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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222920/starch-metal-complexes-and-metal-compounds
#1
REVIEW
Hanna Staroszczyk, Wojciech Ciesielski, Piotr Tomasik
Recently, metal derivatives of starch evoked considerable interest. Such metal derivatives can take a form of starch compounds bearing metal atoms and metal carrying moieties either covalently bound or complexed. Starch metal complexes may have a character of either Werner, inclusion, sorption or capillary complexes. In this publication, preparation, structure, properties and numerous current and potential applications of those compounds as well as benefits resulting from the application and formation of the complexes are presented...
December 9, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222679/-objective-audiometry-and-clinical-application
#2
M Cebulla, D Ehrmann-Müller, W Shehata-Dieler
Subjective and objective hearing tests are used for evaluation of hearing impairments. Objective methods include impedance measurement with tympanometry and stapedius reflex measurement, otoacoustic emissions (OAE), and auditory evoked potentials (AEP). Combined with statistical analysis, the introduction of auditory steady state responses (ASSR) has enabled objective hearing tests in newborn hearing screening and automated hearing threshold assessment. The type and degree of hearing loss can be determined using the abovementioned methods...
December 8, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222596/the-effects-of-local-forearm-muscle-cooling-on-motor-unit-properties
#3
Matthew M Mallette, Lara A Green, David A Gabriel, Stephen S Cheung
PURPOSE: Muscle cooling impairs maximal force. Using needle electromyography (EMG) to assess motor unit properties during muscle cooling, is limited and equivocal. Therefore, we aimed to determine the impact of local muscle cooling on motor unit firing properties using surface EMG decomposition. METHODS: Twenty participants (12 M, 8 F) completed maximal, evoked, and trapezoidal contractions during thermoneutral and cold muscle conditions. Forearm muscle temperature was manipulated using 10-min neutral (~ 32 °C) or 20-min cold (~ 3 °C) water baths...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221792/the-serotonin-hallucinogen-5-meo-dmt-alters-cortico-thalamic-activity-in-freely-moving-mice-regionally-selective-involvement-of-5-ht1a-and-5-ht2a-receptors
#4
REVIEW
Maurizio S Riga, Laia Lladó-Pelfort, Francesc Artigas, Pau Celada
5-MeO-DMT is a natural hallucinogen acting as serotonin 5-HT1A/5-HT2A receptor agonist. Its ability to evoke hallucinations could be used to study the neurobiology of psychotic symptoms and to identify new treatment targets. Moreover, recent studies revealed the therapeutic potential of serotonin hallucinogens in treating mood and anxiety disorders. Our previous results in anesthetized animals show that 5-MeO-DMT alters cortical activity via 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. Here, we examined 5-MeO-DMT effects on oscillatory activity in prefrontal (PFC) and visual (V1) cortices, and in mediodorsal thalamus (MD) of freely-moving wild-type (WT) and 5-HT2A-R knockout (KO2A) mice...
December 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220524/brain-responses-to-cigarette-related-and-emotional-images-in-smokers-during-smoking-cessation-no-effect-of-varenicline-or-bupropion-on-the-late-positive-potential
#5
Francesco Versace, Elise M Stevens, Jason D Robinson, Yong Cui, Menton M Deweese, Jeffrey M Engelmann, Charles E Green, Maher Karam-Hage, Cho Y Lam, Jennifer A Minnix, David W Wetter, Paul M Cinciripini
Introduction: Varenicline and bupropion are two effective smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Researchers have hypothesized that they might be effective, in part, because they reduce cue reactivity and cue-induced cravings. Here, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to directly measure brain responses to cigarette-related and other motivationally relevant images during a pharmacologically aided quit attempt. Methods: Smokers involved in a 12-week placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial of smoking cessation medications (varenicline, bupropion, placebo) took part in the study...
December 6, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220192/fluidic-microactuation-of-flexible-electrodes-for-neural-recording
#6
Flavia Vitale, Daniel Vercosa, Alexander V Rodriguez, Sushma Sri Pamulapati, Frederik Seibt, Eric Lewis, Jiaxi Stephen Yan, Krishna Badhiwala, Mohammed Adnan, Gianni Royer-Carfagni, Michael Beierlein, Caleb Kemere, Matteo Pasquali, Jacob Robinson
Soft and conductive nanomaterials like carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nanowire scaffolds have expanded the family of ultra-flexible microelectrodes that can bend and flex with the natural movement of the brain, reduce the inflammatory response and improve the stability of long-term neural recordings. However, current methods to implant these highly flexible electrodes rely on temporary stiffening agents that temporarily increase the electrode size and stiffness thus aggravating neural damage during implantation, which can lead to cell loss and glial activation that persists even after the stiffening agents are removed or dissolve...
