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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648038/-effects-of-na-h-exchanger-1-inhibitor-on-intestinal-injury-of-rats-with-burn-sepsis-and-the-mechanism
#1
W P Li, G Y Zhao, X K Yang
Objective: To observe the effects of Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) inhibitor on intestinal injury of rats with burn sepsis, and to explore the possible mechanism preliminarily. Methods: Ninety SD rats were divided into control group, pure sepsis group, and NHE1 inhibitor group according to the random number table, with 30 rats in each group. Full-thickness scald (hereinafter referred to as burn) model with 20% total body surface area were reproduced on the back of rats in pure sepsis and NHE1 inhibitor groups, and then 50 μL liquid of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 (2×10(5) colony forming unit/mL) were injected into the center of wounds on the back...
June 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647884/fluoxetine-induces-apoptosis-through-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-via-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-activation-and-histone-hyperacetylation-in-sk-n-be-2-m17-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#2
Ji Hyun Choi, Yeon Ju Jeong, Ah-Ran Yu, Kyung-Sik Yoon, Wonchae Choe, Joohun Ha, Sung Soo Kim, Eui-Ju Yeo, Insug Kang
Fluoxetine (FLX) is an antidepressant drug that belongs to the class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. FLX is known to induce apoptosis in multiple types of cancer cells. In this study, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effects of FLX were investigated in SK-N-BE(2)-M17 human neuroblastoma cells. FLX induced apoptotic cell death, activation of caspase-4, -9, and -3, and expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated proteins, including C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)...
June 24, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647646/the-secreted-protein-wnt5a-regulates-condylar-chondrocyte-proliferation-hypertrophy-and-migration
#3
Xianpeng Ge, Ruirui Shi, Xuchen Ma
OBJECTIVE: Our previous study showed that WNT5A, a member of the noncanonical WNT pathway, is involved in interleukin-1beta induced matrix metalloproteinase expression in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar chondrocytes. The purpose of this study is to further explore the roles of WNT5A in cartilage biology of the TMJ. METHODS: An early TMJ osteoarthritis-like rat model was constructed by a mechanical method (steady mouth-opening). The gene and protein levels of WNT5A during the condylar cartilage changes were measured...
June 16, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647373/salusin-%C3%AE-mediates-high-glucose-induced-endothelial-injury-via-disruption-of-ampk-signaling-pathway
#4
Xuexue Zhu, Yuetao Zhou, Weiwei Cai, Haijian Sun, Liying Qiu
The dysregulated proliferation, migration, apoptosis and angiogenesis of endothelial cells are involved in diabetic endothelial dysfunction. The circulating salusin-β levels were increased in diabetic patients, and salusin-β contributes to diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats. However, the roles of salusin-β in diabetes mellitus-induced endothelial dysfunction are not fully understood. Herein, we demonstrated the increased expressions of salusin-β in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured in HG medium...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646679/hypoxia-induced-adam-17-expression-is-mediated-by-rsk1-dependent-c-ebp%C3%AE-activation-in-human-lung-fibroblasts
#5
Jing-Yun Chen, Chien-Huang Lin, Bing-Chang Chen
Hypoxia was identified as a mediator of lung fibrosis in patients with chronic obstructive asthma (COA). Overexpression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM 17) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) leads to development of tissue fibrosis. However, the signaling pathway in hypoxia-induced ADAM 17 expression remains poorly defined. In this study, we investigated the roles that ribosomal S-6 kinase 1 (RSK1)/CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ)-dependent ADAM 17 expression plays in hypoxia-induced CTGF expression in human lung fibroblasts...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646508/hepatic-stimulator-substance-resists-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-regulating-drp1-translocation-and-activation
#6
Chao Zhang, Jing Huang, Wei An
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), induced by abnormal mitochondrial fission related apoptosis, is a major concern in liver transplantation settings. Our previous studies have demonstrated that hepatic stimulator substance (HSS) is an anti-apoptotic effector and could protect liver from IRI. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we report that in vitro and in vivo HSS could regulate mitochondrial fission and hepatocyte apoptosis during liver IRI by orchestrating the translocation and activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)...
June 23, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646487/immunotoxic-effects-of-thymus-in-mice-following-exposure-to-nanoparticulate-tio2
#7
Fashui Hong, Yaoming Zhou, Yingjun Zhou, Ling Wang
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been extensively used in industry, medicine, and daily life, and have shown potential toxic effects for animals or humans. We noted that the effects of TiO2 NPs on the immune system and its mechanism of action in animals or humans have not been elucidated. Thus, mice were exposed to the TiO2 NPs (0, 1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg kg(-1) body weight) for 9 consecutive months. Exposure to TiO2 NPs was accumulated in the thymus, leading to a decrease in body weight and increases in the weight of the thymus or thymus indices...
