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Evoked potentials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822749/dominance-of-layer-specific-microvessel-dilation-in-contrast-enhanced-high-resolution-fmri-comparison-between-hemodynamic-spread-and-vascular-architecture-with-clarity
#1
REVIEW
Alexander John Poplawsky, Mitsuhiro Fukuda, Bok-Man Kang, Jae Hwan Kim, Minah Suh, Seong-Gi Kim
Contrast-enhanced cerebral blood volume-weighted (CBVw) fMRI response peaks are specific to the layer of evoked synaptic activity (Poplawsky et al., 2015), but the spatial resolution limit of CBVw fMRI is unknown. In this study, we measured the laminar spread of the CBVw fMRI evoked response in the external plexiform layer (EPL, 265 ± 65 μm anatomical thickness, mean ± SD, n = 30 locations from 5 rats) of the rat olfactory bulb during electrical stimulation of the lateral olfactory tract and examined its potential vascular source...
August 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822654/polarity-independent-effects-of-tdcs-on-paired-associative-stimulation-induced-plasticity
#2
Hanna Faber, Alexander Opitz, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Ulf Ziemann
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can polarize the cortex of the human brain. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We sought to verify the hypothesis that posterior-anterior (PA) but not anterior-posterior (AP) tDCS of primary motor cortex (M1) produces cooperative effects with corticospinal plasticity induced by paired associative stimulation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) to M1 projection (PASSMA→M1) in a highly controlled experimental design...
July 27, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822456/-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-two-noncontinuous-segments-spinal-cord-compression-injury-in-rabbits
#3
C H Yang, B Q Yu, Q H You, J J Feng
Objective: In order to explore the effects of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSC) transplantation on the treatment of two noncontinuous segments spinal cord compression injury and to investigate whether repeated intravenous injection UCMSC was more beneficial for the recovery of spinal cord function. Methods: A total of 30 adult rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: control group (received PBS), single injection group, repeated injection group with 3 days intervals. A noncontinuous two segments SCI model was established by using the 2F Fogarty balloon catheter...
August 8, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822016/in-situ-imaging-reveals-properties-of-purinergic-signalling-in-trigeminal-sensory-ganglia-in-vitro
#4
Arletta Nowodworska, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Andrea Nistri, Elsa Fabbretti
Chronic pain is supported by sterile inflammation that induces sensitisation of sensory neurons to ambient stimuli including extracellular ATP acting on purinergic P2X receptors. The development of in vitro methods for drug screening would be useful to investigate cell crosstalk and plasticity mechanisms occurring during neuronal sensitisation and sterile neuroinflammation. Thus, we studied, at single-cell level, membrane pore dilation based on the uptake of a fluorescent probe following sustained ATP-gated P2X receptor function in neurons and non-neuronal cells of trigeminal ganglion cultures from wild-type (WT) and R192Q CaV2...
August 18, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821922/homeostatic-plasticity-in-human-extrastriate-cortex-following-a-simulated-peripheral-scotoma
#5
Matthew A Gannon, Stephanie M Long, Nathan A Parks
Neuroimaging and patient work over the past decade have indicated that, following retinal deafferentation, the human visual cortex undergoes a large-scale and enduring reorganization of its topography such that the classical retinotopic organization of deafferented visual cortex remaps to represent non-classical regions of visual space. Such long-term visual reorganization is proposed to occur through changes in the functional balance of deafferented visual circuits that engage more lasting changes through activity-dependent neuroplasticity...
August 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820747/involvement-of-hyperglycemia-in-the-development-of-platelet-procoagulant-response-the-role-of-aldose-reductase-and-platelet-swelling
#6
Tomasz Rusak, Tomasz Misztal, Malgorzata Rusak, Justyna Branska-Januszewska, Marian Tomasiak
: Rise in mean platelet volume (MPV) has been demonstrated to be associated with increased platelet reactivity. In diabetes patients, augmented MPV was proposed to contribute to increased risk of thrombotic complications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether under hyperglycemic conditions, aldose reductase (AR)-mediated sorbitol formation and associated rise in cell volume, which subsequently results in platelet hyperactivation. Platelets were obtained from 30 healthy volunteers and 13 patients with diabetes...
September 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820738/the-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-short-interval-intracortical-inhibition-and-intracortical-facilitation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Mana Biabani, Maryam Aminitehrani, Maryam Zoghi, Michael Farrell, Gary Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is increasingly being used to affect the neurological conditions with deficient intracortical synaptic activities (i.e. Parkinson's disease and epilepsy). In addition, it is suggested that the lasting effects of tDCS on corticospinal excitability (CSE) have intracortical origin. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine whether tDCS has any effect on intracortical circuits. Eleven electronic databases were searched for the studies investigating intracortical changes induced by anodal (a) and cathodal (c) tDCS, in healthy individuals, using two paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigms: short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF)...
