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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727278/phylogeny-determines-flower-size-dependent-sex-allocation-at-flowering-in-a-hermaphroditic-family
#1
A L Teixido, B Guzmán, V G Staggemeier, F Valladares
1.In animal-pollinated hermaphroditic plants, optimal floral allocation determines relative investment into sexes, which is ultimately dependent on flower size. Larger flowers disproportionally increase maleness whereas smaller and less rewarding flowers favor female function. Although floral traits are thought to be strongly conserved, phylogenetic relationships in the interspecific patterns of resource allocation to floral sex remain overlooked. We investigated these patterns in Cistaceae, a hermaphroditic family...
July 20, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726721/identification-and-validation-of-new-alleles-of-falsiflora-and-compound-inflorescence-genes-controlling-the-number-of-branches-in-tomato-inflorescence
#2
Huan Zheng, Saneyuki Kawabata
The architecture of inflorescences shows extensive diversity in both branching frequency and flower number, which eventually, determines agricultural productivity. In this study, F₂ (second filial) populations derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 10AS111A (highly-branched inflorescence) and the S. pimpinellifolium PI124039 (inflorescence having a single branch) were used to decipher the genetic control of branch number (BN) of inflorescence in plants bearing small-sized tomato fruits. The segregation ratio of single- and moderately-branched types to the highly-branched type was significantly different from 3:1 but not different from 15:1 at p < 0...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726096/identification-and-characterization-of-the-flower-meristem-identity-gene-mhylfy-in-mycoheterotrophic-plant-monotropa-hypopitys
#3
A V Shchennikova, O A Shulga, A V Beletsky, M A Filyushin, E Z Kochieva, N V Ravin, K G Skryabin
The gene encoding the transcription factor LEAFY was identified in the genome of the mycoheterotrophic plant, pinesap Monotropa hypopitys. In the transcriptomes of roots, bracts, and flowers of flowering pinesaps, the MhyLFY gene expression was absent. These data suggest the conservativeness of the LFY-dependent mechanism of flower meristem identity and flower formation in heterotrophic species with some differences associated to the specificity of development and the structure of such plants. The pinesap flowering under the control of the transcription factor MhyLFY may be initiated either in an embryonic inflorescence during spring dormancy release of adventitious root buds or in an inflorescence of a growing reproductive stem after photoperiodic induction...
May 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725389/quality-versus-quantity-foraging-decisions-in-the-honeybee-apis-mellifera-scutellata-feeding-on-wildflower-nectar-and-fruit-juice
#4
Kyle Shackleton, Nicholas J Balfour, Hasan Al Toufailia, Roberto Gaioski, Marcela de Matos Barbosa, Carina A de S Silva, José M S Bento, Denise A Alves, Francis L W Ratnieks
Foraging animals must often decide among resources which vary in quality and quantity. Nectar is a resource that exists along a continuum of quality in terms of sugar concentration and is the primary energy source for bees. Alternative sugar sources exist, including fruit juice, which generally has lower energetic value than nectar. We observed many honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata) foraging on juice from fallen guava (Psidium guajava) fruit near others foraging on nectar. To investigate whether fruit and nectar offered contrasting benefits of quality and quantity, we compared honeybee foraging performance on P...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724949/overexpression-of-slpre2-an-atypical-bhlh-transcription-factor-affects-plant-morphology-and-fruit-pigment-accumulation-in-tomato
#5
Zhiguo Zhu, Guoping Chen, Xuhu Guo, Wencheng Yin, Xiaohui Yu, Jingtao Hu, Zongli Hu
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a large family of transcription factors that control various developmental processes in eukaryotes, but the biological roles of most bHLH proteins are not very clear, especially in tomato. In this study, a PRE-like atypical bHLH gene was isolated and designated as SlPRE2 in tomato. SlPRE2 was highly expressed in immature-green fruits, moderately in young leaves, flowers, and mature-green fruits. To further research the function of SlPRE2, a 35 S:PRE2 binary vector was constructed and transformed into wild type tomato...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724905/flowering-time-in-banana-musa-spp-a-day-neutral-plant-is-controlled-by-at-least-three-flowering-locus-t-homologues
#6
Akhilesh K Chaurasia, Hemant B Patil, Bal Krishna, V R Subramaniam, Prafullachandra V Sane, Aniruddha P Sane
Banana is an important day neutral food crop with a long flowering/fruiting cycle that is affected by hot summers or cold winters in different places. Manipulating its life cycle requires an understanding of its flowering time machinery to bypass these stresses. Twelve FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and two TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) members were isolated from banana and their organization and expression pattern studied during development in two varieties that differ in flowering time namely Grand Nain (AAA genotype) and Hill banana (AAB genotype)...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724621/mildew-resistance-locus-function-in-pollen-ovary-reception-is-linked-to-its-oligomerization-and-subcellular
#7
Daniel S Jones, Jing Yuan, Benjamin Smith, Andrew Willoughby, Emily L Kumimoto, Sharon A Kessler
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants requires communication between synergid cells and a tip-elongating pollen tube (PT) for the successful delivery of sperm cells to the embryo sac. The reception of the PT relies on signaling within the synergid cell that ultimately leads to the degeneration of the receptive synergid and PT rupture, releasing the sperm cells for double fertilization. In Arabidopsis thaliana, NORTIA (NTA), a member of the Mildew resistance locus O (MLO) family of proteins, plays a critical role in the communication processes regulating PT reception...
