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Neuroradiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442134/torgny-greitz-md-phd-facr-professor-of-neuroradiology-emeritus
#1
Tomas Hindmarsh, Olof Flodmark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439808/neuroradiologic-correlation-with-aphasias-cortico-subcortical-map-of-language
#2
M M Jiménez de la Peña, L Gómez Vicente, R García Cobos, V Martínez de Vega
Aphasia is an acquired language disorder due to a cerebral lesion; it is characterized by errors in production, denomination, or comprehension of language. Although most aphasias are mixed, from a practical point of view they are classified into different types according to their main clinical features: Broca's aphasia, Wernicke's aphasia, conduction aphasia, transcortical aphasia, and alexia with or without agraphia. We present the clinical findings for the main subtypes of aphasia, illustrating them with imaging cases, and we provide an up-to-date review of the language network with images from functional magnetic resonance imaging and tractography...
February 10, 2018: Radiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436880/cotard-s-syndrome-triggered-by-fear-in-a-patient-with-intellectual-disability-causal-or-casual-link
#3
Fabrizio Sottile, Rosaria De Luca, Lilla Bonanno, Giuseppina Finzi, Carmela Casella, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Cotard's syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disease characterized by a variety of nihilistic delusions, commonly associated with several psychotic and major affective disorders, and neurological diseases, including stroke, dementia, and mental retardation. A 39-year-old male with mental retardation developed Cotard's syndrome, following an important episode of fear. During admission to our neurological unit, the patient underwent an accurate assessment, including neuroradiological, clinical, and neuropsychological examinations...
February 13, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436443/diagnosis-and-management-of-cerebral-venous-thrombosis
#4
Roya Behrouzi, Martin Punter
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is rare and accounts for 0.5% of all strokes. Its clinical presentation is variable and diagnosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion in conjunction with neuroradiological diagnostic support. Treatment options are limited and are mostly based on consensus. Therefore, familiarity with international guidelines is important. Outcome is often good and most patients make a full recovery, although a small proportion suffers death or disability. Here, we describe the clinical features, risk factors, acute imaging features, management and complications of CVT...
February 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432985/a-relatively-mild-phenotype-associated-with-mutation-of-scn8a
#5
Irene Bagnasco, Patrizia Dassi, Roberta Blé, Piernanda Vigliano
Mutations in SCN8A gene have been described in relation to infantile onset epilepsy with movement disorders and developmental delay. Recently various authors have reported patients carrying autosomal dominant heterozygous SCN8A mutations and a milder phenotype expression. We discuss the case of a 6-year-old girl with a positive family history for epilepsy, early benign focal epilepsy, well controlled by Carbamazepine, upper limb tremor since birth, ataxia, slight motor delay and normal cognitive development...
February 7, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431424/gadolinium-free-contrast-agents-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-central-nervous-system
#6
Eric M Gale, Peter Caravan
We discuss how the recent revelation that gadolinium (Gd) from commercially available MRI contrast agents is irreversibly and cumulatively deposited in the central nervous system is driving innovation toward Gd-free contrast agents for neuroradiology.
February 12, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423614/mri-of-the-first-event-in-pediatric-acquired-demyelinating-syndromes-with-antibodies-to-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein
#7
Matthias Baumann, Astrid Grams, Tanja Djurdjevic, Eva-Maria Wendel, Christian Lechner, Bettina Behring, Astrid Blaschek, Katharina Diepold, Astrid Eisenkölbl, Joel Fluss, Michael Karenfort, Johannes Koch, Bahadir Konuşkan, Steffen Leiz, Andreas Merkenschlager, Daniela Pohl, Mareike Schimmel, Charlotte Thiels, Barbara Kornek, Kathrin Schanda, Markus Reindl, Kevin Rostásy
Antibodies against the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-Ab) can be detected in various pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS). Here, we analyze the spectrum of neuroradiologic findings in children with MOG-Ab and a first demyelinating event. The cerebral and spinal MRI of 69 children with different ADS was assessed in regard to the distribution and characteristics of lesions. Children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 36) or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (n = 5) presented an imaging pattern characterized predominantly by poorly demarcated lesions with a wide supra- and infratentorial distribution...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419402/deep-learning-in-neuroradiology
#8
REVIEW
G Zaharchuk, E Gong, M Wintermark, D Rubin, C P Langlotz
Deep learning is a form of machine learning using a convolutional neural network architecture that shows tremendous promise for imaging applications. It is increasingly being adapted from its original demonstration in computer vision applications to medical imaging. Because of the high volume and wealth of multimodal imaging information acquired in typical studies, neuroradiology is poised to be an early adopter of deep learning. Compelling deep learning research applications have been demonstrated, and their use is likely to grow rapidly...
