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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165105/a-behavioral-strategy-to-minimize-air-pollution-exposure-in-pregnant-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Marzieh Araban, Sedigheh Sadat Tavafian, Saeed Motesaddi Zarandi, Ali Reza Hidarnia, Andrea Burri, Ali Montazeri
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women and their fetus belong to a sensitive group in response to air pollution hazards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based educational program to change pollution exposure behavior in pregnant women. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, pregnant women attending a prenatal clinic in Tehran, Iran were selected and randomized into the experimental and control groups. The inclusion criteria were age between 18 and 35 years, having a history of pregnancies without adverse outcomes and not suffering from chronic diseases...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163223/have-the-findings-from-clinical-risk-prediction-and-trials-any-key-messages-for-safety-pharmacology
#2
REVIEW
Jem D Lane, Andrew Tinker
Anti-arrhythmic drugs are a mainstay in the management of symptoms related to arrhythmias, and are adjuncts in prevention and treatment of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. However, they also have the potential for pro-arrhythmia and thus the prediction of arrhythmia predisposition and drug response are critical issues. Clinical trials are the latter stages in the safety testing and efficacy process prior to market release, and as such serve as a critical safeguard. In this review, we look at some of the lessons to be learned from approaches to arrhythmia prediction in patients, clinical trials of drugs used in the treatment of arrhythmias, and the implications for the design of pre-clinical safety pharmacology testing...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158688/a-time-for-new-north-south-relationships-in-global-health
#3
Jin Un Kim, Obinna Oleribe, Ramou Njie, Simon D Taylor-Robinson
The modern concept of globalization in health care and clinical research often carries a positive message for the "Global South" nations of Africa, South America and Southeast Asia. However, bioethical abuse of participants in clinical trials still exists in the Global South. Unethical studies directed by the "Global North", formed by the medically advanced nations in North America, Western Europe and Japan, have been hugely concerning. The issue between the Global North and South is a well-recognized socioeconomic phenomenon of globalization...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154502/if-it-is-absurd-then-why-do-you-do-it-the-richer-the-obsessional-experience-the-more-compelling-the-compulsion
#4
Steffen Moritz, Christine Purdon, Lena Jelinek, Brenda Chiang, Marit Hauschildt
Mounting evidence suggests that obsessive intrusions are often accompanied and amplified by perceptual experiences of different modalities (e.g., feeling dirt on one's skin while experiencing intrusive thoughts about contamination). Pilot studies conducted online with individuals endorsing mild obsessive-compulsive symptoms have linked the co-occurrence of perceptual experiences and obsessions to the severity of subsequent compulsive behaviour as well as low insight. However, it is presently unclear whether sensory experiences accompany all types of obsessional thoughts or are restricted to certain preoccupations (e...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149194/understanding-linkage-to-care-with-hiv-self-test-approach-in-lusaka-zambia-a-mixed-method-approach
#5
Jenala Chipungu, Samuel Bosomprah, Arianna Zanolini, Harsha Thimurthy, Roma Chilengi, Anjali Sharma, Charles B Holmes
INTRODUCTION: HIV self-testing (HIVST) is a novel approach designed to assist in achieving the goal of at least 90% of the population that learn their HIV status. A self-test user with a positive test is required to visit a clinic to link into HIV care, yet little is known about patient preferences for linkage strategies. We examined the intention to link to care amongst potential HIVST users and the suitability of three linkage to care strategies in Lusaka Province, Zambia. METHODS: We conducted a representative cross sectional survey of 1,617 individuals aged 16-49 years old in Lusaka Province...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148565/tobacco-cessation-interventions-for-young-people
#6
REVIEW
Thomas R Fanshawe, William Halliwell, Nicola Lindson, Paul Aveyard, Jonathan Livingstone-Banks, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce
BACKGROUND: Most tobacco control programmes for adolescents are based around prevention of uptake, but teenage smoking is still common. It is unclear if interventions that are effective for adults can also help adolescents to quit. This is the update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of strategies that help young people to stop smoking tobacco. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register in June 2017...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147618/programmed-cell-death-ligands-expression-in-phaeochromocytomas-and-paragangliomas-relationship-with-the-hypoxic-response-immune-evasion-and-malignant-behavior
#7
David J Pinato, James R Black, Sebastian Trousil, Roberto E Dina, Pritesh Trivedi, Francesco A Mauri, Rohini Sharma
The hypoxic response underlies the pathogenesis and malignant behavior of PCC/PGL. Regulation of PD-1 receptor-ligand signaling, a therapeutically actionable driver of the anti-tumor immune response, is a hypoxic-driven trait across malignancies. We evaluated the prognostic role of PD ligands in association with biomarkers of hypoxia and angiogenesis in patients with PCC/PGL. Tissue microarrays sections including consecutive cases diagnosed between 1983-2011 were stained for PD-L1 and 2, hypoxia inducible factor 1a (Hif-1a), Carbonic Anhydrase IX (CaIX), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147118/the-effects-of-public-education-through-short-message-service-on-the-time-from-symptom-onset-to-hospital-arrival-in-patients-with-myocardial-infarction-a-field-trial
#8
Farzaneh Saberi, Mohsen Adib-Hajbaghery, Javad Zohrehie
BACKGROUND: Patients' early hospital arrival is among the most important factors in minimizing the complications of myocardial infarction (MI). One of the measures which can reduce prehospital delay in these patients is public education. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of public education through Short Message Service (SMS) on the time from symptom onset to hospital arrival (or onset-to-door time) in patients with MI in Kashan, Iran. METHODS: This field trial was done on 131 patients with definite diagnosis of myocardial infarction...
