collection and analysis of body fluids has been a focus. In this paper, we have reported a wearable microfluidic platform made using conventional fabric materials and laser micromachining to measure the flow rate on a patterned fabric surface, referred to as digital droplet flowmetry (DDF). The proposed wearable DDF is capable of collecting and measuring continuous perspiration with high precision (96% on average) in a real-time fashion over a defined area of skin...
February 15, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Jinbo Fei, He Zhang, Anhe Wang, Chenchen Qin, Huimin Xue, Junbai Li
The construction of quickly dissociating containers holding bioactive components that meet the extreme requirements of emergency treatment is highly desirable but remains a great challenge. Here the use of small-molecule-induced dynamic covalent assembly is reported for simple and tunable fabrication of a biocompatible diphenylalanine-based nanocontainer toward rapidly responsive cargo delivery. The assembled nanocontainer can adaptively encapsulate various charged or neutral molecules. Upon biofluid trigger, the encapsulated molecules and bioactive proteins are released in a burst (within 5 s) from the nanocontainer due to highly sensitive deprotonation-mediated disruption of hydrogen bonding...
February 8, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Chuanling Wan, Youyang Zhan, Rong Xue, Yijie Wu, Xiaojing Li, Fengkui Pei
OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were (1) to detect the dynamic metabonomic changes induced by gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) and (2) to investigate the potential metabolic disturbances associated with the pathogenesis of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) at the early stage. METHODS: A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the urinary and serum metabolic changes induced by a single tail vein injection of Gd-DTPA (dosed at 2 and 5mmol/kg body weight) in rats...
January 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Andrew D Southam, Ralf J M Weber, Jasper Engel, Martin R Jones, Mark R Viant
Metabolomic and lipidomic studies measure and discover metabolic and lipid profiles in biological samples, enabling a better understanding of the metabolism of specific biological phenotypes. Accurate biological interpretations require high analytical reproducibility and sensitivity, and standardized and transparent data processing. Here we describe a complete workflow for nanoelectrospray ionization (nESI) direct-infusion mass spectrometry (DIMS) metabolomics and lipidomics. After metabolite and lipid extraction from tissues and biofluids, samples are directly infused into a high-resolution mass spectrometer (e...
February 2016: Nature Protocols
Claire L Russell, Amanda Heslegrave, Vikram Mitra, Henrik Zetterberg, Jennifer M Pocock, Malcolm A Ward, Ian Pike
RATIONALE: Ideal biomarkers are present in readily accessible samples including plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and are directly derived from diseased tissue, therefore likely to be of relatively low abundance. Traditional unbiased proteomic approaches for biomarker discovery have struggled to detect low-abundance markers due to the high dynamic range of proteins, the predominance of hyper-abundant proteins, and the use of data-dependent acquisition mass spectrometry (MS). To overcome these limitations and improve biomarker discovery in peripheral fluids, we have developed TMTcalibrator™; a novel MS workflow combining isobarically labelled diseased tissue digests in parallel with an appropriate set of labelled body fluids to increase the chance of identifying low-abundance, tissue-derived biomarkers...
January 30, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
S W Ohl, E Klaseboer, A J Szeri, B C Khoo
Following previous work on the dynamics of an oscillating bubble near a bio-material (Ohl et al 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 6313-36) and the interaction of a bubble with a shockwave (Klaseboer et al 2007 J. Fluid Mech. 593 33-56), the present work concerns the interaction of a gas bubble with a traveling shock wave (such as from a lithotripter) in the vicinity of bio-materials such as fat, skin, muscle, cornea, cartilage, and bone. The bubble is situated in water (to represent a water-like biofluid). The bubble collapses are not spherically symmetric, but tend to feature a high speed jet...
October 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Xi Zhang
Precision medicine, particularly therapeutics, emphasizes the atomic-precise, dynamic, and systems visualization of human membrane proteins and their endogenous modifiers. For years, bottom-up proteomics has grappled with removing and avoiding detergents, yet faltered at the therapeutic-pivotal membrane proteins, which have been tackled by classical approaches and are known for decades refractory to single-phase aqueous or organic denaturants. Hydrophobicity and aggregation commonly challenge tissue and cell lysates, biofluids, and enriched samples...