February 1, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410070/the-neuroimaging-basis-of-apathy-empirical-findings-and-conceptual-challenges
#9
Sergio E Starkstein, Simone Brockman
Apathy, usually defined as loss of motivation, is common in both neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, and acute neurological disorders such as stroke. Neuroradiological studies on the imaging correlates of apathy have used a variety of methods such as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and single photon and positron emission tomography to assess brain metabolic activity and specific synaptic receptors. Dysfunction of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the strongest anatomical correlate of apathy in Alzheimer's disease, whereas lesions of the basal ganglia are the most common correlates of apathy in cerebrovascular disorders...
February 2, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406573/phenotypic-characterization-of-kctd3-related-developmental-epileptic-encephalopathy
#10
E A Faqeih, M Almannai, M M Saleh, A H AlWadie, M M Samman, F S Alkuraya
The association between KCTD3 gene and neurogenetic disorders has only been published recently. In this report, we describe the clinical phenotype associated with two pathogenic variants in KCTD3 gene. Seven individuals (including one set of monozygotic twin) from four consanguineous families presented with developmental epileptic encephalopathy, global developmental delay, central hypotonia, progressive peripheral hypertonia, and variable dysmorphic facial features. Posterior fossa abnormalities (ranging from Dandy-Walker malformation to isolated hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis) were consistently observed in addition to other variable neuroradiological abnormalities such as hydrocephalus and abnormal brain myelination...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405032/the-multisystem-degeneration-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-neuropathological-staging-and-clinical-translation
#11
Federico Verde, Kelly Del Tredici, Heiko Braak, Albert Ludolph
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is traditionally considered a disease affecting exclusively motor neurons. However, much evidence points towards additional involvement of brain systems other than the motor. As much as half of ALS patients display cognitive-behavioral disturbances. ALS shares with a considerable proportion of FTD cases the same neuropathological substrate, namely, inclusions of abnormally phosphorylated protein TDP-43 (pTDP-43). In analogy with pathological staging systems elaborated in the past decades for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), a model of staging of pTDP-43 pathology in sporadic ALS (sALS) has been recently proposed...
December 1, 2017: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391404/perivascular-spaces-segmentation-in-brain-mri-using-optimal-3d-filtering
#12
Lucia Ballerini, Ruggiero Lovreglio, Maria Del C Valdés Hernández, Joel Ramirez, Bradley J MacIntosh, Sandra E Black, Joanna M Wardlaw
Perivascular Spaces (PVS) are a feature of Small Vessel Disease (SVD), and are an important part of the brain's circulation and glymphatic drainage system. Quantitative analysis of PVS on Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) is important for understanding their relationship with neurological diseases. In this work, we propose a segmentation technique based on the 3D Frangi filtering for extraction of PVS from MRI. We used ordered logit models and visual rating scales as alternative ground truth for Frangi filter parameter optimization and evaluation...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390574/a-case-report-of-parenchymal-hematoma-after-intravenous-thrombolysis-in-a-rivaroxaban-treated-patient-is-it-a-true-rivaroxaban-hemorrhagic-complication
#13
Eugenia Rota, Gianluca Bruzzone, Sergio Agosti, Roberto Pastorino, Nicola Morelli
RATIONALE: To date, the only treatment approved for acute ischemic strokes is thrombolysis. Whether intravenous thrombolysis may be safe in patients taking direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) is currently a matter of debate. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 74-year-old woman, who was on rivaroxaban 20 mg/d for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, was admitted to our stroke unit with left-sided hemiparesis and aphasia. The onset of neurologic deficits had occurred 5 hours after the last rivaroxaban dose...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390227/critical-analysis-of-an-e-learning-and-interactive-teaching-module-with-respect-to-the-interpretation-of-emergency-computed-tomography-of-the-brain
#14
Michael Groth, Käthe Greta Barthe, Martin Riemer, Marielle Ernst, Jochen Herrmann, Jens Fiehler, Jan-Hendrik Buhk
PURPOSE:  To compare the learning benefit of three different teaching strategies on the interpretation of emergency cerebral computed tomography (CT) pathologies by medical students. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Three groups of students with different types of teaching (e-learning, interactive teaching, and standard curricular education in neuroradiology) were tested with respect to the detection of seven CT pathologies. The test results of each group were compared for each CT pathology using the chi-square test...
