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Justyna S Grothaus, Guillermo Ares, Carrie Y Yuan, Douglas R Wood, Catherine J Hunter
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a deadly disease that occurs in 5-10% of neonates. Although NEC has been extensively studied, no single therapeutic target has been identified. Rho kinase is a serine/ threonine kinase that affects multiple cellular processes including tight junction function, cellular permeability, and apoptosis. We hypothesized that ROCK inhibition would decrease cellular permeability, stabilize tight junction (TJ) proteins (occludin), and decrease the severity of NEC. To test this hypothesis, human colon epithelial cells (Caco-2) and human endothelial cells (HUVEC) were studied...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Jolin Wong, Serene Siu Tin Lim
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric epidurals can present technical challenges due to wide variations in age and weight among children, ranging from neonates to teenagers. This study evaluated the skin-to-epidural distance in the thoracic and lumbar regions to determine the relationship between age, weight and ethnicity and depth to the epidural space in our Singapore paediatric population. METHODS: Data from the Acute Pain Service was prospectively collected over 16 years...
June 21, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
Claire Watkins, Kiera Murphy, Eugene M Dempsey, Carol Anne O'Shea, Brendan Paul Murphy, Paul W O'Toole, R Paul Ross, Catherine Stanton, C Anthony Ryan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the appropriate dosing interval of a probiotic (Infloran) given daily, biweekly and weekly in preterm infants <32 weeks' gestation. METHODS: There were 8 infants in the daily group, 8 infants in the biweekly group and 10 infants in the weekly group, all born between 25 and 32 weeks' gestation. The control group consisted of 12 preterm infants who did not receive the probiotic. Infloran (250 mg/capsule), containing Bifidobacterium bifidum (1×109 colony-forming unit (CFU)) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (1×109 CFU), was administered in 2...
June 20, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Brandon Brooks, Matthew R Olm, Brian A Firek, Robyn Baker, David Geller-McGrath, Sophia R Reimer, Karina R Soenjoyo, Jennifer S Yip, Dylan Dahan, Brian C Thomas, Michael J Morowitz, Jillian F Banfield
BACKGROUND: The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) contains a unique cohort of patients with underdeveloped immune systems and nascent microbiome communities. Patients often spend several months in the same room, and it has been previously shown that the gut microbiomes of these infants often resemble the microbes found in the NICU. Little is known, however, about the identity, persistence, and absolute abundance of NICU room-associated bacteria over long stretches of time. Here, we couple droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), 16S rRNA gene surveys, and recently published metagenomics data from infant gut samples to infer the extent to which the NICU microbiome is shaped by its room occupants...
June 20, 2018: Microbiome
Alaina R Miller, Kimberly Fenstermacher, Barbara L Buchko
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Donor human milk (DHM) is used when a mother's own milk is not available. Donor human milk is available as a frozen pasteurized or commercially sterilized product. An abrupt change in practice in use of donor milk products raised concerns among nurses caring for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The change in practice occurred without the input of nurses and without the sharing of supportive evidence with them. The purpose of this study was to explore NICU nurses' perceptions of the practice change from using frozen pasteurized DHM to using sterilized DHM in this context...
June 19, 2018: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Yun Liu, Huan-Jia Shen, Xin-Qiu-Yue Wang, Hai-Qi Liu, Ling-Yun Zheng, Jian-Dong Luo
Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the major risk factors for chronic heart failure. The role of endophilinA2 (EndoA2) in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and clathrin-independent endocytosis is well documented. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that EndoA2 protects against angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy by mediating intracellular angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) trafficking in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs). Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by using cell surface area and quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) analyses...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Girish R Sabnis, Hetan C Shah, Charan P Lanjewar, Sushma Malik, Prafulla G Kerkar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
J Fayard, S Collardeau, Y Bertrand, M-P Cordier, C Malcus, R Dubois, P-Y Mure, G de Saint Basile, T Louazon, B Rohmer, A Lachaux, R Duclaux, N Peretti
TTC7A mutations cause multiple neonatal intestinal atresias with early inflammatory bowel disease and severe combined immunodeficiency. There are no treatment protocols for this rare disease. Two new cases are described for which radical early treatment measures - total enterectomy, home parenteral nutrition, immunoglobulin therapy and intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis - have allowed both patients to develop optimally.