August 18, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819259/dendritic-calcium-spikes-are-clearly-detectable-at-the-cortical-surface
#8
Mototaka Suzuki, Matthew E Larkum
Cortical surface recording techniques such as EEG and ECoG are widely used for measuring brain activity. The prevailing assumption is that surface potentials primarily reflect synaptic activity, although non-synaptic events may also contribute. Here we show that dendritic calcium spikes occurring in pyramidal neurons (that we showed previously are cognitively relevant) are clearly detectable in cortical surface potentials. To show this we developed an optogenetic, non-synaptic approach to evoke dendritic calcium spikes in vivo...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816948/medial-medullary-infarction-caused-by-antineutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-related-vasculitis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Kumi Yanagiha, Kazuhiro Ishii, Tomoyuki Ueno, Aiki Marushima, Akira Tamaoka
RATIONALE: Medial medullary infarction accounts for less than 1% of brain infarctions, and medial medullary infarctions is very rarely caused by antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the case of a 76-year-old man at low risk of arteriosclerosis who presented with disorders on the left side including gaze-evoked nystagmus, paralysis of the extremities, pyramidal signs, sensory disturbance, and dysesthesia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging also showed right medial medullary infarction...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816686/vestibular-response-to-electrical-stimulation-of-the-otolith-organs-implications-in-the-development-of-a-vestibular-implant-for-the-improvement-of-the-sensation-of-gravitoinertial-accelerations
#10
Angel Ramos de Miguel, Juan Carlos Falcon Gonzalez, Angel Ramos Macias
OBJECTIVE: Electrical stimulation of the utricular and saccular portions of the vestibular nerve improves stability in patients suffering from vestibular dysfunction. The main objective of this study was to evaluate a new technique, vestibular response telemetry (VRT), for measuring the electrically evoked vestibular compound action potential (saccular and utricular) after stimulating the otolith organ (saccular and utricular) in adults. This study used evidence that the otolith organ can be electrically stimulated in order to develop a new vestibular implant design to improve the sensation of gravitoinertial acceleration...
August 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816240/rodent-mismatch-negativity-mmn-theta-neuro-oscillatory-response-as-a-translational-neurophysiological-biomarker-for-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-based-new-treatment-development-in-schizophrenia
#11
Migyung Lee, Andrea Balla, Henry Sershen, Pejman Sehatpour, Peter Lakatos, Daniel C Javitt
Deficits in the generation of auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) generation are among the most widely replicated neurophysiological abnormalities in schizophrenia and linked to underlying dysfunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated neurotransmission. Here, we evaluate physiological properties of rodent MMN, along with sensitivity to NMDAR agonist and antagonist treatment, relative to known patterns of dysfunction in schizophrenia. Epidural neurophysiological responses to frequency- and duration-deviants, along with responses to standard stimuli, were obtained at baseline and following 2 and 4 weeks treatment from rats treated with saline, phencyclidine (PCP, 15 mg/kg/d by osmotic minipump), or PCP+glycine (16% by weight diet) interventions...
August 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815604/chronic-morphine-reduces-the-readily-releasable-pool-of-gaba-a-presynaptic-mechanism-of-opioid-tolerance
#12
Adrianne R Wilson-Poe, Hyo-Jin Jeong, Christopher W Vaughan
The midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG) plays a critical role in tolerance to the analgesic actions of opioids such as morphine. While numerous studies have identified the postsynaptic adaptations induced by chronic morphine treatment in this and other brain regions, the presence of presynaptic adaptations remains uncertain. We examined GABAergic synaptic transmission within rat PAG brain slices from animals which underwent a low dose morphine treatment protocol which produces tolerance, but not withdrawal. Evoked GABAergic IPSCs (inhibitory postsynaptic currents) were less in morphine compared to control saline treated animals...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814466/interaction-of-induced-anxiety-and-verbal-working-memory-influence-of-trait-anxiety
#13
Nilam Patel, Catherine Stoodley, Daniel S Pine, Christian Grillon, Monique Ernst
This study examines the influence of trait anxiety on working memory (WM) in safety and threat. Interactions between experimentally induced anxiety and WM performance (on different cognitive loads) have been reported in healthy, nonanxious subjects. Differences in trait anxiety may moderate these interactions. Accordingly, these interactions may be potentiated by high trait anxiety (HTA), or show a resilient pattern that protects cognitive performance. HTA and low trait anxiety (LTA) were defined by a median split of scores on the trait component of the state-trait anxiety inventory...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813949/monitoring-brain-potentials-to-guide-neurorehabilitation-of-tracking-impairments
#14
Boris Yazmir, Miriam Reiner
