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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667735/beyond-voltage-gated-ion-channels-voltage-operated-membrane-proteins-and-cellular-processes
#1
REVIEW
Jianping Zhang, Xingjuan Chen, Yucong Xue, Nikita Gamper, Xuan Zhang
Voltage-gated ion channels were believed to be the only voltage-sensitive proteins in excitable (and some non-excitable) cells for a long time. Emerging evidence indicates that the voltage-operated model is shared by some other transmembrane proteins expressed in both excitable and non-excitable cells. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about voltage-operated proteins, which are not classic voltage-gated ion channels as well as the voltage-dependent processes in cells for which single voltage-sensitive proteins have yet to be identified...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667190/age-related-changes-in-late-i-waves-influence-motor-cortex-plasticity-induction-in-older-adults
#2
George M Opie, John Cirillo, John G Semmler
KEYPOINTS SUMMARY: The response to neuroplasticity interventions using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is reduced in older adults, which may be due, in part, to age-related alterations in interneuronal (I-wave) circuitry. The current study investigated age-related changes in interneuronal characteristics and whether they influence motor cortical plasticity in older adults. While I-wave recruitment was unaffected by age, there was a shift in the temporal characteristics of the late, but not early I-waves...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667095/can-postoperative-deltoid-weakness-after-cervical-laminoplasty-be-prevented-by-using-intraoperative-neurophysiological-monitoring
#3
Muneharu Ando, Tetsuya Tamaki, Takuji Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Maio, Masatoshi Teraguchi, Noboru Takiguchi, Hiroki Iwahashi, Makiko Onishi, Yukihiro Nakagawa, Hiroshi Iwasaki, Shunji Tsutsui, Masanari Takami, Hiroshi Yamada
Laminoplasty, frequently performed in patients with cervical myelopathy, is safe and provides relatively good results. However, motor palsy of the upper extremities, which occurs after decompression surgery for cervical myelopathy, often reduces muscle strength of the deltoid muscle, mainly in the C5 myotome. The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively whether postoperative deltoid weakness (DW) can be predicted by performing intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) during cervical laminoplasty and to clarify whether it is possible to prevent palsy using IONM...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666407/an-implantable-peripheral-nerve-recording-and-stimulation-system-for-experiments-on-freely-moving-animal-subjects
#4
Byunghun Lee, Mukhesh K Koripalli, Yaoyao Jia, Joshua Acosta, M S E Sendi, Yoonsu Choi, Maysam Ghovanloo
A new study with rat sciatic nerve model for peripheral nerve interfacing is presented using a fully-implanted inductively-powered recording and stimulation system in a wirelessly-powered standard homecage that allows animal subjects move freely within the homecage. The Wireless Implantable Neural Recording and Stimulation (WINeRS) system offers 32-channel peripheral nerve recording and 4-channel current-controlled stimulation capabilities in a 3 × 1.5 × 0.5 cm3 package. A bi-directional data link is established by on-off keying pulse-position modulation (OOK-PPM) in near field for narrow-band downlink and 433 MHz OOK for wideband uplink...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665549/combination-of-cyp2c19-genotype-with-non-genetic-factors-evoking-phenoconversion-improves-phenotype-prediction
#5
Ádám Ferenc Kiss, Dorottya Vaskó, Máté Tamás Déri, Katalin Tóth, Katalin Monostory
BACKGROUND: CYP2C19 is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme, responsible for metabolism of approximately 10% of the drugs on the market. Large inter-individual differences exist in metabolic activities, which are primarily attributed to genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19 gene. Conflicting results have been published about the role of CYP2C19 polymorphisms in metabolism of CYP2C19 substrates and clinical outcomes; thus, we aimed to investigate CYP2C19 genotype-phenotype associations, and we sought to elicit potential causes of discrepancies in the genotype-based prediction by incorporating the liver donors' demographic data, drug administration events and pathological conditions...
December 5, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665318/assessment-of-vestibular-function-in-patients-with-chronic-middle-ear-disease-using-the-vhit-and-vemp-test
#6
J S Sandhu, M Yung, J Parker-George, B Kearney, J Ray
It is widely accepted that middle ear pathology can cause dizziness and imbalance, however this has been a challenging area to investigate, as the bi-thermal caloric test is difficult to interpret in this cohort. Recently vestibular tests that bypass the middle ear have been developed. These are the Video Head Impulse Test (vHIT) and the Bone Conduction Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (BC-VEMPs). We have successfully carried out pre-operative vHIT and BC-VEMPs on 20 patients awaiting surgery for middle ear pathologies and have shown that complete testing can be done in less than 30 minutes...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664726/measurement-of-the-electrically-evoked-stapedial-reflex-response-with-wideband-acoustic-reflectance-measurement
#7
Jace Wolfe, Rene Gifford, Erin Schafer
BACKGROUND: The electrically evoked stapedial reflex threshold (ESRT) has been shown to be a good predictor of upper stimulation level for cochlear implant recipients. Previous research has shown that the ESRT may be recorded at lower stimulation levels and with a higher incidence of success with the use of higher frequency probe tones (e.g., 678 and 1000 Hz) relative to the use of the conventional 226-Hz probe tone. Research has also shown that the acoustic reflex may be recorded at lower stimulus levels with the use of wideband reflectance when compared to the acoustic reflex threshold recorded with a conventional acoustic immittance measurement...