June 16, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Jonathan T Delafield-Butt, Yvonne Freer, Jon Perkins, David Skulina, Ben Schögler, David N Lee
Prospective motor control moves the body into the future, from where one is to where one wants to be. It is a hallmark of intentionality. But its origin in development is uncertain. In this study, we tested whether or not the arm movements of newborn infants were prospectively controlled. We measured the spatiotemporal organization of 480 full-term neonatal arm movements and 384 arm movements of prematurely born infants at-risk for neurodevelopmental disorder. We found 75% of healthy term-birth neonatal movements and 68% of prematurely born infant movements conformed to the τG -coupling model of prospective sensorimotor control...
June 19, 2018: Developmental Science
Breeanne M Soteros, Qifei Cong, Christian R Palmer, Gek-Ming Sia
The FoxP2 transcription factor and its target genes have been implicated in developmental brain diseases with a prominent language component, such as developmental verbal dyspraxia and specific language impairment. How FoxP2 affects neural circuitry development remains poorly understood. The sushi domain protein SRPX2 is a target of FoxP2, and mutations in SRPX2 are associated with language defects in humans. We have previously shown that SRPX2 is a synaptogenic protein that increases excitatory synapse density...
2018: PloS One
K Ferenc, P Pietrzak, M Wierzbicka, P Matyba, E Grzesiuk, Z Gajewski, R Zabielski
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) leads to increased predisposition to metabolic syndrome in adult life but the mechanisms remain obscure. Considering a significant number of functional similarities, IUGR piglets appear to be a good model to study the development of this syndrome in humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ultrastructure and proteomic profile of the liver in IUGR pig neonates to discover early markers of predisposition to obesity and insulin resistance. In our study intestine and liver tissue samples were investigated in 7 day old IUGR and normal body weight (NBW) littermate piglets using histometry, mass spectrometry, in-tissue cytometry analysis and confocal microscopy...
April 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Venugopal S Vineeth, Usha R Dutta, Karthik Tallapakka, Aneek Das Bhowmik, Ashwin Dalal
Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting the nervous, musculoskeletal and gastroenteric systems. Affected individuals show normal neonatal development for 6-18 months followed by sudden growth arrest, psychomotor retardation and a broad spectrum of clinical features. Sequence variants in MECP2 gene have been identified as the major genetic etiology accounting for 90-95% of patients. Apart from MECP2, pathogenic sequence variants and copy number variants of FOXG1 gene lead to congenital type of Rett syndrome which is a more severe form and characterised by absence of early normal development as seen in classical Rett syndrome...
June 16, 2018: Gene
Li-Juan Sun, Gu-Feng Xu, Min Lv, Hao Zhou, He-Feng Huang, Qiong Luo
BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, abnormal biochemical changes often occur in women who eventually develop preeclampsia (PE). The study aims to investigate whether maternal serum biochemical markers in the early third trimester can predict PE and neonatal birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study was performed on 287 women who subsequently developed PE (mild = 139; severe = 148) and 143 healthy women. Fasting venous blood samples of all gravidas were drawn for routine biochemical markers screening in the early third trimester (28...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
Yvonne A Eiby, Nicole Y Shrimpton, Ian M R Wright, Eugenie R Lumbers, Paul B Colditz, Greg J Duncombe, Barbara E Lingwood
Preterm infants often have impaired cardiovascular function that may contribute to poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. The study aimed to determine the effects of reduced blood volume on cardiovascular function, including cerebral blood flow in preterm and term piglets. In preterm (97/115d) and term piglets, up to 10% of the estimated blood volume was removed. Removal of blood was ceased if MAP dropped below 20 mmHg. Heart rate, cardiac contractility and relaxation, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cerebral blood flow were measured at baseline and again after blood volume reduction...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Andres Garchitorena, Ann C Miller, Laura F Cordier, Victor R Rabeza, Marius Randriamanambintsoa, Hery-Tiana R Razanadrakato, Lara Hall, Djordje Gikic, Justin Haruna, Meg McCarty, Andriamihaja Randrianambinina, Dana R Thomson, Sidney Atwood, Michael L Rich, Megan B Murray, Josea Ratsirarson, Mohammed Ali Ouenzar, Matthew H Bonds