May 2017: ARYA Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146568/health-seeking-influence-reflected-by-online-health-related-messages-received-on-social-media-cross-sectional-survey
#9
Rahila Iftikhar, Bahaa Abaalkhail
BACKGROUND: Major social networking platforms, such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter, have become popular means through which people share health-related information, irrespective of whether messages disseminated through these channels are authentic. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the demographic characteristics of patients that may demonstrate their attitudes toward medical information shared on social media networks. Second, we address how information found through social media affects the way people deal with their health...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143910/the-effect-of-sms-text-message-reminders-on-attendance-at-a-community-adult-mental-health-service-clinic-do-sms-reminders-really-increase-attendance
#10
Lucy Moran, Kieran O'Loughlin, Brendan D Kelly
BACKGROUND: Non-attendance at outpatient clinics is common and costly. AIMS: This study aimed to determine if sending SMS ('short message service' or text message) reminders to patients before appointments reduced non-attendance. METHODS: We collected outpatient data at Ballyfermot and Lucan Community Adult Mental Health Service, Dublin, Ireland during 6-month periods (a) immediately prior to the introduction of SMS reminders for outpatient appointments; (b) immediately following the introduction of SMS reminders; and (c) two and a half years later...
November 16, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143586/break-out-session-highlights
#11
Kjell-Morten Myhr, Mathias Mäurer, Marisa Martínez Ginés, Federica Esposito, Ralf Linker
A popular feature of the Multiple Sclerosis Experts Summit is interactive break-out sessions to discuss various aspects of multiple sclerosis (MS), including MS spasticity and general management of MS patients. The format encourages participation and active discussion, thus providing attendees with the opportunity to exchange their experiences of the day-to-day management of MS in clinical practice. Following feedback provided by each session leader, key messages are summarized and presented in a plenary session by the Summit chair...
November 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136001/a-combination-intervention-strategy-to-improve-linkage-to-and-retention-in-hiv-care-following-diagnosis-in-mozambique-a-cluster-randomized-study
#12
Batya Elul, Matthew R Lamb, Maria Lahuerta, Fatima Abacassamo, Laurence Ahoua, Stephanie A Kujawski, Maria Tomo, Ilesh Jani
BACKGROUND: Concerning gaps in the HIV care continuum compromise individual and population health. We evaluated a combination intervention strategy (CIS) targeting prevalent barriers to timely linkage and sustained retention in HIV care in Mozambique. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this cluster-randomized trial, 10 primary health facilities in the city of Maputo and Inhambane Province were randomly assigned to provide the CIS or the standard of care (SOC). The CIS included point-of-care CD4 testing at the time of diagnosis, accelerated ART initiation, and short message service (SMS) health messages and appointment reminders...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132275/evidence-of-biased-advertising-in-the-case-of-social-egg-freezing
#13
Christopher Barbey
Oocyte cryopreservation, or 'egg freezing,' is the practice of preserving unfertilised oocytes for later fertilisation. This practice allows women to extend their reproductive years. In 2014, Facebook and Apple announced that they would subsidise their female employees' elective - or 'social' - use of egg freezing so that these women can more easily reconcile the demands of career and family life. This announcement engendered controversy and moral debate. Given that social egg freezing (SEF) is becoming more popular, ethical and empirical analyses are warranted...
