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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806739/combined-effects-of-o3-and-uv-radiation-on-secondary-metabolites-and-endogenous-hormones-of-soybean-leaves
#1
Bing Mao, Hong Yin, Yan Wang, Tian-Hong Zhao, Rong-Rong Tian, Wei Wang, Jia-Shu Ye
Enhanced ultraviolet radiation (UV) and elevated tropospheric ozone (O3) may individually cause reductions in the growth and productivity of important agricultural crops. However, research regarding their combined effects on important agricultural crops is still scarce, especially on changes in secondary metabolites and endogenous hormones, which are important protective substances and signal components that control plant responses to environment stresses. In this study, using an experimental setup of open top chambers, we monitored the responses of seed yield per plant, leaf secondary metabolites and leaf endogenous hormones under the stress of elevated O3 and enhanced UV radiation individually, as well as their combined stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806605/phytochemistry-of-european-primula-species
#2
REVIEW
Paola S Colombo, Guido Flamini, Graziella Rodondi, Claudia Giuliani, Laura Santagostini, Gelsomina Fico
The genus Primula is the largest among the Primulaceae and is widespread mainly in the cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Since the beginning of the Twentieth century, several studies on the phytochemical composition of different species of Primula have been carried out. The main constituents examined were tissue and epicuticular flavonoids and saponins, which are of therapeutic significance. Only in recent years studies of the volatiles emitted by leaves and flowers have been carried out as well, but they are restricted to a small number of species...
August 11, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805338/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-episodic-frost-on-plant-growth-and-reproduction-in-subalpine-wildflowers
#3
Gabriella L Pardee, David W Inouye, Rebecca E Irwin
Frost is an important episodic event that damages plant tissues through the formation of ice crystals at or below freezing temperatures. In montane regions, where climate change is expected to cause earlier snowmelt but may not change the last frost-free day of the year, plants that bud earlier might be directly impacted by frost through damage to flower buds and reproductive structures. However, the indirect effects of frost mediated through changes in plant-pollinator interactions have rarely been explored...
August 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803876/distasteful-nectar-deters-floral-robbery
#4
Sarah E Barlow, Geraldine A Wright, Carolyn Ma, Marta Barberis, Iain W Farrell, Emily C Marr, Alice Brankin, Bruce M Pavlik, Philip C Stevenson
Toxic nectar is an ecological paradox [1, 2]. Plants divert substantial resources to produce nectar that attracts pollinators [3], but toxins in this reward could disrupt the mutualism and reduce plant fitness [4]. Alternatively, such compounds could protect nectar from robbers [2], provided that they do not significantly alter pollinator visitation to the detriment of plant fitness [1, 5-8]. Indeed, very few studies have investigated the role of plant toxins in nectar for defense against nectar robbers [4, 9, 10]...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803364/volatile-terpenoids-multiple-functions-biosynthesis-modulation-and-manipulation-by-genetic-engineering
#5
REVIEW
Farhat Abbas, Yanguo Ke, Rangcai Yu, Yuechong Yue, Sikandar Amanullah, Muhammad Muzammil Jahangir, Yanping Fan
Terpenoids play several physiological and ecological functions in plant life through direct and indirect plant defenses and also in human society because of their enormous applications in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. Through the aid of genetic engineering its role can by magnified to broad spectrum by improving genetic ability of crop plants, enhancing the aroma quality of fruits and flowers and the production of pharmaceutical terpenoids contents in medicinal plants. Terpenoids are structurally diverse and the most abundant plant secondary metabolites, playing an important role in plant life through direct and indirect plant defenses, by attracting pollinators and through different interactions between the plants and their environment...
August 12, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803233/comprehensive-analysis-of-the-chemical-composition-and-in-vitro-cytotoxic-mechanisms-of-pallines-spinosa-flower-and-leaf-essential-oils-against-breast-cancer-cells
#6
Ayman M Saleh, Mahmoud A Al-Qudah, Amre Nasr, Sayed A Rizvi, Anwar Borai, Mustafa Daghistani
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In our quest for new natural anticancer agents, we studied the cytotoxicity of the essential oils extracted from flowers and leaves of Pallines spinosa. METHODS: The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and solid phase microextraction (SPME) from flowers and leaves of the plant and their composition was determined by GC/GC-MS. The cytotoxicity of the oils was evaluated against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinomas, and the non-cancerous MCF-10-2A cells, using a flow cytometry-based assay Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry, nuclear staining, caspases activation, and Western blotting techniques, and cell cycle by measuring DNA contents...
August 11, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799029/detecting-the-qtl-allele-system-conferring-flowering-date-in-a-nested-association-mapping-population-of-soybean-using-a-novel-procedure
#7
Shuguang Li, Yongce Cao, Jianbo He, Tuanjie Zhao, Junyi Gai
The RTM-GWAS was chosen among five procedures to identify DTF QTL-allele constitution in a soybean NAM population; 139 QTLs with 496 alleles accounting for 81.7% of phenotypic variance were detected. Flowering date (days to flowering, DTF) is an ecological trait in soybean, closely related to its ability to adapt to areas. A nested association mapping (NAM) population consisting of four RIL populations (LM, ZM, MT and MW with M8206 as their common parent) was established and tested for their DTF under five environments...