Introduction: The Sustainable Development Goals framed an unprecedented commitment to achieve global convergence in child and maternal mortality rates through 2030. To meet those targets, essential health services must be scaled via integration with strengthened health systems. This is especially urgent in Madagascar, the country with the lowest level of financing for health in the world. Here, we present an interim evaluation of the first 2 years of a district-level health system strengthening (HSS) initiative in rural Madagascar, using estimates of intervention coverage and mortality rates from a district-wide longitudinal cohort...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Kelly D Moynihan, Rebecca L Holden, Naveen K Mehta, Chensu Wang, Mark R Karver, Jens Dinter, Simon Liang, Wuhbet Abraham, Mariane B Melo, Angela Q Zhang, Na Li, Sylvie Le Gall, Bradley Pentelute, Darrell J Irvine
Antitumor T-cell responses have the potential to be curative in cancer patients, but the induction of potent T-cell immunity through vaccination remains a largely unmet goal of immunotherapy. We previously reported that the immunogenicity of peptide vaccines could be increased by maximizing delivery to lymph nodes (LNs), where T-cell responses are generated. This was achieved by conjugating the peptide to 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-PEG (DSPE-PEG) to promote albumin binding, which resulted in enhanced lymphatic drainage and improved T-cell responses...
June 18, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Yunyang Lu, Yingda Feng, Dan Liu, Zhiran Zhang, Kai Gao, Wei Zhang, Haifeng Tang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury is a leading factor responsible for damage in myocardial infarction, resulting in additional injury to cardiac tissues involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Thymoquinone (TQ), the main constituent of Nigella sativa L. seeds, has been reported to possess various biological activities. However, few reports regarding myocardial protection are available at present. Therefore, this study was conducted aiming to investigate the protective effect of TQ against MI/R injury and to clarify its potential mechanism...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ashley R Bjorklund, Beatrice Odongkara Mpora, Marie E Steiner, Gwenyth Fischer, Cynthia S Davey, Tina M Slusher
BACKGROUND: While bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is commonly used in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to support neonates with respiratory distress, there are limited non-invasive support options for non-neonatal children. AIM: To demonstrate safety of a new device designed to support children during respiratory distress in LMIC. METHODS: A paediatric bCPAP device was designed called SEAL-bCPAP (Simplified Ear-plug Adapted-bCPAP)...
June 18, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Amy E O'Connell, Fanny Zhou, Manasvi S Shah, Quinn Murphy, Hannah Rickner, Judith Kelsen, John Boyle, Jefferson J Doyle, Bharti Gangwani, Jay R Thiagarajah, Daniel S Kamin, Jeffrey D Goldsmith, Camilla Richmond, David T Breault, Pankaj B Agrawal
Homozygous nonsense mutations in WNT2B were identified in three individuals from two unrelated families with severe, neonatal-onset osmotic diarrhea after whole-exome sequencing was performed on trios from the two families. Intestinal biopsy samples from affected individuals were used for histology and immunofluorescence and to generate enteroids ex vivo. Histopathologic evaluation demonstrated chronic inflammatory changes in the stomach, duodenum, and colon. Immunofluorescence demonstrated diminished staining for OLFM4, a marker for intestinal stem cells (ISCs)...
June 4, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
T Gelbíčová, M Zobaníková, Z Tomáštíková, I Van Walle, W Ruppitsch, R Karpíšková
Since 2012-2016 an increased number of listeriosis cases, especially from one region of the Czech Republic, were observed. Most of them were caused by strains of serotype 1/2a, clonal complex 8, indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Twenty-six human cases were reported, including two neonatal cases in twins. Three cases were fatal. The typing of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from food enabled to confirm a turkey meat delicatessen as the vehicle of infection for this local outbreak in the Moravian-Silesian Region...
June 18, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
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