April 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663423/linking-internal-and-external-signals-for-performance-monitoring-an-event-related-potential-study
#8
Christian Valt, Mona Katharina Sprengeler, Birgit Stürmer
The present study explored the relevance of internal signals for the dynamics of personal and nonpersonal feedback processing. To this end, pairs of participants performed concurrently a choice-response task and received external signals in four feedback contexts. In two contexts, feedback was informative about the personal performance (personal/private and personal/public); in the other two contexts, instructions suggested that feedback was informative about the other participant's performance (nonpersonal/other) or that it was random (nonpersonal/random)...
April 16, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662214/locomotor-activity-modulates-associative-learning-in-mouse-cerebellum
#9
Catarina Albergaria, N Tatiana Silva, Dominique L Pritchett, Megan R Carey
Changes in behavioral state can profoundly influence brain function. Here we show that behavioral state modulates performance in delay eyeblink conditioning, a cerebellum-dependent form of associative learning. Increased locomotor speed in head-fixed mice drove earlier onset of learning and trial-by-trial enhancement of learned responses that were dissociable from changes in arousal and independent of sensory modality. Eyelid responses evoked by optogenetic stimulation of mossy fiber inputs to the cerebellum, but not at sites downstream, were positively modulated by ongoing locomotion...
April 16, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662014/interferon-independent-non-canonical-stat-activation-and-virus-induced-inflammation
#10
REVIEW
Yuchen Nan, Chunyan Wu, Yan-Jin Zhang
Interferons (IFNs) are a group of secreted proteins that play critical roles in antiviral immunity, antitumor activity, activation of cytotoxic T cells, and modulation of host immune responses. IFNs are cytokines, and bind receptors on cell surfaces to trigger signal transduction. The major signaling pathway activated by IFNs is the JAK/STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway, a complex pathway involved in both viral and host survival strategies. On the one hand, viruses have evolved strategies to escape from antiviral host defenses evoked by IFN-activated JAK/STAT signaling...
April 14, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661964/refinement-of-spatial-receptive-fields-in-the-developing-mouse-lgn-is-coordinated-with-excitatory-and-inhibitory-remodeling
#11
Wayne W Tschetter, Gubbi Govindaiah, Ian M Etherington, William Guido, Cristopher M Niell
Receptive field properties of individual visual neurons are dictated by the precise patterns of synaptic connections they receive, including the arrangement of inputs in visual space and features such as polarity (On versus Off). The inputs from retina to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in the mouse undergo significant refinement over development, however it is unknown how this corresponds to the establishment of functional visual response properties. Here we conducted in vivo and in vitro recordings in mouse LGN, beginning just after natural eye opening to determine how receptive fields develop as excitatory and feed-forward inhibitory retinal afferents refine...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661256/main-effects-of-human-saliva-on-flavour-perception-and-the-potential-contribution-to-food-consumption
#12
Carolina Muñoz-González, Gilles Feron, Francis Canon
Whole saliva is a mixture composed by the secretions of the major and minor salivary glands and the crevicular fluid, bacteria, cells and food debris. Its properties (flow and composition) are highly intra- and inter-individually dependent and reflect the health status of individuals. Saliva plays a key role in the eating process and on the perception of flavour. Flavour corresponds to the combined effect of taste sensations, aromatics and chemical feeling factors evoked by food in the oral cavity. It is a key determinant of food consumption and intake...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660579/the-effect-of-dermal-benzophenone-2-administration-on-immune-system-activity-hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid-axis-activity-and-hematological-parameters-in-male-wistar-rats
#13
Żaneta Broniowska, Joanna Ślusarczyk, Beata Starek-Świechowicz, Ewa Trojan, Bartosz Pomierny, Weronika Krzyżanowska, Agnieszka Basta-Kaim, Bogusława Budziszewska
Benzophenones used as UV filters, in addition to the effects on the skin, can be absorbed into the blood and affect the function of certain organs. So far, their effects on the sex hormone receptors and gonadal function have been studied, but not much is known about their potential action on other systems. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of benzophenone-2 (BP-2) on immune system activity, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis activity and hematological parameters. BP-2 was administered dermally, twice daily at a dose of 100 mg/kg for 4-weeks to male Wistar rats...
April 13, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660342/investigation-of-trpv1-loss-of-function-phenotypes-in-trpv1-leu206stop-mice-generated-by-n-ethyl-n-nitrosourea-mutagenesis
#14
Thomas Christoph, Babette Kögel, Klaus Schiene, Thomas Peters, Wolfgang Schröder
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) random mutagenesis was used to generate a mouse model for the analysis of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel. A transversion from T→A in exon 4 led to a Leu206Stop mutation generating a loss-of-function mutant. The TRPV1 agonist capsaicin was used to analyze functional and nociceptive parameters in vitro and in vivo in TRPV1 Leu206Stop mice and congenic C3HeB/FeJ controls. Capsaicin-induced [Ca2+ ]i changes in small diameter DRG neurons were significantly diminished in TRPV1 Leu206Stop mice and administration of capsaicin induced neither hypothermia nor nocifensive behaviour in vivo...
