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Biofluid dynamics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117317/superior-retinal-gene-transfer-and-biodistribution-profile-of-subretinal-versus-intravitreal-delivery-of-aav8-in-nonhuman-primates
#1
Immanuel P Seitz, Stylianos Michalakis, Barbara Wilhelm, Felix F Reichel, G Alex Ochakovski, Eberhart Zrenner, Marius Ueffing, Martin Biel, Bernd Wissinger, Karl U Bartz-Schmidt, Tobias Peters, M Dominik Fischer
Purpose: To investigate shedding and biodistribution characteristics of recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (rAAV8) after single-dose subretinal or intravitreal injection in nonhuman primates (NHP, Macaca fascicularis) as a surrogate for environmental hazard and patient safety. Methods: In a study for regulatory submission, 22 NHP were divided into four cohorts receiving either single subretinal injections of vehicle or clinical grade rAAV8 (1 × 1011 or 1 × 1012 vector genomes [vg]) versus single intravitreal application of 1 × 1012 vg...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071798/the-protein-corona-on-nanoparticles-as-viewed-from-a-nanoparticle-sizing-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Haixia Wang, Youhui Lin, Karin Nienhaus, G Ulrich Nienhaus
Most surfaces of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are reactive toward biomolecules. Therefore, whenever NPs become immersed in biological fluids, proteins and other biomolecules bind to the NP surface, forming an adsorption layer (biomolecular corona) that modifies the NPs' physicochemical properties and subsequent interactions with living systems. Its exploration is a formidable endeavor owing to the enormous diversity of engineered NPs in terms of their physicochemical properties and the vast number of biomolecules available in biofluids that may bind to NPs with widely different strengths...
October 26, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019138/dige-analysis-of-immunodepleted-plasma
#3
Paul Dowling, Kay Ohlendieck
This chapter will focus on upstream immunodepletion of high abundant proteins from plasma samples and subsequent analysis by difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE). The abundances of proteins in biofluid proteomes, such as serum, plasma, saliva, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), can exceed 10 orders of magnitude. This substantial dynamic range is problematic for the detection of medium and low abundance proteins by DIGE analysis. To increase the detection, quantification, and identification of medium-low abundant proteins, the targeted depletion of known abundant proteins with antibody columns has been successfully employed...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019129/dige-analysis-of-proteominer-tm-fractionated-serum-plasma-samples
#4
Sandra Murphy, Paul Dowling
The discovery of clinically relevant biomarkers using gel-based proteomics has proven extremely challenging, principally because of the large dynamic range of protein abundances in biofluids such as blood and the fact that only a small number of proteins constitute the vast majority of total blood protein mass. Various separation, depletion, enrichment, and quantitative developments coupled with improvements in gel-based protein quantification technologies, specifically difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE), have contributed to significant improvements in the detection and identification of lower abundance proteins...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947971/dynamic-circulating-tumor-dna-quantificaton-for-the-individualization-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-treatment
#5
Mariano Provencio, María Torrente, Virgina Calvo, Lourdes Gutiérrez, David Pérez-Callejo, Clara Pérez-Barrios, Miguel Barquín, Ana Royuela, Begoña Rodriguez-Alfonso, Miguel Sotelo, Juan Luis Cruz-Bermúdez, Miriam Mendez, Alberto Cruz-Bermúdez, Atocha Romero
BACKGROUND: Liquid biopsy has evolved from being a promising line to becoming a validated approach for biomarker testing. However, its utility for individualization of therapy has been scarcely reported. In this study, we show how monitoring levels of EGFR mutation in plasma can be useful for the individualization of treatment. RESULTS: Longitudinal EGFR mutation levels in plasma always correlated with tumor response ascertained by RECIST criteria. Moreover, decreasing EGFR mutation levels were detected in all patients benefiting from locoregional radiotherapy, whereas the opposite occurred when a patient progressed soon after radiotherapy treatment...
September 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910197/optimal-reference-genes-for-rt-qpcr-normalization-in-the-newborn
#6
P Khanna, K L Johnson, J L Maron
It is difficult to identify reliable reference genes for transcriptomic analyses in biofluids such as saliva. This situation is particularly relevant for the newborn population, where rapid development is associated with dynamic changes in gene expression. Real-time gene expression monitoring holds great promise for elucidating disrupted pathways that result in morbidities unique to this population, such as retinopathy of prematurity, but its impact depends on identifying stable and consistently expressed genes across a wide range of gestational ages...
