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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549098/high-protein-foods-and-physical-activity-protect-against-age-related-muscle-loss-and-functional-decline
#1
M Loring Bradlee, Jabed Mustafa, Martha R Singer, Lynn L Moore
Background: Some clinical trials suggest that protein supplementation enhances the effects of resistance exercise on skeletal muscle mass (SMM); fewer studies examine the effects of diets rich in protein-source foods on SMM and functional status among community-dwelling adults. Methods: Data from the Framingham Offspring study including diet (three-day records, exams 3 and 5), physical activity (exams 2 and 4), percent SMM (%SMM) (exams 6 and 7), and functional performance (exams 5 through 8) were used to evaluate independent and combined effects of physical activity and high-protein foods on adjusted mean %SMM (using analysis of covariance) and risk of functional decline (using Cox proportional hazard's models)...
May 25, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549080/life-history-traits-influence-the-strength-of-distance-and-density-dependence-at-different-life-stages-of-two-amazonian-palms
#2
Juanita Choo, Cecilia Carasco, Patricia Alvarez-Loayza, Beryl B Simpson, Evan P Economo
Background and Aims: Natural enemies are known to be important in regulating plant populations and contributing to species coexistence (Janzen-Connell effects). The strength of Janzen-Connell effects (both distance- and density-effects) varies across species, but the life history traits that may mediate such a variation are not well understood. This study examined Janzen-Connell effects across the life stages (seed through adult stages) of two sympatric palm species with distinct phenologies and shade tolerances, two traits that may mediate the strength and timing of Janzen-Connell effects...
May 26, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548677/destabilization-of-human-insulin-fibrils-by-peptides-of-fruit-bromelain-derived-from-ananas-comosus-pineapple
#3
Sromona Das, Debasish Bhattacharyya
Deposition of insulin aggregates in human body leads to dysfunctioning of several organs. Effectiveness of fruit bromelain from pineapple in prevention of insulin aggregate was investigated. Proteolyses of bromelain was done as par human digestive system and the pool of small peptides was separated from larger peptides and proteins. Under conditions of growth of insulin aggregates from its monomers, this pool of peptides restricted the reaction upto formation of oligomers of limited size. These peptides also destabilized preformed insulin aggregates to oligomers...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548564/eating-habits-and-food-additive-intakes-are-associated-with-emotional-states-based-on-eeg-and-hrv-in-healthy-korean-children-and-adolescents
#4
Jin Young Kim, Hye Lim Kang, Dae-Keun Kim, Seung Wan Kang, Yoo Kyoung Park
PURPOSE: Recent study suggests that psychological issues and eating habits are closely related. In this study, we aimed to find the association between eating habits and intakes of artificial sweeteners with emotional states of schoolchildren using quantitatively analyzing objective biosignals. METHODS: The study was conducted at the National Standard Reference Data Center for Korean EEG as a cross-sectional study. Three hundred eighteen healthy children who have not been diagnosed with neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (168 girls and 150 boys; mean age of 11...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548094/targeted-recombination-between-homologous-chromosomes-for-precise-breeding-in-tomato
#5
Shdema Filler Hayut, Cathy Melamed Bessudo, Avraham A Levy
Homologous recombination (HR) between parental chromosomes occurs stochastically. Here, we report on targeted recombination between homologous chromosomes upon somatic induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via CRISPR-Cas9. We demonstrate this via a visual and molecular assay whereby DSB induction between two alleles carrying different mutations in the PHYTOENE SYNTHASE (PSY1) gene results in yellow fruits with wild type red sectors forming via HR-mediated DSB repair. We also show that in heterozygote plants containing one psy1 allele immune and one sensitive to CRISPR, repair of the broken allele using the unbroken allele sequence template is a common outcome...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547890/influence-of-various-stressors-on-the-expression-of-core-genes-of-the-small-interfering-rna-pathway-in-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis
#6
Yi-Fei Xie, Jin-Zhi Niu, Xuan-Zhao Jiang, Wen-Jia Yang, Guang-Mao Shen, Dong Wei, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
RNA interference (RNAi)-based technology has emerged as a potential tool for controlling insect pests, however, previous studies found that the efficiency of RNAi in Bactrocera dorsalis was variable. In nature, insects often meet various challenges, such as pathogen infections, extreme temperatures, lack of nutrition and heavy metals. To better understand the association of the stressors with efficiency of RNAi, in the current study we tested the expression of three core genes, dicer2 (Bddcr2), r2d2 (Bdr2d2) and argonaute2 (Bdago2), of the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway of B...