September 16, 2016: Proteomics
Laura H Mariani, William F Pendergraft, Matthias Kretzler
Advances in biomedical research allow for the capture of an unprecedented level of genetic, molecular, and clinical information from large patient cohorts, where the quest for precision medicine can be pursued. An overarching goal of precision medicine is to integrate the large-scale genetic and molecular data with deep phenotypic information to identify a new mechanistic disease classification. This classification can ideally be used to meet the clinical goal of the right medication for the right patient at the right time...
November 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Zhen Gui, Quanbo Wang, Jinchang Li, Mingchen Zhu, Lili Yu, Tang Xun, Feng Yan, Huangxian Ju
As an emerging noninvasive blood biomarker, circulating free DNA (cfDNA) can be utilized to assess diagnosis, progression and evaluate prognosis of cancer. However, cfDNAs are not "naked", they can be part of complexes, or are bound to the surface of the cells via proteins, which make the detection more challenging. Here, a simple method for the detection of Ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 1 (UHRF1) DNA exacted from serum of breast cancer (BC) has been developed using a novel locked nucleic acid molecular beacon (LNA-MB)...
July 1, 2016: Talanta
Jinju Wang, Yun Zhong, Xiaotang Ma, Xiang Xiao, Chuanfang Cheng, Yusen Chen, Ifeanyi Iwuchukwu, Kenneth J Gaines, Bin Zhao, Shiming Liu, Jeffrey B Travers, Ji C Bihl, Yanfang Chen
Accurate analysis of specific microvesicles (MVs) from biofluids is critical and challenging. Here we described novel methods to purify and detect MVs shed from endothelial cells (ECs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) by combining microbeads with fluorescence quantum dots (Q-dots) coupled nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). In the in vitro screening systems, we demonstrated that 1) anti-CD105 (EC marker) and anti-CD34 (EPC marker) conjugated-microbeads had the highest sensitivity and specificity for isolating respective MVs, which were confirmed with negative controls, CD41 and CD235a; 2) anti-CD144 (EC marker) and anti-KDR (EPC marker) conjugated-Q-dots exhibited the best sensitivity and specificity for their respective MV NTA detection, which were confirmed with positive control, anti-Annexin V (MV universal marker)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Hannah E Rockwell, Fei Gao, Emily Y Chen, Justice McDaniel, Rangaprasad Sarangarajan, Niven R Narain, Michael A Kiebish
The development of enabling mass spectrometry platforms for the quantification of diverse lipid species in human urine is of paramount importance for understanding metabolic homeostasis in normal and pathophysiological conditions. Urine represents a non-invasive biofluid that can capture distinct differences in an individual's physiological status. However, currently there is a lack of quantitative workflows to engage in high throughput lipidomic analysis. This study describes the development of a MS/MS(ALL) shotgun lipidomic workflow and a micro liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) workflow for urine structural and mediator lipid analysis, respectively...
July 2016: Lipids
Chaochao Wu, Jicheng Duan, Tao Liu, Richard D Smith, Wei-Jun Qian
Human biofluids, especially blood plasma or serum, hold great potential as the sources of candidate biomarkers for various diseases; however, the enormous dynamic range of protein concentrations in biofluids represents a significant analytical challenge for detecting promising low-abundance proteins. Over the last decade, various immunoaffinity chromatographic methods have been developed and routinely applied for separating low-abundance proteins from the high- and moderate-abundance proteins, thus enabling much more effective detection of low-abundance proteins...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Peter Ping Lin
Application of tumor cell surface adhesion molecule Anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-dependent antibody capture, and intracellular cytokeratins (CKs)-dependent immunostaining strategies to detect disseminated or circulating tumor cells (DTCs or CTCs), is limited by highly heterogeneous and dynamic expression or absence of EpCAM and/or CKs in CTCs and DTCs, particularly in their capturing and identifying CTCs/DTCs shed from diverse types of solid tumor, thus being biased and restricted to the only both EpCAM and CK positive cancer cells...