Motor impairments come in different forms. One class of motor impairments, relates to accuracy of tracking a moving object, as, for instance, when chasing in an attempt to catch it. Here we look at neural signals associated with errors in tracking, and the implications for brain-computer-interfaces that target impairment-tailored rehabilitation. As a starting point, we characterized EEG signals evoked by tracking errors during continuous natural motion, in healthy participants. Participants played a virtual 3D, ecologically valid haptic tennis game, and had to track a moving tennis ball in order to hit and send the ball towards the opponent's court...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813867/therapeutic-effects-of-anti-gravity-treadmill-alterg-training-on-reflex-hyper-excitability-corticospinal-tract-activities-and-muscle-stiffness-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#15
Sh Parvin, A Taghiloo, A Irani, M Mehdi Mirbagheri
We aimed to study therapeutic effects of antigravity treadmill (AlterG) training on reflex hyper-excitability, muscle stiffness, and corticospinal tract (CST) function in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Three children received AlterG training 3 days per week for 8 weeks as experimental group. Each session lasted 45 minutes. One child as control group received typical occupational therapy for the same amount of time. We evaluated hyper-excitability of lower limb muscles by H-reflex response...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813681/uncoupling-the-mitogenic-and-metabolic-functions-of-fgf1-by-tuning-fgf1-fgf-receptor-dimer-stability
#16
Zhifeng Huang, Yi Tan, Junlian Gu, Yang Liu, Lintao Song, Jianlou Niu, Longwei Zhao, Lakshmi Srinivasan, Qian Lin, Jingjing Deng, Yang Li, Daniel J Conklin, Thomas A Neubert, Lu Cai, Xiaokun Li, Moosa Mohammadi
The recent discovery of metabolic roles for fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) in glucose homeostasis has expanded the functions of this classically known mitogen. To dissect the molecular basis for this functional pleiotropy, we engineered an FGF1 partial agonist carrying triple mutations (FGF1(ΔHBS)) that diminished its ability to induce heparan sulfate (HS)-assisted FGF receptor (FGFR) dimerization and activation. FGF1(ΔHBS) exhibited a severely reduced proliferative potential, while preserving the full metabolic activity of wild-type FGF1 in vitro and in vivo...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812235/patent-ethics-the-misalignment-of-views-between-the-patent-system-and-the-wider-society
#17
Ellen-Marie Forsberg, Anders Braarud Hanssen, Hanne Marie Nielsen, Ingrid Olesen
Concerns have been voiced about the ethical implications of patenting practices in the field of biotechnology. Some of these have also been incorporated into regulation, such as the European Commission Directive 98/44 on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions. However, the incorporation of ethically based restrictions into patent legislation has not had the effect of satisfying all concerns. In this article, we will systematically compare the richness of ethical concerns surrounding biotech patenting, with the limited scope of ethical concerns actually addressed in the patent system...
August 15, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811849/meniere-s-disease-and-vestibular-migraine-updates-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Paul Tabet, Issam Saliba
The diagnosis of Meniere's disease (MD) and vestibular migraine (VM) is primarily based on clinical criteria and their differentiation is often difficult. Currently, there are no known definitive diagnostic tests that can reliably distinguish the two conditions. Patients with MD and patients with VM are treated differently, therefore improving the diagnosis of these two pathologies should avoid errors in management. A systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Medline-Ovid and Embase databases were used to conduct a thorough search of English-language publications dating from 1948 to March 2016...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811138/intermittent-hypoxia-training-powerful-non-invasive-cerebroprotection-against-ethanol-withdrawal-excitotoxicity
#19
REVIEW
Marianna E Jung, Robert T Mallet
Ethanol intoxication and withdrawal exact a devastating toll on the central nervous system. Abrupt ethanol withdrawal provokes massive release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, which over-activates its postsynaptic receptors, causing intense Ca(2+) loading, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase activation and oxidative stress, culminating in ATP depletion, mitochondrial injury, amyloid β deposition and neuronal death. Collectively, these mechanisms produce neurocognitive and sensorimotor dysfunction that discourages continued abstinence...
August 12, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810599/effects-of-niflumic-acid-on-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-induced-currents-in-isolated-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-of-neuropathic-pain-rats
#20
Li-Jie Wang, Yang Wang, Meng-Jie Chen, Zhen-Pu Tian, Bi-Han Lu, Ke-Tao Mao, Liang Zhang, Lei Zhao, Li-Ya Shan, Li Li, Jun-Qiang Si
Niflumic acid (NFA) is a type of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Neuropathic pain is caused by a decrease in presynaptic inhibition mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In the present study, a whole-cell patch-clamp technique and intracellular recording were used to assess the effect of NFA on GABA-induced inward current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. It was observed that 1-1,000 µmol/l GABA induced a concentration-dependent inward current in DRG neurons...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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