June 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547775/acidic-electrolyzed-water-delays-browning-by-destroying-conformation-of-polyphenoloxidase
#7
Jiangping Sun, Meng Wang, Haiquan Liu, Jing Xie, Yingjie Pan, Changhua Xu, Yong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Browning frequently occurs at fruits, vegetables and aquatic products during storage, it drastically reduces the consumer's acceptability and considerable financial loss. The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) technology on polyphenoloxidase (PPO), which is an essential enzyme for browning. RESULTS: AEW ice exhibited a good ability in delaying browning in shrimp. Kinetic study revealed that AEW exhibited the mixed type inhibition of PPO with Ki value of 1...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547382/comparative-analysis-of-cherry-virus-a-genome-sequences-assembled-from-deep-sequencing-data
#8
Prasad Kesanakurti, Mark Belton, Hanaa Saeed, Heidi Rast, Ian Boyes, Michael Rott
Cherry virus A (CVA) is a ubiquitous graft-transmissible virus that mainly infects Prunus spp. Next-generation sequencing was applied to 39 tree fruit specimens infected with CVA, and 75 full and 16 partial-length CVA genome sequences were assembled. Phylogenetic analysis of these and 11 previously sequenced CVA genomes resulted in six major clusters with no observable relationship between the host and the assembled genome sequences. Recombination analysis detected four recombinants. Consistent single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns were observed between the 75 full-length genomes and their sequence clouds, which supports a quasispecies model for CVA evolution...
May 25, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547183/performance-evaluation-of-a-high-pressure-microwave-assisted-flow-digestion-system-for-juice-and-milk-sample-preparation
#9
Thiago L Marques, Helmar Wiltsche, Joaquim A Nóbrega, Monika Winkler, Günter Knapp
Acid digestion is usually required for metal determination in food samples. However, this step is usually performed in batch mode which is time consuming, labor intensive, and may lead to sample contamination. Flow digestion can overcome these limitations. In this work, the performance of a high-pressure microwave-assisted flow digestion system with a large volume reactor was evaluated for liquid samples high in sugar and fat (fruit juice and milk). The digestions were carried out in a coiled perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) tube reactor (13...
May 26, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546651/activity-and-habitat-use-of-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-verus-in-the-anthropogenic-landscape-of-bossou-guinea-west-africa
#10
Nicola Bryson-Morrison, Joseph Tzanopoulos, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Tatyana Humle
Many primate populations inhabit anthropogenic landscapes. Understanding their long-term ability to persist in such environments and associated real and perceived risks for both primates and people is essential for effective conservation planning. Primates in forest-agricultural mosaics often consume cultivars to supplement their diet, leading to potentially negative encounters with farmers. When crossing roads, primates also face the risk of encounters with people and collision with vehicles. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa, face such risks regularly...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546125/molecular-cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-coft1-a-homolog-of-flowering-locus-t-ft-from-camellia-oleifera
#11
Hengjiu Lei, Shuchai Su, Luyi Ma, Yue Wen, Xiangnan Wang
FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is an important integrator of flowering genetic pathways and plays crucial roles in flowering transition. The tea-oil tree (Camellia oleifera Abel.) is a valuable woody oil crop, but the molecular mechanisms controlling flowering are still unclear. In this study, a FT-like gene, CoFT1, was isolated and characterized from C. oleifera. The CoFT1 protein was localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of Arabidopsis protoplasts, and exhibited no transactivation activity in yeast cells. CoFT1 was highly expressed in mature leaves and reproductive organs, such as flower buds, flowers, flower organs, and young fruits...
May 22, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545667/arctigenin-suppresses-renal-interstitial-fibrosis-in-a-rat-model-of-obstructive-nephropathy
#12
Ao Li, Xiaoxun Zhang, Mao Shu, Mingjun Wu, Jun Wang, Jingyao Zhang, Rui Wang, Peng Li, Yitao Wang
BACKGROUND: Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is commonly the final result of a variety of progressive injuries and leads to end-stage renal disease. There are few therapeutic agents currently available for retarding the development of renal TIF. PURPOSE: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the role of arctigenin (ATG), a lignan component derived from dried burdock (Arctium lappa L.) fruits, in protecting the kidney against injury by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rats...