December 2015: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Priya Nair, Brian W Chong, Aprinda Indahlastari, Justin Ryan, Christopher Workman, M Haithem Babiker, Hooman Yadollahi Farsani, Carlos E Baccin, David Frakes
Embolic coiling is one of the most effective treatments for cerebral aneurysms (CAs), largely due to the hemodynamic modifications that the treatment effects in the aneurysmal environment. However, coiling can have very different hemodynamic outcomes in aneurysms with different geometries. Previous work in the field of biofluid mechanics has demonstrated on a general level that geometry is a driving factor behind aneurysmal hemodynamics. The goal of this study was to relate two specific geometric factors that describe CAs (i...
February 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Valentina Colapicchioni, Martina Tilio, Luca Digiacomo, Valentina Gambini, Sara Palchetti, Cristina Marchini, Daniela Pozzi, Sergio Occhipinti, Augusto Amici, Giulio Caracciolo
When nanoparticles (NPs) are dispersed in a biofluid, they are covered by a protein corona the composition of which strongly depends on the protein source. Recent studies demonstrated that the type of disease has a crucial role in the protein composition of the NP corona with relevant implications on personalized medicine. Proteomic variations frequently occur in cancer with the consequence that the bio-identity of NPs in the blood of cancer patients may differ from that acquired after administration to healthy volunteers...
June 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
S Lenton, T Seydel, T Nylander, C Holt, M Härtlein, S Teixeira, G Zaccai
The sequestration of calcium phosphate by unfolded proteins is fundamental to the stabilization of biofluids supersaturated with respect to hydroxyapatite, such as milk, blood or urine. The unfolded state of osteopontin (OPN) is thought to be a prerequisite for this activity, which leads to the formation of core-shell calcium phosphate nanoclusters. We report on the structures and dynamics of a native OPN peptide from bovine milk, studied by neutron spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering...
September 6, 2015: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Juliana F de Santana, Viviane Pilla, Anielle C A Silva, Noelio O Dantas, Djalmir N Messias, Acácio A Andrade
The present work reports the spectroscopic and thermo-optical properties of CdSe/ZnS and CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) embedded in synthetic saliva. Spectroscopy studies were performed applying nonfunctionalized CdSe/ZnS QDs (3.4, 3.9 and 5.1 nm cores) and hydroxyl group-functionalized ultrasmall CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (1.6 nm core) suspended in artificial saliva at different potential of hydrogen (pH) values. Saliva was chosen because it is important in a variety of functions such as protecting teeth through the buffering capacity of the formed biofilm, hydration, and dental remineralization...
October 2015: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Toby J Athersuch, Hector C Keun
The human metabolome-the complement of small molecule metabolites present in biofluids and tissues-represents a significant part of the internal chemical milieu and is therefore an important aspect of the human exposome. Metabolic profiling approaches, commonly referred to as metabonomics or metabolomics, permit detailed and efficient characterisation of human biospecimens; application to population studies holds great promise for uncovering new associations and causal relationships between environmental factors and chronic disease...
November 2015: Mutagenesis
Feng Ge, Haishi Zhang, Daisy Dandan Wang, Linda Li, Peter Ping Lin
Conventional strategy of anti-EpCAM capture and immunostaining of cytokeratins (CKs) to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is limited by highly heterogeneous and dynamic expression or absence of EpCAM and/or CKs in CTCs. In this study, a novel integrated cellular and molecular approach of subtraction enrichment (SE) and immunostaining-FISH (iFISH) was successfully developed. Both large or small size CTCs and circulating tumor microemboli (CTM) in various biofluid samples including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of cancer patients and patient-derived-xenograft (PDX) mouse models were efficiently enriched and comprehensively identified and characterized by SE-iFISH...
September 29, 2015: Oncotarget
Yinghua Guan, Kevin J Cao, Adam Cantlon, Kristyna Elbel, Emmanuel A Theodorakis, Dominic M Walsh, Jerry Yang, Jagesh V Shah
This work describes the use of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and a novel amyloid-binding fluorescent probe, ARCAM 1, to monitor the aggregation of the Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid β-peptide (Aβ). ARCAM 1 exhibits a large increase in fluorescence emission upon binding to Aβ assemblies, making it an excellent candidate for probe enhancement FCS (PE-FCS). ARCAM 1 binding does not change Aβ aggregation kinetics. It also exhibits greater dynamic range as a probe in reporting aggregate size by FCS in Aβ, when compared to thioflavin T (ThT) or an Aβ peptide modified with a fluorophore...
September 16, 2015: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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