July 19, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724593/less-is-more-independent-loss-of-function-ocimene-synthase-alleles-parallel-pollination-syndrome-diversification-in-monkeyflowers-mimulus
#8
Foen Peng, Kelsey J R P Byers, Harvey D Bradshaw
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Pollinator-mediated selection on flower phenotypes (e.g., shape, color, scent) is key to understanding the adaptive radiation of angiosperms, many of which have evolved specialized relationships with a particular guild of animal pollinators (e.g., birds, bats, moths, bees). E-β-Ocimene, a monoterpene produced by OCIMENE SYNTHASE (OS) in Mimulus lewisii, is a floral scent important in attracting the species' bumblebee pollinators. The taxa closely related to M. lewisii have evolved several different pollination syndromes, including hummingbird pollination and self pollination (autogamy)...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724076/gbs-based-genomic-selection-for-pea-grain-yield-under-severe-terminal-drought
#9
Paolo Annicchiarico, Nelson Nazzicari, Luciano Pecetti, Massimo Romani, Barbara Ferrari, Yanling Wei, E Charles Brummer
Terminal drought is the main stress that limits pea ( L.) grain yield in Mediterranean-climate regions. This study provides an unprecedented assessment of the predictive ability of genomic selection (GS) for grain yield under severe terminal drought using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data. Additional aims were to assess the GS predictive ability for different GBS data quality filters and GS models, comparing intrapopulation with interpopulation GS predictive ability and to perform genome-wide association (GWAS) studies...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723912/ginger-and-the-beetle-evidence-of-primitive-pollination-system-in-a-himalayan-endemic-alpine-ginger-roscoea-alpina-zingiberaceae
#10
Babu Ram Paudel, Mani Shrestha, Adrian G Dyer, Qing-Jun Li
The Himalayan endemic alpine genus Roscoea, like other members of ginger family, exhibits the combination of floral traits that would fit pollination by long distant foragers such as bees, birds or flies. We studied the pollination biology of Roscoea alpina, observed potential floral visitors and determined their foraging behaviour, visitation frequency and pollination efficiency, to seek evidence in support of the pollination syndrome hypothesis. We also measured the floral spectra of R. alpina flowers to evaluate if signals fit with the currently known framework for observed floral visitors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722149/masting-in-wind-pollinated-trees-system-specific-roles-of-weather-and-pollination-dynamics-in-driving-seed-production
#11
Michał Bogdziewicz, Jakub Szymkowiak, Idalia Kasprzyk, Łukasz Grewling, Zbigniew Borowski, Katarzyna Borycka, Władysław Kantorowicz, Dorota Myszkowska, Katarzyna Piotrowicz, Monika Ziemianin, Mario B Pesendorfer
Masting, the highly variable production of synchronized large seed crops, is a common reproductive strategy in plant populations. In wind-pollinated trees, flowering and pollination dynamics are hypothesized to provide the mechanistic link for the well-known relationship between weather and population-level seed production. Several hypotheses make predictions about the effect of weather on annual pollination success. The pollen coupling hypothesis predicts that weather and plant resources drive the flowering effort of trees which directly translates into the size of seed crops through efficient pollination...
July 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722132/evolution-of-the-selfing-syndrome-anther-orientation-and-herkogamy-together-determine-reproductive-assurance-in-a-self-compatible-plant
#12
Per Toräng, Linus Vikström, Jörg Wunder, Stefan Wötzel, George Coupland, Jon Ågren
Capacity for autonomous self-fertilization provides reproductive assurance, has evolved repeatedly in the plant kingdom, and typically involves several changes in flower morphology and development (the selfing syndrome). Yet, the relative importance of different traits and trait combinations for efficient selfing and reproductive success in pollinator-poor environments is poorly known. In a series of experiments, we tested the importance of anther-stigma distance and the less studied trait anther orientation for efficiency of selfing in the perennial herb Arabis alpina...