December 8, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219858/the-precision-of-ecap-thresholds-derived-from-amplitude-growth-functions
#7
Jan Dirk Biesheuvel, Jeroen J Briaire, Johan H M Frijns
OBJECTIVE: An amplitude growth function (AGF) shows the amplitude of an electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP) as a function of the stimulation current. AGFs can be used to derive the eCAP threshold, which represents the minimum amount of current needed to elicit a measurable eCAP. eCAP thresholds have been widely used clinically to, for example, assist with sound processor programming. However, no eCAP precision has been included to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the precision of eCAP thresholds and determine whether they are precise enough for clinical use...
December 6, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218453/energy-depletion-and-not-ros-formation-is-a-crucial-step-of-glucolipotoxicity-gltx-in-pancreatic-beta-cells
#8
Morgana Barroso Oquendo, Nikolas Layer, Rebecca Wagner, Peter Krippeit-Drews, Gisela Drews
We have shown previously that genetic or pharmacological deletion of KATP channels protect against beta cell dysfunction induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since it is assumed that glucolipotoxicity (GLTx) causes ROS production, we aimed to evaluate whether suppression of KATP channel activity can also prevent beta cell damage evoked by GLTx. We used an in vitro model of GLTx and measured distinct parameters of stimulus-secretion coupling. GLTx gradually induced disturbances of Ca2+ oscillations over 3 days...
December 7, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218087/the-cytoskeleton-protein-%C3%AE-actin-may-mediate-t-cell-apoptosis-during-acute-rejection-reaction-after-liver-transplantation-in-a-rat-model
#9
Xiaolong Chen, Jun Zheng, Jianye Cai, Hui Li, Shihui Li, Li Wang, Daorou Cheng, Huaxin Chen, Yang Yang, Guihua Chen, Qi Zhang, Yanwen Peng, Qiyou Wang, Genshu Wang
Cytoskeletal proteins and associated regulatory proteins are essential for maintaining cell structure and growth. β-actin is a major component of the cytoskeleton, and β-actin remodeling is involved in lymphocyte migration, infiltration and apoptosis. However, little is known about whether changes in β-actin expression affect lymphocyte cell fate, particularly during acute rejection after liver transplantation in a rat model. In our studies, grafts were harvested on days 5, 7 or 9 after xenogeneic rat liver transplantation...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218000/synapse-specific-regulation-revealed-at-single-synapses-is-concealed-when-recording-multiple-synapses
#10
Justin Lines, Ana Covelo, Ricardo Gómez, Lan Liu, Alfonso Araque
Synaptic transmission and its activity-dependent modulation, known as synaptic plasticity, are fundamental processes in nervous system function. Neurons may receive thousands of synaptic contacts, but synaptic regulation may occur only at individual or discrete subsets of synapses, which may have important consequences on the spatial extension of the modulation of synaptic information. Moreover, while several electrophysiological methods are used to assess synaptic transmission at different levels of observation, i...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217422/hyperbaric-oxygen-ameliorated-the-lesion-scope-and-nerve-function-in-acute-spinal-cord-injury-patients-a-retrospective-study
#11
Jie-Wen Tan, Fang Zhang, He-Jun Liu, Zhuo Li
OBJECTIVE: This is a retrospective study to assess the therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in early treatment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrophysiology in diagnosing. METHODS: Forty acute SCI patients from Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital who were assigned into HBO treatment were included during August 2013 to October 2014.The patients with adverse reactions or contraindications for HBO were assigned as controls...
December 4, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216315/the-pul37-tegument-protein-guides-alpha-herpesvirus-retrograde-axonal-transport-to-promote-neuroinvasion
#12
Alexsia L Richards, Patricia J Sollars, Jared D Pitts, Austin M Stults, Ekaterina E Heldwein, Gary E Pickard, Gregory A Smith
A hallmark property of the neurotropic alpha-herpesvirinae is the dissemination of infection to sensory and autonomic ganglia of the peripheral nervous system following an initial exposure at mucosal surfaces. The peripheral ganglia serve as the latent virus reservoir and the source of recurrent infections such as cold sores (herpes simplex virus type I) and shingles (varicella zoster virus). However, the means by which these viruses routinely invade the nervous system is not fully understood. We report that an internal virion component, the pUL37 tegument protein, has a surface region that is an essential neuroinvasion effector...
December 7, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215464/difference-in-phase-modulation-of-corticospinal-excitability-during-the-observation-of-the-action-of-walking-with-and-without-motor-imagery
#13
Naotsugu Kaneko, Yohei Masugi, Hikaru Yokoyama, Kimitaka Nakazawa
The aim of the current study was to clarify how corticospinal excitability (CSE) is modulated during the observation of the action of walking, combined with motor imagery (MI). We examined the difference in phase modulation of CSE with and without MI during the observation of the action of walking. We measured motor-evoked potentials in tibialis anterior and soleus muscles using transcranial magnetic stimulation under the following conditions: (1) baseline, (2) action observation (AO), and (3) AO and MI. Our results showed that, compared with AO alone, AO and MI of walking increased motor-evoked potentials...
