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Md Moniruzzaman, Young-Won Chin, Jungsook Cho
Physalis alkekengi var. francheti is an indigenous herb well known for its anti-inflammatory, sedative, antipyretic, and expectorant properties. However, the information regarding the impacts of P. alkekengi fruits (PAF) in modulation of oxidative stress and learning memory are still unknown. This study therefore evaluated the antioxidant properties of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of PAF and its impacts on learning and memory. The antioxidant activities of PAF were evaluated in LPS-induced BV2 microglial cells...
March 15, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Rasa Tamosiuniene, Olga Manouvakhova, Paul Mesange, Toshie Saito, Jin Qian, Mrinmoy Sanyal, Yu-Chun Lin, Linh P Nguyen, Amir Luria, Allen B Tu, Joshua M Sante, Marlene Rabinovitch, Desmond J Fitzgerald, Brian B Graham, Aida Habtezion, Norbert F Voelkel, Laure Aurelian, Mark R Nicolls
<u>Rationale:</u> Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) is a life-threatening condition associated with immune dysregulation and abnormal regulatory T cell (Treg) activity, but it is currently unknown whether and how abnormal Treg function differentially affects males and females. <u>Objective:</u> To evaluate whether and how Treg-deficiency differentially affects male and female rats in experimental PH. <u>Methods and Results:</u> Male and female athymic rnu/rnu rats, lacking Tregs, were treated with the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) inhibitor SU5416 or chronic hypoxia and evaluated for PH; some animals underwent Treg immune reconstitution (IR) before SU5416 administration...
March 15, 2018: Circulation Research
Dicson Sheeja Malar, Venkatesan Suryanarayanan, Mani Iyer Prasanth, Sanjeev Kumar Singh, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan, Kasi Pandima Devi
Amyloid beta (Aβ) formation is one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), further leading to the alteration of several signalling pathways. In the present study, vitexin has been evaluated for its neuroprotective activity against Aβ25-35 induced toxicity in Neuro-2a cells. Results of cell free studies indicated that vitexin significantly inhibited the aggregation of Aβ25-35 . Studies in Neuro-2a cells revealed that Aβ25-35 significantly affected the cell viability by inducing ROS mediated toxicity and apoptosis...
March 12, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Yuko Arita, Michael Kirk, Neha Gupta, Ramkumar Menon, Darios Getahun, Morgan R Peltier
OBJECTIVE: Tributyltin (TBT) is a persistent pollutant but its effects on placental function are poorly understood as are its possible interactions with infection. We hypothesized that TBT alters the production of sex hormones and biomarkers for inflammation and neurodevelopment in an infection-dependent manner. METHODS: Placental explant cultures were treated with 0-5000 nM TBT in the presence and absence of Escherichia coli. A conditioned medium was harvested and concentrations of steroids (progesterone, P4; testosterone, T and estradiol, E2) as well as biomarkers of inflammation [interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, soluble glycoprotein 130 (sgp-130) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)], oxidative stress [8-iso-prostaglandin (8-IsoP)] and neurodevelopment [brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)] were quantified...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Prama Pallavi, Marc Pretze, Julio Caballero, Yingchun Li, Björn B Hofmann, Eleni Stamellou, Sarah Klotz, Carmen Wängler, Björn Wängler, Ralf Loesel, Steffen Roth, Bastian Theisinger, Handan Moerz, Uta Binzen, Wolfgang Greffrath, Rolf-Detlef Treede, Martin C Harmsen, Bernhard K Krämer, Mathias Hafner, Benito A Yard, Anna-Isabelle Kälsch
We studied the chemical entities within N-octanoyl dopamine (NOD) responsible for transient receptor potential channels of the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (TRPV1) activation and inhibition of inflammation. The efficacy of NOD to activate TRPV1 was significantly higher compared to variants in which the ortho-dihydroxy groups were acetylated, one of the hydroxy groups was omitted (N-octanoyl tyramine) or the ester functionality consisted of a bulky fatty acid (N-pivaloyl dopamine). Shortening of the amide linker (ΔNOD) slightly increased its efficacy which further increased by interchanging the carbonyl and amide groups (ΔNODR)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Wen Zhang, Jun-Ke Song, Rong Yan, Li Li, Zhi-Yong Xiao, Wen-Xia Zhou, Zhen-Zhong Wang, Wei Xiao, Guan-Hua Du
Diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection (DGMI) is a therapeutic extract of Ginkgo biloba L, which has been used for the treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke in China. Ginkgolides A, B and C are the main components of DGMI. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of DGMI components against ischemic stroke in vivo and in vitro. Acute cerebral ischemic injury was induced in rats by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) for 1.5 h followed by 24 h reperfusion. The rats were treated with DGMI (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, iv) at the onset of reperfusion and 12 h after reperfusion...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Bassant M Barakat, Hebatalla I Ahmed, Hoda I Bahr, Alaaeldeen M Elbahaie
