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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735100/attention-modulates-specific-motor-cortical-circuits-recruited-by-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#1
J L Mirdamadi, L Y Suzuki, S K Meehan
Skilled performance and acquisition is dependent upon afferent input to motor cortex. The present study used short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) to probe how manipulation of sensory afference by attention affects different circuits projecting to pyramidal tract neurons in motor cortex. SAI was assessed in the first dorsal interosseous muscle while participants performed a low or high attention demanding visual detection task. SAI was evoked by preceding a suprathreshold transcranial magnetic stimulus with electrical stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist...
July 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735084/a-category-specific-top-down-attentional-set-can-affect-the-neural-responses-outside-the-current-focus-of-attention
#2
Yunpeng Jiang, Xia Wu, Xiaorong Gao
A top-down set can guide attention to enhance the processing of task-relevant objects. Many studies have found that the top-down set can be tuned to a category level. However, it is unclear whether the category-specific top-down set involving a central search task can exist outside the current area of attentional focus. To directly probe the neural responses inside and outside the current focus of attention, we recorded continuous EEG to measure the contralateral ERP components for central targets and the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) oscillations associated with a flickering checkerboard placed on the visual periphery...
July 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735013/simultaneous-intrinsic-signal-imaging-of-auditory-and-visual-cortex-reveals-profound-effects-of-acute-hearing-loss-on-visual-processing
#3
Manuel Teichert, Jürgen Bolz
It has been suggested that primary sensory cortices do not work in isolation but receive subthreshold inputs originating from other senses. However, repercussions of an acute loss of one sense on multimodal sensory processing remain elusive. Here we investigated the early effects of acute hearing loss on visual processing in adult mice. For this, we developed a method to simultaneously map the primary auditory (A1) and visual cortex (V1) using periodic intrinsic optical imaging. We found that reducing sound evoked A1 responsiveness due to the induction of conductive hearing loss (CHL) led to a concomitant increase of visually driven V1 activity...
July 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734458/rett-like-severe-encephalopathy-caused-by-a-de%C3%A2-novo-grin2b-mutation-is-attenuated-by-d-serine-dietary-supplement
#4
David Soto, Mireia Olivella, Cristina Grau, Judith Armstrong, Clara Alcon, Xavier Gasull, Macarena Gómez de Salazar, Esther Gratacòs-Batlle, David Ramos-Vicente, Víctor Fernández-Dueñas, Francisco Ciruela, Àlex Bayés, Carlos Sindreu, Anna López-Sala, Àngels García-Cazorla, Xavier Altafaj
BACKGROUND: N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play pivotal roles in synaptic development, plasticity, neural survival, and cognition. Despite recent reports describing the genetic association between de novo mutations of NMDAR subunits and severe psychiatric diseases, little is known about their pathogenic mechanisms and potential therapeutic interventions. Here we report a case study of a 4-year-old Rett-like patient with severe encephalopathy carrying a missense de novo mutation in GRIN2B(p...
June 16, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733841/analgosedation-of-adult-patients-with-elevated-intracranial-pressure-survey-of-current-clinical-practice-in-austria
#5
Guenther Herzer, Claudia Mirth, Udo M Illievich, Wolfgang G Voelckel, Helmut Trimmel
BACKGROUND: Analgesia and sedation are key items in intensive care. Recently published S3 guidelines specifically address treatment of patients with elevated intracranial pressure. METHODS: The Austrian Society of Anesthesiology, Resuscitation and Intensive Care Medicine carried out an online survey of neurointensive care units in Austria in order to evaluate the current state of practice in the areas of analgosedation and delirium management in this high-risk patient group...
July 21, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733356/steady-state-free-ca2-in-astrocytes-is-decreased-by-experience-and-impacts-arteriole-tone
#6
Eslam M F Mehina, Ciaran Murphy-Royal, Grant R Gordon
Astrocytes can control basal synaptic strength and arteriole tone via their resting Ca2+ activity. However, whether resting astrocyte Ca2+ can adjust to a new steady-state level, with an impact on surrounding brain cells, remains unknown. Using two-photon Ca2+ imaging in male rat acute brain slices of the somatosensory neocortex, we found that theta burst neural activity produced an unexpected long-lasting reduction in astrocyte free Ca2+ in the soma and endfeet. The drop in intracellular Ca2+ was attenuated by antagonists targeting multiple ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, and intracellular cascades involved Ca2+ stores and nitric oxide...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733205/-dehydrofukinone-modulates-membrane-potential-and-delays-seizure-onset-by-gabaa-receptor-mediated-mechanism-in-mice
#7
Quelen Iane Garlet, Luana da Costa Pires, Laura Hautrive Milanesi, Joseane Righes Marafiga, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Carlos Fernando de Mello, Berta Maria Heinzmann
(+)-Dehydrofukinone (DHF), isolated from Nectandra grandiflora (Lauraceae) essential oil, induces sedation and anesthesia by modulation of GABAa receptors. However, no study has addressed whether DHF modulates other cellular events involved in the control of cellular excitability, such as seizure behavior. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of DHF on cellular excitability and seizure behavior in mice. For this purpose, we used isolated nerve terminals (synaptosomes) to examine the effect of DHF on the plasma membrane potential, the involvement of GABAa receptors and the downstream activation of Ca(2+) mobilization...