December 5, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215034/local-field-potentials-are-induced-by-visually-evoked-spiking-activity-in-macaque-cortical-area-mt
#14
Moein Esghaei, Mohammad Reza Daliri, Stefan Treue
Local field potentials (LFP) have been the focus of many recent studies in systems neuroscience. However, the exact neural basis of these signals remains unclear. To address this question, we determined the relationship between LFP signals and another, much better understood, signature of neural activity: action potentials. Specifically, we focused on the relationship between the amplitude of stimulus-induced LFPs and the magnitude of spiking activity in visual cortex of non-human primates. Our trial-by-trial correlation analyses between these two components of extracellular signals in macaque visual cortex show that the spike rate is coupled to the LFP amplitude with a surprisingly long latency, typically 50 ms...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215024/identification-of-srna-mediated-responses-to-nutrient-depletion-in-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#15
Hirzahida Mohd-Padil, Nadzirah Damiri, Suhaila Sulaiman, Shiao-Fei Chai, Sheila Nathan, Mohd Firdaus-Raih
The Burkholderia genus includes many species that are known to survive in diverse environmental conditions including low nutrient environments. One species, Burkholderia pseudomallei is a versatile pathogen that can survive in a wide range of hosts and environmental conditions. In this study, we investigated how a nutrient depleted growth environment evokes sRNA mediated responses by B. pseudomallei. Computationally predicted B. pseudomallei D286 sRNAs were mapped to RNA-sequencing data for cultures grown under two conditions: (1) BHIB as a nutrient rich media reference environment and (2) M9 media as a nutrient depleted stress environment...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214967/fear-of-life-fear-of-death-and-fear-of-causing-death-how-legislative-changes-on-assisted-dying-are-doomed-to-fail
#16
Matti Häyry
Fear of life, fear of death, and fear of causing death form a combination that prevents reasoned changes in laws concerning end-of-life situations. This is shown systematically in this article using the methods of conceptual analysis. Prevalent fears are explicated and interpreted to see how their meanings differ depending on the chosen normative stance. When the meanings have been clarified, the impact of the fears on the motivations and justifications of potential legislative reforms are assessed. Two main normative stances are evoked...
January 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214399/preservation-of-motor-maps-with-increased-motor-evoked-potential-amplitude-threshold-in-rmt-determination
#17
Giuseppe Lucente, Steven Lam, Heike Schneider, Thomas Picht
OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive pre-surgical mapping of eloquent brain areas with navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a useful technique linked to the improvement of surgical planning and patient outcomes. The stimulator output intensity and subsequent resting motor threshold determination (rMT) are based on the motor-evoked potential (MEP) elicited in the target muscle with an amplitude above a predetermined threshold of 50 μV. However, a subset of patients is unable to achieve complete relaxation in the target muscles, resulting in false positives that jeopardize mapping validity with conventional MEP determination protocols...
December 6, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213090/evaluation-of-short-interval-cortical-inhibition-and-intracortical-facilitation-from-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#18
Yoshihiro Noda, Mera S Barr, Reza Zomorrodi, Robin F H Cash, Faranak Farzan, Tarek K Rajji, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
GABAergic and glutamatergic dysfunction in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) are thought to be the core pathophysiological mechanisms of schizophrenia. Recently, we have established a method to index these functions from the DLPFC using the paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigms of short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (ICF) combined with electroencephalography (EEG). In this study, we aimed to evaluate neurophysiological indicators related to GABAA and glutamate receptor-mediated functions respectively from the DLPFC in patients with schizophrenia using these paradigms, compared to healthy controls...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213058/interplay-between-global-and-pathway-specific-synaptic-plasticity-in-ca1-pyramidal-cells
#19
Sven Berberich, Jörg Pohle, Marie Pollard, Janet Barroso-Flores, Georg Köhr
Mechanisms underlying information storage have been depicted for global cell-wide and pathway-specific synaptic plasticity. Yet, little is known how these forms of plasticity interact to enhance synaptic competition and network stability. We examined synaptic interactions between apical and basal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons in mouse hippocampal slices. Bursts (50 Hz) of three action potentials (AP-bursts) paired with preceding presynaptic stimulation in stratum radiatum specifically led to LTP of the paired pathway in adult mice (P75)...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212923/response-inhibition-activates-distinct-motor-cortical-inhibitory-processes
#20
John Cirillo, Matthew J Cowie, Hayley J MacDonald, Winston D Byblow
We routinely cancel pre-planned movements that are no longer required. If stopping is forewarned, proactive processes are engaged to selectively decrease motor cortex excitability. However, without advance information there is a non-selective reduction in motor cortical excitability. Here we examine modulation of human primary motor cortex inhibitory networks during response inhibition tasks with informative and uninformative cues using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. Long- and short-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI and SICI), indicative of GABAB- and GABAA-receptor mediated inhibition respectively, were examined from motor evoked potentials obtained in task-relevant and task-irrelevant hand muscles when response inhibition was preceded by informative and uninformative cues...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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