July 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545533/food-beliefs-and-practices-among-the-kalenjin-pregnant-women-in-rural-uasin-gishu-county-kenya
#13
Roselyter Monchari Riang'a, Jacqueline Broerse, Anne Kisaka Nangulu
BACKGROUND: Understanding food beliefs and practices is critical to the development of dietary recommendations, nutritional programmes, and educational messages. This study aimed to understand the pregnancy food beliefs and practices and the underlying reasons for these among the contemporary rural Kalenjin communities of Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. METHODS: Through semi-structured interviews, data was collected from 154 pregnant and post-natal Kalenjin women about restricted and recommended foods, and why they are restricted or recommended during pregnancy...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545529/lifestyle-factors-and-co-morbidities-associated-with-obesity-and-overweight-in-nkonkobe-municipality-of-the-eastern-cape-south-africa
#14
Wilfred Otang-Mbeng, Gloria Aderonke Otunola, Anthony Jide Afolayan
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a global epidemic that affects 500 million people worldwide and is predicted to increase to one billion people by 2030. The prevalence of obesity is increasing across populations in South Africa. However, questions still remain surrounding the predisposing factors and obesity-related health problems especially in the rural areas. This study evaluated several lifestyle factors such as dietary habits, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, co-morbidities and their association with the prevalence of obesity and overweight in Nkonkobe Municipality of the Eastern Cape...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545355/emerging-trends-on-drug-delivery-strategy-of-momordica-charantia-against-diabetes-and-its-complications
#15
Zar Chi Thent, Srijit Das, Nurul Hannim Zaidun
The incidence of diabetes mellitus has increased drastically over the past few decades. This oxidant-antioxidant imbalance resulting in complication of diabetes mellitus includes macro- and microvascular complications. Resistance to conventional treatment and patient compliance has paved the way to the usage of effective natural products and supplements. Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) is widely consumed in many parts of Malaysia as a vegetable. Momordica charantia (MC) is mainly used in the management of diabetes mellitus...
May 25, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543717/poaceae-pollen-as-the-leading-aeroallergen-worldwide-a-review
#16
REVIEW
H García-Mozo
The Poaceae family comprises over 12,000 wind-pollinated species which release large amounts of pollen into the atmosphere. Poaceae pollen is currently regarded as the leading airborne biological pollutant and the chief cause of pollen-allergy worldwide. Sensitization rates vary by country, and those variations are reviewed here. Grass pollen allergens are grouped according to their protein structure and function. In Poaceae, although species belonging to different sub-families are characterized by distinct allergen subsets, there is a considerable degree of cross-reactivity between many species...
May 22, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543545/heat-girdling-does-not-affect-xylem-integrity-an-in%C3%A2-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-in-the-tomato-peduncle
#17
Bart A E Van de Wal, Carel W Windt, Olivier Leroux, Kathy Steppe
Heat girdling is a method to estimate the relative contribution of phloem vs xylem water flow to fruit growth. The heat girdling process is assumed to destroy all living tissues, including the phloem, without affecting xylem conductivity. However, to date, the assumption that xylem is not affected by heat girdling remains unproven. In this study, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) velocimetry to test if heat girdling can cause xylem vessels to embolize or affect xylem water flow characteristics in the peduncle of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv Dirk)...
May 22, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542815/phenotypic-selection-varies-with-pollination-intensity-across-populations-of-sabatia-angularis
#18
Sarah L Emel, Steven J Franks, Rachel B Spigler
Pollinators are considered primary selective agents acting on plant traits, and thus variation in the strength of the plant-pollinator interaction might drive variation in the opportunity for selection and selection intensity across plant populations. Here, we examine whether these critical evolutionary parameters covary with pollination intensity across wild populations of the biennial Sabatia angularis. We quantified pollination intensity in each of nine S. angularis populations as mean stigmatic pollen load per population...
May 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542618/early-and-late-stage-processing-abnormalities-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-an-erp-study
#19
Shanshan Wang, Chunjuan Yang, Yijun Liu, Zhi Shao, Todd Jackson
This research assessed event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited during the processing of different kinds of visual stimuli among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (n = 15) and typically developing (TD) children (n = 19). Within a simple visual oddball paradigm, participating children passively viewed fruit and vegetable images that were used as standard stimuli in addition to images of these foods with their usual colors modified to create novel stimuli and cartoon depictions of these images (i.e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542615/taking-dietary-habits-into-account-a-computational-method-for-modeling-food-choices-that-goes-beyond-price
#20
Rahmatollah Beheshti, Jessica C Jones-Smith, Takeru Igusa
Computational models have gained popularity as a predictive tool for assessing proposed policy changes affecting dietary choice. Specifically, they have been used for modeling dietary changes in response to economic interventions, such as price and income changes. Herein, we present a novel addition to this type of model by incorporating habitual behaviors that drive individuals to maintain or conform to prior eating patterns. We examine our method in a simulated case study of food choice behaviors of low-income adults in the US...
2017: PloS One
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