July 18, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730720/microstructural-white-matter-brain-abnormalities-in-patients-with-idiopathic-fecal-incontinence
#8
J Muthulingam, S Haas, T M Hansen, S Laurberg, L Lundby, H S Jørgensen, A M Drewes, K Krogh, J B Frøkjaer
BACKGROUND: Abnormal central nervous system processing of visceral sensation may be a part of the pathogenesis behind idiopathic fecal incontinence (IFI). Our aim was to characterize brain differences in patients with IFI and healthy controls by means of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: In 21 female patients with IFI and 15 female healthy controls, whole-brain structural differences in gray matter volume (GMV), cortical thickness, and white matter tracts fractional anisotropy (FA) were quantified...
July 21, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730695/concurrent-electrical-cervicomedullary-stimulation-and-cervical-transcutaneous-spinal-direct-current-stimulation-results-in-a-stimulus-interaction
#9
Siobhan C Dongés, Siwei Bai, Janet L Taylor
Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) can modulate neuronal excitability within the human spinal cord; however few studies have used tsDCS at a cervical level. This study aimed to further characterise cervical tsDCS by observing its acute effects on motor responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and cervicomedullary stimulation. In both Study 1 and 2, participants (Study 1: n = 8, 4F; Study 2: n = 8, 3F) received two periods of 10 min, 3 mA cervical tsDCS on the same day through electrodes placed in an anterior-posterior configuration over the neck; one period with the cathode posterior (c-tsDCS) and the other with the anode posterior (a-tsDCS)...
July 20, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729946/decrease-in-short-latency-afferent-inhibition-during-corticomotor-postexercise-depression-following-repetitive-finger-movement
#10
Shota Miyaguchi, Sho Kojima, Ryoki Sasaki, Shinichi Kotan, Hikari Kirimoto, Hiroyuki Tamaki, Hideaki Onishi
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to clarify cortical circuit mechanisms contributing to corticomotor excitability during postexercise depression (PED) following repetitive nonfatiguing movement. We investigated changes in short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) by paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during PED. METHODS: A total of 16 healthy subjects performed repetitive abduction movements of the right index finger at 2...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729937/manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-combined-with-electrophysiology-in-the-evaluation-of-visual-pathway-in-experimental-rat-models-with-monocular-blindness
#11
Zuohua Tang, Jie Wang, Zebin Xiao, Xinghuai Sun, Xiaoyuan Feng, Weijun Tang, Qian Chen, Lingjie Wu, Rong Wang, Yufeng Zhong, Wentao Wang, Jianfeng Luo
PURPOSE: Our study aimed to explore the feasibility of manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) combined with visual evoked potentials (VEP) and auditory evoked visual cortex responses (AVR) in evaluating for the establishment of visual/auditory compensatory pathways after monocular blindness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 14 healthy neonatal male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 7 for Groups A and B). Right optic nerve (ON) transection was performed on the 7 rats of Group A to obtain a monocularly blind model, and the 7 rats of Group B were chosen as the control group...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729927/fatigue-and-cognition-pupillary-responses-to-problem-solving-in-early-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#12
Sigrid A de Rodez Benavent, Gro O Nygaard, Hanne F Harbo, Siren Tønnesen, Piotr Sowa, Nils I Landrø, Marte Wendel-Haga, Lars Etholm, Kristian B Nilsen, Liv Drolsum, Emilia Kerty, Elisabeth G Celius, Bruno Laeng
INTRODUCTION: In early multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, cognitive changes and fatigue are frequent and troublesome symptoms, probably related to both structural and functional brain changes. Whether there is a common cause of these symptoms in MS is unknown. In theory, an altered regulation of central neuropeptides can lead to changes in regulation of autonomic function, cognitive difficulties, and fatigue. Direct measurements of central neuropeptides are difficult to perform, but measurements of the eye pupil can be used as a reliable proxy of function...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729388/effects-of-acute-hypoxia-on-human-cognitive-processing-a-study-using-erps-and-seps
#13
Hiroki Nakata, Tadayoshi Miyamoto, Shigehiko Ogoh, Ryusuke Kakigi, Manabu Shibasaki
Although hypoxia has the potential to impair the cognitive function, the effects of acute hypoxia on the high-order brain function (executive and/or inhibitory processing) and somatosensory ascending processing remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that acute hypoxia impairs both motor executive and inhibitory processing and somatosensory ascending processing. Fifteen healthy subjects performed two sessions (Sessions 1 and 2) consisting of electroencephalographic event-related potentials (ERPs) with somatosensory Go/No-go paradigms and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) under two conditions (hypoxia and normoxia) on different days...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729193/the-pattern-of-retinal-ganglion-cell-dysfunction-in-leber-hereditary-optic-neuropathy
#14
A Majander, A G Robson, C João, G E Holder, P F Chinnery, A T Moore, M Votruba, A Stockman, P Yu-Wai-Man
Leber inherited optic neuropathy (LHON) is characterized by subacute bilateral loss of central vision due to dysfunction and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Comprehensive visual electrophysiological investigations (including pattern reversal visual evoked potentials, pattern electroretinography and the photopic negative response) performed on 13 patients with acute and chronic LHON indicate early impairment of RGC cell body function and severe axonal dysfunction. Temporal, spatial and chromatic psychophysical tests performed on 7 patients with acute LHON and 4 patients with chronic LHON suggest severe involvement or loss of the midget, parasol and bistratified RGCs associated with all three principal visual pathways...