September 14, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881314/analytical-characterization-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-potential-applications-in-pharmaceutical-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Márkó Grabarics, Orsolya Csernák, Réka Balogh, Szabolcs Béni
Human breast milk is the gold standard for infant feeding and the best possible nourishment a new-born could have. Breastfeeding is the natural way to provide optimal nutritional, immunological and emotional nurturing for the healthy growth and development of infants. Human milk is a complex and dynamic biofluid comprised of many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive structures, among which one of the most abundant substances are the non-conjugated complex carbohydrates referred to as human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs)...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757769/the-borderland-between-normal-aging-and-dementia
#8
REVIEW
Raymond Y Lo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become a global health issue as the population ages. There is no effective treatment to protect against its occurrence or progression. Some argue that the lack of treatment response is due to delays in diagnosis. By the time a diagnosis of AD is made, neurodegenerative changes are at the stage where very few neurons can be salvaged by medication. The AD research community has developed the idea of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in an attempt to find predementia patients who might benefit from potentially therapeutic drugs that have proven ineffective in the past...
April 2017: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709282/hybrid-smoothed-dissipative-particle-dynamics-and-immersed-boundary-method-for-simulation-of-red-blood-cells-in-flows
#9
Ting Ye, Nhan Phan-Thien, Chwee Teck Lim, Lina Peng, Huixin Shi
In biofluid flow systems, often the flow problems of fluids of complex structures, such as the flow of red blood cells (RBCs) through complex capillary vessels, need to be considered. The smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD), a particle-based method, is one of the easy and flexible methods to model such complex structure fluids. It couples the best features of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), with parameters having specific physical meaning (coming from SPH discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations), combined with thermal fluctuations in a mesoscale simulation, in a similar manner to the DPD...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700536/fully-implantable-battery-free-wireless-optoelectronic-devices-for-spinal-optogenetics
#10
Vijay K Samineni, Jangyeol Yoon, Kaitlyn E Crawford, Yu Ra Jeong, Kajanna C McKenzie, Gunchul Shin, Zhaoqian Xie, Saranya S Sundaram, Yuhang Li, Min Young Yang, Jeonghyun Kim, Di Wu, Yeguang Xue, Xue Feng, Yonggang Huang, Aaron D Mickle, Anthony Banks, Jeong Sook Ha, Judith P Golden, John A Rogers, Robert W Gereau
The advent of optogenetic tools has allowed unprecedented insights into the organization of neuronal networks. Although recently developed technologies have enabled implementation of optogenetics for studies of brain function in freely moving, untethered animals, wireless powering and device durability pose challenges in studies of spinal cord circuits where dynamic, multidimensional motions against hard and soft surrounding tissues can lead to device degradation. We demonstrate here a fully implantable optoelectronic device powered by near-field wireless communication technology, with a thin and flexible open architecture that provides excellent mechanical durability, robust sealing against biofluid penetration and fidelity in wireless activation, thereby allowing for long-term optical stimulation of the spinal cord without constraint on the natural behaviors of the animals...
November 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674896/blood-and-plasma-proteomics-targeted-quantitation-and-posttranslational-redox-modifications
#11
Julie A Reisz, Katelyn M Chessler, Monika Dzieciatkowska, Angelo D'Alessandro, Kirk C Hansen
Proteome profiling using mass spectrometry is extensively utilized to understand the physiological characteristics of cells, tissues, fluids, and many other biological matrices. From the earliest days of the proteomics era, exploratory analyses of the blood protein complement have attracted a great deal of interest, owing to the pivotal importance of blood cells and biofluids (serum, plasma) for research and biomedical purposes. Once challenged by the high dynamic range of protein concentrations, low sensitivity of mass spectrometers, and poor annotation of proteomics databases, the techniques in this field have quickly evolved in recent years, particularly in the areas of absolute quantification of proteins and in mapping of posttranslational modifications...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507240/mathematical-methods-in-medicine-neuroscience-cardiology-and-pathology
#12
REVIEW
José M Amigó, Michael Small
The application of mathematics, natural sciences and engineering to medicine is gaining momentum as the mutual benefits of this collaboration become increasingly obvious. This theme issue is intended to highlight the trend in the case of mathematics. Specifically, the scope of this theme issue is to give a general view of the current research in the application of mathematical methods to medicine, as well as to show how mathematics can help in such important aspects as understanding, prediction, treatment and data processing...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332230/screening-and-identification-of-multiple-constituents-and-their-metabolites-of-zhi-zi-chi-decoction-in-rat-urine-and-bile-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#13
Wei Feng, Qiuju Dong, Minyan Liu, Si Li, Ting Liu, Xinguo Wang, Liying Niu
Zhi-zi-chi decoction (ZZCD) is a classical formula widely used in Chinese clinical application. In the present study, a novel and efficient strategy has been developed for screening and identification of multiple constituents and their metabolites of ZZCD using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with triple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The novel approach of an online data acquisition method dependent on multiple mass defect filter and dynamic background subtraction is combined with multiple data processing techniques...