July 19, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720941/chemical-composition-and-bioactivity-of-essential-oils-from-flower-and-fruit-of-thymbra-capitata-and-thymus-species
#13
Jonathan Delgado-Adámez, María Garrido, Maria Elena Bote, María C Fuentes-Pérez, Javier Espino, Daniel Martín-Vertedor
Thymbra capitata and Thymus species are commonly known as thyme in Spain and they are currently used as culinary herbs, as well as for ornamental, aromatizing and traditional medicinal purposes. Given the economic importance of thyme oils, many thyme species have been studied, and their essential oils (EOs) and other volatile-containing extracts have been chemically characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities as well as the phytochemical composition of the EOs from fruits and flowers of T...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720800/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-reveals-alterations-in-the-metabolism-of-actinidia-arguta
#14
Miaomiao Lin, Jinbao Fang, Xiujuan Qi, Yukuo Li, Jinyong Chen, Leiming Sun, Yunpeng Zhong
Actinidia arguta 'Tianyuanhong' is a new kiwifruit variety with an all-red pericarp and pulp, in contrast to the all-green pulp of A. arguta 'Yongfengyihao'. Transcriptome profile analysis of fruit color has been reported, however, the metabolic mechanisms producing red flesh remain unknown, and it is unclear why the pulp of 'Tianyuanhong' is red rather than green. Herein, we identified differences between the proteomes of two A. arguta cultivars with different fruit color by using iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic methods during the stage of color change...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720617/protocol-for-an-online-randomised-controlled-trial-to-evaluate-the-clinical-and-cost-effectiveness-of-a-peer-supported-self-management-intervention-for-relatives-of-people-with-psychosis-or-bipolar-disorder-relatives-education-and-coping-toolkit-react
#15
Fiona Lobban, Heather Robinson, Duncan Appelbe, Johanna Barraclough, Emma Bedson, Lizzie Collinge, Susanna Dodd, Sue Flowers, Mahsa Honary, Sonia Johnson, Ceu Mateus, Barbara Mezes, Valerie Minns, Elizabeth Murray, Andrew Walker, Paula Williamson, Catherine Wintermeyer, Steven Jones
INTRODUCTION: Despite clinical guidelines recommendations, many relatives of people with psychosis or bipolar disorder do not currently receive the support they need. Online information and support may offer a solution. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This single-blind, parallel, online randomised controlled trial will determine clinical and cost-effectiveness of the Relatives Education And Coping Toolkit (REACT) (including an online resource directory (RD)), compared with RD only, for relatives of people with psychosis or bipolar disorder...
July 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720252/the-cryptochrome-photolyase-protein-family-in-diatoms
#16
Sarah König, Matthias Juhas, Stefanie Jäger, Tilman Kottke, Claudia Büchel
The cryptochrome - photolyase family (CPF) consists of homologous flavoproteins having completely different functions involving DNA repair, circadian rhythm and/or photoreception. From the original photolyases, working either as (6-4) or cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyases, the animal- and plant-type cryptochromes, respectively, evolved and also the more intermediate DASH cryptochromes. Whereas animal cryptochromes work mostly in clock-related functions, plant cryptochromes are also directly involved in developmental processes such as hypocotyl elongation or flower induction...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719054/evolutionary-cell-biology-of-proteins-from-protists-to-humans-and-plants
#17
REVIEW
Helmut Plattner
During evolution, the cell as a fine-tuned machine had to undergo permanent adjustments to match changes in its environment, while "closed for repair work" was not possible. Evolution from protists (protozoa and unicellular algae) to multicellular organisms may have occurred in basically two lineages, Unikonta and Bikonta, culminating in mammals and angiosperms (flowering plants), respectively. Unicellular models for unikont evolution are myxamoebae (Dictyostelium) and increasingly also choanoflagellates, whereas, for bikonts, ciliates are preferred models...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718699/multiple-facets-of-laticifer-cells
#18
Lourdes Castelblanque, Begoña Balaguer, Cristina Martí, Juan José Rodríguez, Marianela Orozco, Pablo Vera
In the latex-bearing plants, the laticiferous system is the tubing structure that contains the latex and is constituted of living cells (laticifers). While laticifers are present only in a small percentage of the flowering plant species, they represent a type of specialized tissue within the plant where a myriad of metabolites are synthesized, some of them of considerable commercial importance. In this mini-review we synopsize the present knowledge about laticifer cells and discuss about their particular features as well as some evolutionary and ecophysiological cues and the potential exploitation of the knowledge generated around this peculiar type of plant cell...
July 18, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717591/nectar-living-yeasts-of-a-tropical-host-plant-community-diversity-and-effects-on-community-wide-floral-nectar-traits
#19
Azucena Canto, Carlos M Herrera, Rosalina Rodriguez
We characterize the diversity of nectar-living yeasts of a tropical host plant community at different hierarchical sampling levels, measure the associations between yeasts and nectariferous plants, and measure the effect of yeasts on nectar traits. Using a series of hierarchically nested sampling units, we extracted nectar from an assemblage of host plants that were representative of the diversity of life forms, flower shapes, and pollinator types in the tropical area of Yucatan, Mexico. Yeasts were isolated from single nectar samples; their DNA was identified, the yeast cell density was estimated, and the sugar composition and concentration of nectar were quantified using HPLC...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717440/stigmatic-limitations-on-reproductive-success-in-a-paleotropical-tree-causes-and-consequences
#20
Madhu Raina, Raman Kumar, Veenu Kaul
Success in reproduction is subject to the successful initiation as well as successful completion of a chain of consecutive events starting from flower formation and ending with viable seed production. A pivotal role in this chain is played by the stigma which is the seat of pollen recognition and initiation of pollen-pistil interaction. An interesting feature of the family Bignoniaceae is the presence of thigmosensitive stigmas which open, close and re-open in response to touch. Kigelia pinnata bears a touch sensitive stigma and is a low fruit setter in Jammu and Kashmir (India)...
July 2017: AoB Plants
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