August 10, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798863/pollination-success-following-loss-of-a-frequent-pollinator-the-role-of-compensatory-visitation-by-other-effective-pollinators
#8
Allysa C Hallett, Randall J Mitchell, Evan R Chamberlain, Jeffrey D Karron
Pollinator abundance is declining worldwide and may lower the quantity and quality of pollination services to flowering plant populations. Loss of an important pollinator is often assumed to reduce the amount of pollen received by stigmas of a focal species (pollination success), yet this assumption has rarely been tested experimentally. The magnitude of the effect, if any, may depend on the relative efficiency of the remaining pollinators, and on whether the loss of one pollinator leads to changes in visitation patterns by other pollinators...
May 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798271/the-search-for-surrogate-endpoints-in-trials-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-the-surrogate-endpoints-for-aggressive-lymphoma-project
#9
Daniel J Sargent, Qian Shi, Christopher R Flowers, Norbert Schmitz, Thomas M Habermann, Jocelyne Flament, Tommy Fu, Bertrand Coiffier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797222/genetic-architecture-and-temporal-patterns-of-biomass-accumulation-in-spring-barley-revealed-by-image-analysis
#10
Kerstin Neumann, Yusheng Zhao, Jianting Chu, Jens Keilwagen, Jochen C Reif, Benjamin Kilian, Andreas Graner
BACKGROUND: Genetic mapping of phenotypic traits generally focuses on a single time point, but biomass accumulates continuously during plant development. Resolution of the temporal dynamics that affect biomass recently became feasible using non-destructive imaging. RESULTS: With the aim to identify key genetic factors for vegetative biomass formation from the seedling stage to flowering, we explored growth over time in a diverse collection of two-rowed spring barley accessions...
August 10, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797221/use-of-genotyping-by-sequencing-to-determine-the-genetic-structure-in-the-medicinal-plant-chamomile-and-to-identify-flowering-time-and-alpha-bisabolol-associated-snp-loci-by-genome-wide-association-mapping
#11
Lars-Gernot Otto, Prodyut Mondal, Jonathan Brassac, Susanne Preiss, Jörg Degenhardt, Sang He, Jochen Christoph Reif, Timothy Francis Sharbel
BACKGROUND: Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) has a long history of use in herbal medicine with various applications, and the flower heads contain numerous secondary metabolites which are medicinally active. In the major crop plants, next generation sequencing (NGS) approaches are intensely applied to exploit genetic resources, to develop genomic resources and to enhance breeding. Here, genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) has been used in the non-model medicinal plant chamomile to evaluate the genetic structure of the cultivated varieties/populations, and to perform genome wide association study (GWAS) focusing on genes with large effect on flowering time and the medicinally important alpha-bisabolol content...
August 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797213/surveillance-imaging-in-mantle-cell-lymphoma-in-first-remission-lacks-clinical-utility
#12
Daniel M Guidot, Jeffrey M Switchenko, Loretta J Nastoupil, Jean L Koff, Kristie A Blum, Joseph Maly, Christopher R Flowers, Jonathon B Cohen
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a heterogeneous disease with high relapse rates. Limited data guide the use of surveillance imaging following treatment. We constructed a retrospective cohort from two academic institutions of patients with MCL who completed first-line therapy and underwent follow-up for relapse, analyzing the effect of surveillance imaging on survival. Of 217 patients, 102 had documented relapse, with 38 (37%) diagnosed by surveillance imaging and 64 (63%) by other methods. Relapse diagnosis by surveillance imaging had no significant advantage in overall survival from diagnosis date (hazard ratio [HR] = 0...
August 10, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797084/the-endogenous-transposable-element-tgm9-is-suitable-for-generating-knockout-mutants-for-functional-analyses-of-soybean-genes-and-genetic-improvement-in-soybean
#13
Devinder Sandhu, Jayadri Ghosh, Callie Johnson, Jordan Baumbach, Eric Baumert, Tyler Cina, David Grant, Reid G Palmer, Madan K Bhattacharyya
In soybean, variegated flowers can be caused by somatic excision of the CACTA-type transposable element Tgm9 from Intron 2 of the DFR2 gene encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase of the anthocyanin pigment biosynthetic pathway. DFR2 was mapped to the W4 locus, where the allele containing Tgm9 was termed w4-m. In this study we have demonstrated that previously identified morphological mutants (three chlorophyll deficient mutants, one male sterile-female fertile mutant, and three partial female sterile mutants) were caused by insertion of Tgm9 following its excision from DFR2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796196/two-c3h-type-zinc-finger-protein-genes-cpczf1-and-cpczf2-from-chimonanthus-praecox-affect-stamen-development-in-arabidopsis
#14
Huamin Liu, Renwei Huang, Jing Ma, Shunzhao Sui, Yulong Guo, Daofeng Liu, Zhineng Li, Yechun Lin, Mingyang Li
Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) is a popular garden plant because of its flowering time, sweet fragrance, and ornamental value. However, research into the molecular mechanism that regulates flower development in wintersweet is still limited. In this study, we sought to investigate the molecular characteristics, expression patterns, and potential functions of two C3H-type zinc finger (CZF) protein genes, CpCZF1 and CpCZF2, which were isolated from the wintersweet flowers based on the flower developmental transcriptome database...