October 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317393/structural-analysis-of-two-different-stent-configurations
#14
M Simão, J M Ferreira, J Mora-Rodriguez, H M Ramos
Two different stent configurations (i.e. the well known Palmaz-Schatz (PS) and a new stent configuration) are mechanically investigated. A finite element model was used to study the two geometries under combining loads and a computational fluid dynamic model based on fluid structure interaction was developed investigating the plaque and the artery wall reactions in a stented arterial segment. These models determine the stress and displacement fields of the two stents under internal pressure conditions. Results suggested that stent designs cause alterations in vascular anatomy that adversely affect arterial stress distributions within the wall, which have impact in the vessel responses such as the restenosis...
June 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314103/computational-study-of-the-forces-driving-aggregation-of-ultrasmall-nanoparticles-in-biological-fluids
#15
Sergio A Hassan
Nanoparticle (NP) aggregation can lead to prolonged retention in tissues or embolism, among other adverse effects. Successful use in biomedicine thus requires the capability to make NPs with limited aggregative potential. Rational design is presently a challenge due to incomplete knowledge of their interactions in biofluids. Recently, ultrasmall gold NPs passivated with endogenous antioxidant glutathione have shown promise for use in vivo. Computer simulations are here conducted to identify the forces underlying aggregation (or lack thereof) of these NPs in a cell culture...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268867/fea-modeling-and-fluid-flow-simulation-of-human-rectum-with-inserted-bowel-catheters
#16
Yong Zhang, Tina VanRiper, Brian Rague, Drew Weidman
In this project, fluid flow and fluid-structure interaction are studied for the human lower gastrointestinal (GI) region. The study consists of two steps. First, we apply meshing methods to discretize both the human lower GI model and the catheter model at sufficient resolution suitable for importing into a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) tool. For model discretization, 3D models of the colon reconstructed from human MRI slices are used to obtain the valid inlet and outlet boundary surfaces. To resolve the viscous boundary layer in flow studies, a special structure of the near-wall volumetric mesh is built by triangular prisms that construct quasi-structured, multiple near-boundary sub-layers...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227065/fea-modeling-and-fluid-flow-simulation-of-human-rectum-with-inserted-bowel-catheters
#17
Yong Zhang, Tina VanRiper, Brian Rague, Drew Weidman, Yong Zhang, Tina VanRiper, Brian Rague, Drew Weidman, Tina VanRiper, Drew Weidman, Brian Rague, Yong Zhang
In this project, fluid flow and fluid-structure interaction are studied for the human lower gastrointestinal (GI) region. The study consists of two steps. First, we apply meshing methods to discretize both the human lower GI model and the catheter model at sufficient resolution suitable for importing into a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) tool. For model discretization, 3D models of the colon reconstructed from human MRI slices are used to obtain the valid inlet and outlet boundary surfaces. To resolve the viscous boundary layer in flow studies, a special structure of the near-wall volumetric mesh is built by triangular prisms that construct quasi-structured, multiple near-boundary sub-layers...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197582/wearable-microfluidics-fabric-based-digital-droplet-flowmetry-for-perspiration-analysis
#18
Yahui Yang, Siyuan Xing, Zecong Fang, Ruya Li, Helen Koo, Tingrui Pan
The latest development in wearable technologies has attracted much attention. In particular, collection and analysis of body fluids has been a focus. In this paper, we have reported a wearable microfluidic platform made using conventional fabric materials and laser micromachining to measure the flow rate on a patterned fabric surface, referred to as digital droplet flowmetry (DDF). The proposed wearable DDF is capable of collecting and measuring continuous perspiration with high precision (96% on average) in a real-time fashion over a defined area of skin...
February 15, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177202/biofluid-triggered-burst-release-from-an-adaptive-covalently-assembled-dipeptide-nanocontainer-for-emergency-treatment
#19
Jinbo Fei, He Zhang, Anhe Wang, Chenchen Qin, Huimin Xue, Junbai Li
The construction of quickly dissociating containers holding bioactive components that meet the extreme requirements of emergency treatment is highly desirable but remains a great challenge. Here the use of small-molecule-induced dynamic covalent assembly is reported for simple and tunable fabrication of a biocompatible diphenylalanine-based nanocontainer toward rapidly responsive cargo delivery. The assembled nanocontainer can adaptively encapsulate various charged or neutral molecules. Upon biofluid trigger, the encapsulated molecules and bioactive proteins are released in a burst (within 5 s) from the nanocontainer due to highly sensitive deprotonation-mediated disruption of hydrogen bonding...
February 8, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095303/gd-dtpa-induced-dynamic-metabonomic-changes-in-rat-biofluids
#20
Chuanling Wan, Youyang Zhan, Rong Xue, Yijie Wu, Xiaojing Li, Fengkui Pei
OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were (1) to detect the dynamic metabonomic changes induced by gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) and (2) to investigate the potential metabolic disturbances associated with the pathogenesis of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) at the early stage. METHODS: A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the urinary and serum metabolic changes induced by a single tail vein injection of Gd-DTPA (dosed at 2 and 5mmol/kg body weight) in rats...
December 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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