June 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646163/aldosterone-modulates-the-association-between-ncc-and-enac
#8
Brandi M Wynne, Abinash C Mistry, Otor Al-Khalili, Rickta Mallick, Franziska Theilig, Douglas C Eaton, Robert S Hoover
Distal sodium transport is a final step in the regulation of blood pressure. As such, understanding how the two main sodium transport proteins, the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) and the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), are regulated is paramount. Both are expressed in the late distal nephron; however, no evidence has suggested that these two sodium transport proteins interact. Recently, we established that these two sodium transport proteins functionally interact in the second part of the distal nephron (DCT2)...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646031/metabolism-and-acetylation-contribute-to-leucine-mediated-inhibition-of-cardiac-glucose-uptake
#9
Edith Renguet, Audrey Ginion, Roselle Gélinas, Laurent Bultot, Julien Auquier, Isabelle Robillard Frayne, Caroline Daneault, Jean-Louis Vanoverschelde, Christine Des Rosiers, Louis Hue, Sandrine Horman, Christophe Beauloye, Luc Bertrand
High plasma leucine levels strongly correlate with type 2 diabetes. Studies of muscle cells suggest that leucine alters the insulin response for glucose transport by activating an insulin-negative feedback loop driven by the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (mTOR/p70S6K) pathway. Here, we examined the molecular mechanism involved in leucine's action on cardiac glucose uptake. Leucine was indeed able to curb glucose uptake after insulin stimulation in both cultured cardiomyocytes and perfused hearts...
June 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645780/salvia-miltiorrhiza-bunge-danshen-extract-attenuates-permanent-cerebral-ischemia-through-inhibiting-platelet-activation-in-rats
#10
Yu-Xiang Fei, Si-Qi Wang, Li-Jian Yang, Yan-Ying Qiu, Yi-Ze Li, Wen-Yuan Liu, Tao Xi, Wei-Rong Fang, Yun-Man Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Danshen is a crude herbal drug isolated from dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. This plant is widely used in oriental medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The supercritical CO2 extract from Danshen (SCED) (57.85%, 5.67% and 4.55% for tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I and cryptotanshinone respectively) was studied in this article, whose potential molecular mechanism remains unclear, especially in anti-thrombosis. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was designed to observe the protective effect of SCED on ischemic stroke in rats and to explore the underlying anti-thrombosis mechanism...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645294/3-5-4-trihydroxy-6-7-3-trimethoxyflavone-protects-against-beta-amyloid-induced-neurotoxicity-through-antioxidative-activity-and-interference-with-cell-signaling
#11
Alona Telerman, Rivka Ofir, Yoel Kashman, Anat Elmann
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease, characterized by progressive decline in memory and cognitive functions, that results from loss of neurons in the brain. Amyloid beta (Aβ) protein and oxidative stress are major contributors to Alzheimer's disease, therefore, protecting neuronal cells against Aβ-induced toxicity and oxidative stress might form an effective approach for treatment of this disease. 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-6,7,3'-trimethoxyflavone (TTF) is a flavonoid we have purified from the plant Achillea fragrantissima; and the present study examined, for the first time, the effects of this compound on Aβ-toxicity to neuronal cells...
June 23, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645106/phorbol-esters-dppa-dpa-promote-furin-expression-involving-transcription-factor-cebp%C3%AE-in-neuronal-cells
#12
Jing-Si Zha, Bing-Lin Zhu, Lu Liu, Yu-Jie Lai, Yan Long, Xiao-Tong Hu, Xiao-Juan Deng, Xue-Feng Wang, Zhen Yan, Guo-Jun Chen
Using high-throughput small molecule screening targeting furin gene, we identified that phorbol esters dPPA (12-Deoxyphorbol 13-phenylacetate 20-acetate) and dPA (12-Deoxyphorbol 13-acetate) significantly increased furin protein and mRNA expression in SH-SY5Y cells. This effect was prevented by PKC (protein kinase C) inhibitor calphostin C but not Ro318220, suggesting that the C1 domain, rather than the catalytic domain of PKC plays an important role. Luciferase assay revealed that nucleotides -7925 to -7426 were sufficient to mediate dPPA/dPA enhancement of furin P1 promoter activity...
June 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644853/the-novel-phospholipid-mimetic-kpc34-is-highly-active-against-preclinical-models-of-philadelphia-chromosome-positive-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#13
Peter M Alexander, David L Caudell, Gregory L Kucera, Kristin M Pladna, Timothy S Pardee
Philadelphia chromosome positive B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) is an aggressive cancer of the bone marrow. The addition of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has improved outcomes but many patients still suffer relapse and novel therapeutic agents are needed. KPC34 is an orally available, novel phospholipid conjugate of gemcitabine, rationally designed to overcome multiple mechanisms of resistance, inhibit the classical and novel isoforms of protein kinase C, is able to cross the blood brain barrier and is orally bioavailable...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644233/tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-vatalanib-inhibits-proliferation-and-migration-of-human-pterygial-fibroblasts
#14
Hong Kyu Kim, Ji-Young Choi, Sang Min Park, Chang Rae Rho, Kyong Jin Cho, Sangmee Ahn Jo
PURPOSE: Vatalanib is a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We investigated the effects of vatalanib on the proliferation and migration of cultured human pterygial fibroblasts (HPFs). METHODS: Pterygium tissues were obtained after pterygium excision surgery and subjected to primary culture. HPFs were treated with vatalanib at various concentrations. Mitomycin C (MMC) was used as a positive control. Cell proliferation and migration assays were used to investigate the effects of vatalanib...