The current study aimed to investigate the potential protective role of boswellic acids (BAs) against doxorubicin- (DOX-) induced hepatotoxicity. Also, the possible mechanisms underlying this protection; antioxidant, as well as the modulatory effect on the Nrf2 transcription factor/hem oxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1) pathway in liver tissues, was investigated. Animals were allocated to five groups: group 1: the saline control, group 2: the DOX group, animals received DOX (6 mg/kg, i.p.) weekly for a period of three weeks, and groups 3-5: animals received DOX (6 mg/kg, i...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Daniel Pedziwiatr, Monika Cymer, Magda Kucia, Jolanta Kucharska-Mazur, Jerzy Samochowiec
Evidence has accumulated that the occurrence of psychiatric disorders is related to chronic inflammation. In support of this linkage, changes in the levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the peripheral blood (PB) of psychiatric patients as well as correlations between chronic inflammatory processes and psychiatric disorders have been described. Furthermore, an inflammatory process known as "sterile inflammation" when initiated directly in brain tissue may trigger the onset of psychoses...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Qiongyuan Hu, Jianan Ren, Guanwei Li, Jie Wu, Xiuwen Wu, Gefei Wang, Guosheng Gu, Huajian Ren, Zhiwu Hong, Jieshou Li
Disruption of the mucosal barrier following intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) is life threatening in clinical practice. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress significantly contribute to the early phase of I/R injury and amplify the inflammatory response. MitoQ is a mitochondrially targeted antioxidant that exerts protective effects following I/R injury. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether and how MitoQ protects intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from I/R injury. In both in vivo and in vitro studies, we found that MitoQ pretreatment downregulated I/R-induced oxidative stress and stabilized the intestinal barrier, as evidenced by MitoQ-treated I/R mice exhibiting attenuated intestinal hyperpermeability, inflammatory response, epithelial apoptosis, and tight junction damage compared to controls...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Xiaopeng Tang, Bo Liu, Xiangrong Wang, Qifang Yu, Rejun Fang
The epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been widely used for protection of stress-induced intestinal mucosa dysfunction. However, whether EGF would alleviate oxidative injury and reduce apoptosis in porcine intestine is not yet known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of EGF on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced induction of oxidative stress and ensuing apoptosis in the porcine intestinal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2. The present study showed that EGF significantly increased cell viability and decreased the LPS-induced induction of apoptosis, dehydrogenase (LDH) release and malonaldehyde (MDA) production...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sun-Young Jun, Seung-Mo Hong, Young Kyung Bae, Hee Kyung Kim, Kyu Yun Jang, Dae Woon Eom
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress-response protein, is highly induced in various carcinomas. It is implicated in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. High HO-1 expression is associated with better prognosis of patients with colorectal and gastric cancers. Induction or inhibition of HO-1 can mediate chemo-sensitivity, therefore it might be a therapeutic target to develop anticancer agents. To define the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of HO-1 expression in small-intestinal adenocarcinomas (SIACs), immunohistochemical microarray analysis of HO-1 expression was performed for 191 surgically resected SIAC cases and results were compared with various clinicopathologic variables, including survival...
March 14, 2018: Pathology International
Haseeb Khaliq, Wang Jing, Xiao Ke, Yang Ke-Li, Sun Peng-Peng, Lei Cui, Qiu Wei-Wei, Lei Zhixin, Liu Hua-Zhen, Song Hui, Zhong Ju-Ming, Peng Ke-Mei
The nuclear-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway is the most important mechanism in antioxidant capacity, which regulates the cell's redox homeostasis. In addition, Nrf2 pathway also can inhibit cell apoptosis. The mechanism of boron actions on various organs is well documented. But, it is not known whether boron can also regulate the Nrf2 pathway in the kidneys. Therefore, in this research, the actions of boron on the kidneys of ostrich chicks, especially the antioxidant effects, have been studied. The ostrich chicks were divided into six groups and supplemented with boric acid (BA) (source of boron) in the drinking water (0, 40, 80, 160, 320, 640 mg respectively) to examine apoptotic, antioxidant, biochemical, and histochemical alterations induced by boron administration in the ostrich chick's kidney...