February 1, 2018: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384955/a-rare-case-report-of-complications-in-craniofacial-injuries-cavernous-sinus-carotid-fistula
#15
Dong Wang, Xiao-Mei Sun, Jin Wu
RATIONALE: Cavernous sinus-carotid fistula (CCF) is a rare complication of craniofacial injuries in patients receiving oral and maxillofacial surgical care. PATIENT CONCERNS: A retrospective review of 15 patients with CCF records was conducted. In addition, we present a rare case of a 32-year-old Chinese woman with CCF receiving oral and maxillofacial surgical care. DIAGNOSES: Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) confirmed a diagnosis of CCF...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384842/clinical-and-radiological-features-of-marchiafava-bignami-disease
#16
Xiaoyu Dong, Chaobo Bai, Jianfei Nao
Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare neurological disease usually associated with chronic alcoholism and characterized by demyelination and necrosis. Our aims were to describe the clinicoradiological features and identify factors that may affect the prognosis of patients with MBD.We examined clinical manifestations, laboratory results, and neuroradiological features of 9 patients with MBD. The patients were classified into 2 subgroups (favorable and poor outcome subgroups) based on the Modified Oxford Handicap Scale (MOSH)...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382480/-association-between-homozygous-c-318a-gt-mutation-in-exon-2-of-the-eif2b5-gene-and-the-infantile-form-of-vanishing-white-matter-leukoencephalopathy
#17
Carmen Esmer, Gabriela Blanco Hernández, Víctor Saavedra Alanís, Jorge Guillermo Reyes Vaca, Antonio Bravo Oro
BACKGROUND: Vanishing white matter disease is one of the most frequent leukodystrophies in childhood with an autosomal recessive inheritance. A mutation in one of the genes encoding the five subunits of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (EIF2B5) is present in 90% of the cases. The diagnosis can be accomplished by the clinical and neuroradiological findings and molecular tests. CASE REPORT: We describe a thirteen-month-old male with previous normal neurodevelopment, who was hospitalized for vomiting, hyperthermia and irritability...
September 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359243/neonatal-mitochondrial-leukoencephalopathy-with-brain-and-spinal-involvement-and-high-lactate-expanding-the-phenotype-of-isca2-gene-mutations
#18
Irene Toldo, Margherita Nosadini, Chiara Boscardin, Giacomo Talenti, Renzo Manara, Eleonora Lamantea, Andrea Legati, Daniele Ghezzi, Giorgio Perilongo, Stefano Sartori
A homoallelic missense founder mutation of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly 2 (ISCA2) gene has been recently reported in six cases affected by an autosomal recessive infantile neurodegenerative mitochondrial disorder. We documented a case of a 2-month-old girl presenting with severe hypotonia and nystagmus, who rapidly deteriorated and died at the age of three months. Increased cerebral spinal fluid level of lactate, documented also at the brain spectroscopy, involvement of the cortex, restricted diffusion of white and gray matter abnormalities, sparing of the corpus callosum and extensive involvement of the spinal cord were observed...
January 23, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357120/magnetic-resonance-perfusion-for-differentiating-low-grade-from-high-grade-gliomas-at-first-presentation
#19
REVIEW
Jill M Abrigo, Daniel M Fountain, James M Provenzale, Eric K Law, Joey Sw Kwong, Michael G Hart, Wilson Wai San Tam
BACKGROUND: Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumour. They are graded using the WHO classification system, with Grade II-IV astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are WHO Grade II infiltrative brain tumours that typically appear solid and non-enhancing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. People with LGG often have little or no neurologic deficit, so may opt for a watch-and-wait-approach over surgical resection, radiotherapy or both, as surgery can result in early neurologic disability...
January 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353399/mri-findings-in-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-associated-autoimmune-epilepsy
#20
Jason R Fredriksen, Carrie M Carr, Kelly K Koeller, Jared T Verdoorn, Avi Gadoth, Sean J Pittock, Amy L Kotsenas
PURPOSE: Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) has been implicated in a number of autoimmune-associated neurologic syndromes, including autoimmune epilepsy. This study categorizes the spectrum of MRI findings in patients with a clinical diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsy and elevated serum GAD65 autoantibodies. METHODS: An institutional database search identified patients with elevated serum GAD65 antibodies and a clinical diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsy who had undergone brain MRI...
January 20, 2018: Neuroradiology
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