April 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659469/alloknesis-and-hyperknesis-mechanisms-assessment-methodology-and-clinical-implications-of-itch-sensitization
#15
Hjalte Holm Andersen, Tasuku Akiyama, Leigh Ann Nattkemper, Antoinette van Laarhoven, Jesper Elberling, Gil Yosipovitch, Lars Arendt-Nielsen
Itch and pain share numerous mechanistic similarities. Patients with chronic itch conditions (for instance atopic dermatitis or neuropathic itch), often experience symptoms such as mechanical alloknesis and hyperknesis. These dysesthesias are analoguous to the pain-associated phenomena allodynia and hyperalgesia, which are often observed, e.g., in neuropathic pain conditions. Mechanical itch dysesthesias represent abnormal sensory states (caused by neuroplastic changes) wherein considerable itch is evoked, for instance by light cutaneous stimuli such as from clothing (alloknesis), or where increased itch is perceived in response to normally itch-evoking stimuli (hyperknesis)...
April 11, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659444/cerebellar-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-facilitates-excitability-of-spinal-reflex-but-does-not-affect-cerebellar-inhibition-and-facilitation-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia
#16
Akiyoshi Matsugi, Yutaka Kikuchi, Kenta Kaneko, Yuta Seko, Masato Odagaki
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the cerebellum facilitates the spinal reflex in healthy humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether such cerebellar spinal facilitation (CSpF) appears in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) presenting with atrophy in the cerebellar gray matter and dentate nucleus. One patient with SCA type 6 and another with SCA type 31 participated in this study. TMS over the right primary motor cortex was used to induce motor-evoked potentials in the right first dorsal interosseous muscle, which were detected using electromyography...
April 13, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659054/tuning-in-c-nociceptors-to-reveal-mechanisms-in-chronic-neuropathic-pain
#17
Robin Jonas, Barbara Namer, Lenka Stockinger, Kim Chisholm, Mark Schnakenberg, Gunther Landmann, Mateusz Kucharczyk, Christoph Konrad, Roland Schmidt, Richard Carr, Stephen McMahon, Martin Schmelz, Roman Rukwied
OBJECTIVE: Develop and validate a low-intensity sinusoidal electrical stimulation paradigm to preferentially activate C-fibers in human skin. METHODS: Sinusoidal transcutaneous stimulation (4 Hz) was assessed psychophysically in healthy volunteers (n=14) and neuropathic pain patients (n=9). Pursuing laser Doppler imaging and single nociceptor recordings in vivo in humans (microneurography) and pigs confirmed the activation of "silent" C-nociceptors. Synchronized C-fiber compound action potentials were evoked in isolated human nerve fascicles in vitro...
April 16, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658863/swallow-syncope-after-whiplash-neck-injury
#18
Luka Lipar, Pia Vovk, Tereza Weiss, Jus Ksela
Swallow syncope is a rare dysautonomic syndrome characterized by temporary loss of consciousness upon swallowing solid foods or liquids, displaying primarily in individuals with an underlying structural or functional esophageal or cardiac pathology. However, the evidence also suggests that isolated vagal dysfunction or abnormal reactions of esophageal mechanoreceptors after mechanical irritation, demyelination, or trauma can potentially evoke  a cardioinhibitory response or vasodepression upon swallowing. We present a case of a 49-year-old otherwise healthy female patient who developed swallow syncope two weeks after whiplash neck injury acquired in a rear-end collision...
March 5, 2018: Heart Surgery Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658441/efficacy-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-combined-with-cognitive-training-in-the-treatment-of-apathy-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-trial
#19
Nguyen Jean-Paul, Claire Boutoleau-Bretonniere, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Alcira Suarez, Helene Gaillard, Guillaume Chapelet, Sebastien Abad, Aurelien Van Langhenhove, Julian Nizard, Laure de Decke
BACKGROUND: Apathy, commonly defined as loss of motivation, is a symptom frequently encountered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The treatment of apathy remains challenging in the absence of any truly effective medications. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can improve cognitive disorders, but do not appear to improve apathy. Isolated cognitive training also appears to have no effect on apathy. We propose to test the efficacy of a new procedure for the treatment of apathy in AD patients consisting of a combination of tDCS and cognitive training, based on the latest guidelines for the design of therapeutic trials in this field...
April 16, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656173/factors-associated-with-extension-of-the-scheduled-time-for-spine-surgery
#20
Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Kei Ando, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Masayoshi Morozumi, Satoshi Tanaka, Masaaki Machino, Kyotaro Ota, Naoki Ishiguro, Shiro Imagama
OBJECTIVES: Adherence to scheduled times in surgery is important in hospital management. However, sudden surgical changes or unexpected intraoperative problems may lead to prolongation of operative times. The purpose of this study was to investigate operative times in spinal surgery and to identify causes of delays during surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 488 cases of spinal surgery was performed to investigate operations prolonged for >2 h and to identify factors associated with prolongation...
April 3, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
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