August 10, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795475/the-state-of-danish-nursing-ethnographic-research-flowering-nurtured-or-malnurtured-a-critical-review
#15
REVIEW
Lisbeth Uhrenfeldt, Bente Martinsen, Lene Bastrup Jørgensen, Erik Elgaard Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Nursing was established in Denmark as a scholarly tradition in the late nineteen eighties, and ethnography was a preferred method. No critical review has yet summarised accomplishments and gaps and pointing at directions for the future methodological development and research herein. AIM: This review critically examines the current state of the use of ethnographic methodology in the body of knowledge from Danish nursing scholars. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search in relevant databases from 2003 to 2016...
August 9, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795235/impact-of-seed-protein-alleles-from-three-soybean-sources-on-seed-composition-and-agronomic-traits
#16
Lillian F Brzostowski, Timothy I Pruski, James E Specht, Brian W Diers
Evaluation of seed protein alleles in soybean populations showed that an increase in protein concentration is generally associated with a decrease in oil concentration and yield. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] meal is one of the most important plant-based protein sources in the world. Developing cultivars high in seed protein concentration and seed yield is a difficult task because the traits have an inverse relationship. Over two decades ago, a protein quantitative trait loci (QTL) was mapped on chromosome (chr) 20, and this QTL has been mapped to the same position in several studies and given the confirmed QTL designation cqSeed protein-003...
August 9, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794681/two-peculiar-new-species-of-heteranthera-ruiz-pav%C3%A3-n-pontederiaceae-from-brazil-with-notes-on-inflorescence-architecture-in-the-family
#17
Marco O O Pellegrini, Charles N Horn
Two new and peculiar species of Heteranthera are herein described. Heteranthera catharinensis is unique in the genus due to its glomerulate, many-flowered inflorescences, in which the flowers are restricted to the base and apex of the cincinni. It also possesses the biggest flowers in the H. reniformis Ruiz & Pavón species complex, with glabrous perianth lobes, medial filament, and style. On the other hand, Heteranthera pumila is described as the smallest known species of Pontederiaceae, with its dwarf stature, petiolate leaves with especially diminute blades, inflorescences 1-2-(3)-flowered, peduncle densely covered with glandular hairs, basal bract with glandular hairs at base, and smooth seeds, rarely possessing 7-9 inconspicuous longitudinal wings...
2017: PhytoKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794350/microsatellite-primers-in-plantago-virginica-plantaginaceae-an-invasive-species-with-both-cleistogamous-and-chasmogamous-flowers
#18
Xinyu Xu, Xi Luo, Xiaoyi Wang, Hui Guo, Shuijin Hu
Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed in Plantago virginica, an invasive species in China with both cleistogamous and chasmogamous flowers, to investigate its genetic structure and mating patterns. Fourteen novel microsatellite primer sets were designed, and the marker loci they amplified were characterized in 96 individuals from four populations. Eleven of these markers showed polymorphism and the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to six. AMOVA and STRUCTURE indicated that there were distinct patterns of genetic differentiation among the one invasive and three native US populations...
August 9, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794217/pollination-benefits-are-maximized-at-intermediate-nutrient-levels
#19
Giovanni Tamburini, Francesco Lami, Lorenzo Marini
Yield production in flowering crops depends on both nutrient availability and pollination, but their relative roles and potential interactions are poorly understood. We measured pollination benefits to yield in sunflower, combining a gradient in insect pollination (0, 25, 50, 100%) with a continuous gradient in nitrogen (N) fertilization (from 0 to 150 kg N ha(-1)) in an experiment under realistic soil field conditions. We found that pollination benefits to yield were maximized at intermediate levels of N availability, bolstering yield by approximately 25% compared with complete pollinator exclusion...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793403/wind-dynamics-influence-on-south-spain-airborne-olive-pollen-during-african-intrusions
#20
H García-Mozo, M A Hernández-Ceballos, M M Trigo, C Galán
Given its proximity to northern Africa, southern Spain is regularly affected by high-altitude African intrusions. This determines a well-defined wind dynamics at surface levels. Although this weather event-mainly recorded in spring and summer-coincides with the flowering season of many wind pollinated species, its potential influence on long term airborne pollen transport has been not investigated in detail. We analyse their influence on olive pollen transport at surface level in south Spain. Daily and bi-hourly olive pollen data from 2010 to 2015, recorded at two sites 150km apart, Málaga (coast) and Córdoba (inland), were analysed together with 1) air masses at 300m above ground level (m...
August 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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