November 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131849/modelling-the-cost-effectiveness-of-hiv-care-shows-a-clear-benefit-when-transmission-risk-is-considered-in-the-calculations-a-message-for-central-and-eastern-europe
#14
Justyna D Kowalska, Grzegorz Wójcik, Jakub Rutkowski, Magdalena Ankiersztejn-Bartczak, Ewa Siewaszewicz
BACKGROUND: HIV epidemic remains a major global health issue. Data from cost-effectiveness analyses base on CD4+ count and morbidity in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic HIV infection. The approach adopted in these analyses includes many other factors, previously not investigated. Additionally, we evaluate the impact of sexual HIV transmission due to delayed cART on the cost-effectiveness of care. METHODS: A lifetime Markov model (1-month cycle) was developed to estimate the cost per quality adjusted life years (QALY) for a 1- and 3-year delay in starting cART (as compared to starting immediately at linkage to care) lifetime costs, clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131708/processes-in-increasing-participation-of-african-american-women-in-cancer-prevention-trials-development-and-pretesting-of-an-audio-card
#15
Donna Kenerson, Saudat Fadeyi, Jianguo Liu, Mirabel Kleriwoh, Katina Beard, Margaret K Hargreaves
The enrollment of African American women into cancer prevention trials (CPTs) continues to be low despite their higher cancer mortality rates. Clinical trials are vital to the discovery of new prevention, diagnostic, and treatment methods that improve cancer outcomes. This study addressed attitudes and beliefs associated with the sub optimal participation of African American women in CPTs through the development and pretesting of an educational tool. The use of community-engaged research (CER) in the formative phase of this study was the basis for developing an audio-card...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131005/a-review-of-anesthetic-effects-on-renal-function-potential-organ-protection
#16
Negar Motayagheni, Sheshanna Phan, Crystal Eshraghi, Ala Nozari, Anthony Atala
BACKGROUND: Renal protection is a critical concept for anesthesiologists, nephrologists, and urologists, since anesthesia and renal function are highly interconnected and can potentially interfere with one another. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of anesthetic drugs and their effects on renal function remains fundamental to the success of renal surgeries, especially transplant procedures. Some experimental studies have shown that some anesthetics provide protection against renal ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury, but there is limited clinical evidence...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130440/development-and-pilot-evaluation-of-a-novel-theory-based-intervention-to-encourage-help-seeking-for-adult-hearing-loss
#17
Gabrielle H Saunders, Melissa T Frederick, ShienPei C Silverman, Claus Nielsen, Ariane Laplante-Lévesque
BACKGROUND: Health behavior theories can provide an understanding of hearing health behaviors and, more importantly, can be used to develop theoretically based strategies to change these health behaviors. PURPOSE: To develop a theory-based brief intervention to increase help-seeking for adult hearing loss and to conduct a pilot study to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, and impact on hearing beliefs and behaviors. RESEARCH DESIGN: An intervention was designed that could be easily administered by a health-care provider who does not have expertise in audiology-such as a primary care physician, community nurse, or social worker...
November 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128379/active-sms-based-influenza-vaccine-safety-surveillance-in-australian-children
#18
Alexis Pillsbury, Helen Quinn, Patrick Cashman, Alan Leeb, Kristine Macartney
INTRODUCTION: Australia's novel, active surveillance system, AusVaxSafety, monitors the post-market safety of vaccines in near real time. We analysed cumulative surveillance data for children aged 6 months to 4 years who received seasonal influenza vaccine in 2015 and/or 2016 to determine: adverse event following immunisation (AEFI) rates by vaccine brand, age and concomitant vaccine administration. METHODS: Parent/carer reports of AEFI occurring within 3 days of their child receiving an influenza vaccine in sentinel immunisation clinics were solicited by Short Message Service (SMS) and/or email-based survey...
November 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122738/performance-of-a-mobile-phone-app-based-participatory-syndromic-surveillance-system-for-acute-febrile-illness-and-acute-gastroenteritis-in-rural-guatemala
#19
Daniel Olson, Molly Lamb, Maria Renee Lopez, Kathryn Colborn, Alejandra Paniagua-Avila, Alma Zacarias, Ricardo Zambrano-Perilla, Sergio Ricardo Rodríguez-Castro, Celia Cordon-Rosales, Edwin Jose Asturias
BACKGROUND: With their increasing availability in resource-limited settings, mobile phones may provide an important tool for participatory syndromic surveillance, in which users provide symptom data directly into a centralized database. OBJECTIVE: We studied the performance of a mobile phone app-based participatory syndromic surveillance system for collecting syndromic data (acute febrile illness and acute gastroenteritis) to detect dengue virus and norovirus on a cohort of children living in a low-resource and rural area of Guatemala...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122272/enhancing-yoga-participation-a-qualitative-investigation-of-barriers-and-facilitators-to-yoga-among-predominantly-racial-ethnic-minority-low-income-adults
#20
Christine E Spadola, Rebecca Rottapel, Neha Khandpur, Emily Kontos, Suzanne M Bertisch, Dayna A Johnson, Mirja Quante, Sat Bir S Khalsa, Robert B Saper, Susan Redline
Yoga is underutilized among racial/ethnic minorities and low-income populations. To enhance participation among these demographic groups and to inform a future clinical trial, we conducted a qualitative formative investigation, informed by the Social Contextual Model of health behavior change, to identify barriers and facilitators to yoga that could impact study participation. We recruited twenty-four racially/ethnically diverse adults, with and without prior yoga experience, from a low-income, urban housing community to participate in either an individual interview or focus group...
November 2017: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
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