June 21, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644030/a-plc-%C3%AE-1-feedback-pathway-regulates-lck-substrate-phosphorylation-at-the-t-cell-receptor-and-slp-76-complex
#15
Judson Belmont, Tao Gu, Ashley Marie Mudd, Arthur R Salomon
Phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC-γ1) occupies a critically important position in the T cell signaling pathway. While its functions as a regulator of both Ca2+ signaling and PKC-family kinases are well characterized, PLC-γ1's role in the regulation of early T cell receptor signaling events is incompletely understood. Activation of the T cell receptor leads to the formation of a signalosome complex between SLP-76, LAT, PLC-γ1, Itk, and Vav1. Recent studies have revealed the existence of both positive and negative feedback pathways from SLP-76 to the apical kinase in the pathway, Lck...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643937/proinflammatory-effects-and-mechanisms-of-calprotectin-on-human-gingival-fibroblasts
#16
H Gao, J Hou, H Meng, X Zhang, Y Zheng, L Peng
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Calprotectin (S100A8/A9) is a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9 and is associated with multiple inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. Levels of calprotectin are elevated in the gingival crevicular fluid of patients with periodontitis; however, the effects of calprotectin on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) remain unknown. This study investigated the proinflammatory activity of calprotectin on HGFs and the functional receptors and signaling pathways engaged by calprotectin...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642802/perk-dependent-defective-tcr-mediated-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-in-end-stage-renal-disease-patients
#17
Ling Huang, Nicolle H R Litjens, Nynke M Kannegieter, Mariska Klepper, Carla C Baan, Michiel G H Betjes
BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have an impaired immune response with a prematurely aged T-cell system. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38, regulate diverse cellular programs by transferring extracellular signals into an intracellular response. T cell receptor (TCR)-induced phosphorylation of ERK (pERK) may show an age-associated decline, which can be reversed by inhibiting dual specific phosphatase (DUSP) 6, a cytoplasmic phosphatase with substrate specificity to dephosphorylate pERK...
2017: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642707/tetrandrine-an-activator-of-autophagy-induces-autophagic-cell-death-via-pkc-%C3%AE-inhibition-and-mtor-dependent-mechanisms
#18
Vincent Kam Wai Wong, Wu Zeng, Juan Chen, Xiao Jun Yao, Elaine Lai Han Leung, Qian Qian Wang, Pauline Chiu, Ben C B Ko, Betty Yuen Kwan Law
Emerging evidence suggests the therapeutic role of autophagic modulators in cancer therapy. This study aims to identify novel traditional Chinese medicinal herbs as potential anti-tumor agents through autophagic induction, which finally lead to autophagy mediated-cell death in apoptosis-resistant cancer cells. Using bioactivity-guided purification, we identified tetrandrine (Tet) from herbal plant, Radix stephaniae tetrandrae, as an inducer of autophagy. Across a number of cancer cell lines, we found that breast cancer cells treated with tetrandrine show an increase autophagic flux and formation of autophagosomes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642438/local-protein-kinase-a-action-proceeds-through-intact-holoenzymes
#19
F Donelson Smith, Jessica L Esseltine, Patrick J Nygren, David Veesler, Dominic P Byrne, Matthias Vonderach, Ilya Strashnov, Claire E Eyers, Patrick A Eyers, Lorene K Langeberg, John D Scott
Hormones can transmit signals through adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) to precise intracellular locations. The fidelity of these responses relies on the activation of localized protein kinase A (PKA) holoenzymes. Association of PKA regulatory type II (RII) subunits with A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) confers location, and catalytic (C) subunits phosphorylate substrates. Single-particle electron microscopy demonstrated that AKAP79 constrains RII-C subassemblies within 150 to 250 angstroms of its targets...
June 23, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642261/transforming-growth-factor-beta-stimulates-smad1-5-signaling-in-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-and-fibroblasts-of-the-newborn-mouse-through-alk1
#20
Huili Zhang, Lili Du, Ying Zhong, Kathleen C Flanders, Jesse D Roberts
The intracellular signaling mechanisms through which TGFβ regulates pulmonary development are incompletely understood. Canonical TGFβ signaling involves Smad2/3 phosphorylation, Smad2/3·Smad4 complex formation and nuclear localization, and gene regulation. Here we show that physiologically relevant TGFβ1 levels also stimulate Smad1/5 phosphorylation, typically a mediator of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, in mouse pup pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (mPASMC) and lung fibroblasts and other interstitial lung cell lines...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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