March 13, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Cristina Fernández-García, Lisa Rancan, Sergio D Paredes, César Montero, Mónica de la Fuente, Elena Vara, Jesús A F Tresguerres
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Aging is associated with a deregulation of biological systems that lead to an increase in oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, among other effects. Xanthohumol is the main preylated chalcone present in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) whose antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties have been shown in recent years. In the present study, the possible protective effects of xanthohumol on liver alterations associated with aging were evaluated. METHODS: Male young and old senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP8), aged 2 and 10 months, respectively, were divided into four groups: non-treated young, non-treated old, old treated with 1 mg/kg/day xanthohumol, and old treated with 5 mg/kg/day xanthohumol...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Bingxin Zhang, Zishen Zhao, Xiaoyin Meng, Hongguang Chen, Guojun Fu, Keliang Xie
Chronic ultraviolet (UV) exposure-induced oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of skin damage. However, the nuclear factor erythroid‑2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway is a critical factor in protecting cells against UVB‑induced injury through inhibiting oxidative stress. Furthermore, Nrf2 activation requires the involvement of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway, which has a major role in survival of various cell types. Molecular hydrogen exerts protective effects on UV‑induced injury, but the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Ulrik Dolberg Anderson, Maya Jälmby, Marijke M Faas, Stefan R Hansson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate how maternal cell-free fetal hemoglobin and heme impact the scavenger enzyme systems Hemopexin and Heme Oxygenase-1 in patients with preeclampsia (PE). The secondary aims were to evaluate these proteins as biomarkers for severity of the clinical manifestation i.e. hypertension, in early- and late onset PE. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Plasma samples taken within the last 24 h before delivery from 135 patients were analyzed, 89 PE and 46 normal pregnancies...
February 15, 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Vasundhara Kain, Kevin A Ingle, Janusz Kabarowski, Stephen Barnes, Nita A Limdi, Sumanth D Prabhu, Ganesh V Halade
12/15 lipoxygenase (LOX) directs inflammation and lipid remodeling. However, the role of 12/15LOX in post-myocardial infarction (MI) left ventricular remodeling is unclear. To determine the role of 12/15LOX, 8-12 week-old C57BL/6 J wild-type (WT; n = 93) and 12/15LOX-/- (n = 97) mice were subjected to permanent coronary artery ligation and monitored at day (d)1 and d5 post-operatively. Post-MI d28 survival was measured in male and female mice. No-MI surgery mice were maintained as d0 naïve controls...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Yun Shi, Yan Sun, Xuepei Sun, Hongye Zhao, Min Yao, Lianguo Hou, Lingling Jiang
Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons. Extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)/nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a ROS response pathway. Therefore, high ROS is always accompanied by increase of HO-1, an anti-oxidative enzyme; but it remains unknown why there is no significant reduction of ROS with the increase of HO-1 in SFAs-treated neurons. We hypothesized that the up-regulation of HO-1 is compensatory for response to fatty acid-induced oxidative stress but not enough to reduce ROS levels...
February 12, 2018: Nutrition Research
Sy-Ying Leu, Yung-Chieh Tsai, Wen-Chi Chen, Chih-Hsiung Hsu, Yen-Mei Lee, Pao-Yun Cheng
Promoting white adipose tissue (WAT) to acquire brown-like characteristics is a promising approach for obesity treatment. Although raspberry ketone (RK) has been reported to possess antiobesity activity, its effects on the formation of brown-like adipocytes remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanism of RK on WAT browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and rats with ovariectomy (Ovx)-induced obesity. RK (100 μM) significantly induced browning of 3T3-L1 cells by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and the expression of browning-specific proteins (PR domain containing 16, PRDM16; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, PGC-1α; uncoupling protein-1, UCP-1) and lipolytic enzymes (hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
June Lee, Karabasappa Mailar, Ok-Kyung Yoo, Won Jun Choi, Young-Sam Keum
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the enzymatic degradation of heme to produce three anti-oxidant molecules: carbon monoxide (CO), ferrous ion (Fe2+ ), and biliverdin. Induction of HO-1 is currently considered as a feasible strategy to treat oxidative stress-related diseases. In the present study, we identified marliolide as a novel inducer of HO-1 in human normal keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Mechanism-based studies demonstrated that the induction of HO-1 by marliolide occurred through activation of NRF2/ARE via direct binding of marliolide to KEAP1...
February 23, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Baocheng Zhang, Mingqiang Gao, Jie Shen, Daikun He
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) could produce excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn induce neurological dysfunction and inflammation in cerebral tissues. This study was designed to study the effect of methane on cerebral I/R injury. METHODS: Fifty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used to induce an animal model of cerebral I/R injury. Methane was mixed with air to achieve a final concentration of 2.2%. Rats started to inhale methane-air mixture after ischemia and continued it during the reperfusion...
August 2017: Archives of Medical Research
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