July 17, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729062/pharmacological-activation-of-ampk-inhibits-incision-evoked-mechanical-hypersensitivity-and-the-development-of-hyperalgesic-priming-in-mice
#15
Michael D Burton, Dipti V Tillu, Khadijah Mazhar, Galo L Mejia, Marina N Asiedu, Kufreobong Inyang, Travis Hughes, Bo Lian, Gregory Dussor, Theodore J Price
New therapeutics to manage post-surgical pain are needed to mitigate the liabilities of opioid and other analgesics. Our previous work shows that key modulators of excitability in peripheral nociceptors, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) are inhibited by activation of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK). We hypothesized that AMPK activation would attenuate acute incision-evoked mechanical hypersensitivity and the development of hyperalgesic priming caused by surgery in mice...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728060/clinical-neurophysiology-of-prolonged-disorders-of-consciousness-from-diagnostic-stimulation-to-therapeutic-neuromodulation
#16
REVIEW
Aldo Ragazzoni, Massimo Cincotta, Fabio Giovannelli, Damian Cruse, G Bryan Young, Carlo Miniussi, Simone Rossi
The identification of signs of awareness in patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DoC) after severe brain injury is a challenging task for clinicians. Differentiating on behavioural examination the vegetative state (VS) from the minimally conscious state (MCS) can lead to a high misdiagnosis rate. Advanced neuroimaging and neurophysiological techniques can supplement clinical evaluation by providing physiological evidence of brain activity. However, an open issue remains whether these empirical results are directly or indirectly associated with covert consciousness and limitations emerge for their diagnostic application at the single-patient level...
June 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727651/visual-processing-recruits-the-auditory-cortices-in-prelingually-deaf-children-and-influences-cochlear-implant-outcomes
#17
Maojin Liang, Yuebo Chen, Fei Zhao, Junpeng Zhang, Jiahao Liu, Xueyuan Zhang, Yuexin Cai, Suijun Chen, Xianghui Li, Ling Chen, Yiqing Zheng
OBJECTIVE: Although visual processing recruitment of the auditory cortices has been reported previously in prelingually deaf children who have a rapidly developing brain and no auditory processing, the visual processing recruitment of auditory cortices might be different in processing different visual stimuli and may affect cochlear implant (CI) outcomes. METHODS: Ten prelingually deaf children, 4 to 6 years old, were recruited for the study. Twenty prelingually deaf subjects, 4 to 6 years old with CIs for 1 year, were also recruited; 10 with well-performing CIs, 10 with poorly performing CIs...
July 19, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726749/ladder-shaped-ion-channel-ligands-current-state-of-knowledge
#18
REVIEW
Yuri B Shmukler, Denis A Nikishin
Ciguatoxins (CTX) and brevetoxins (BTX) are polycyclic ethereal compounds biosynthesized by the worldwide distributed planktonic and epibenthic dinoflagellates of Gambierdiscus and Karenia genera, correspondingly. Ciguatera, evoked by CTXs, is a type of ichthyosarcotoxism, which involves a variety of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms, while BTXs cause so-called neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. Both types of toxins are reviewed together because of similar mechanisms of their action. These are the only molecules known to activate voltage-sensitive Na⁺-channels in mammals through a specific interaction with site 5 of its α-subunit and may compete for it, which results in an increase in neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release and impairment of synaptic vesicle recycling...
July 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726541/characterization-of-postsynaptic-calcium-signals-in-the-pyramidal-neurons-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#19
Xu-Hui Li, Qian Song, Tao Chen, Min Zhuo
Calcium signaling is critical for synaptic transmission and plasticity. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors play a key role in synaptic potentiation in the anterior cingulate cortex. Most previous studies of calcium signaling focus on hippocampal neurons, little is known about the activity-induced calcium signals in the anterior cingulate cortex. In the present study, we show that NMDA receptor-mediated postsynaptic calcium signals induced by different synaptic stimulation in anterior cingulate cortex pyramidal neurons...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726287/the-sound-and-the-fury-late-positive-potential-is-sensitive-to-sound-affect
#20
Darin R Brown, James F Cavanagh
Emotion is an emergent construct of multiple distinct neural processes. EEG is uniquely sensitive to real-time neural computations, and thus is a promising tool to study the construction of emotion. This series of studies aimed to probe the mechanistic contribution of the late positive potential (LPP) to multimodal emotion perception. Experiment 1 revealed that LPP amplitudes for visual images, sounds, and visual images paired with sounds were larger for negatively rated stimuli than for neutrally rated stimuli...
July 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
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