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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241155/dissolved-organic-matter-reduces-cuo-nanoparticle-toxicity-to-duckweed-in-simulated-natural-systems
#1
Devin A Rippner, Peter G Green, Thomas M Young, Sanjai J Parikh
With increasing demand for recycled wastewater for irrigation purposes, there is a need to evaluate the potential for manufactured nanomaterials in waste water to impact crop production and agroecosystems. Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) have previously been shown to negatively impact the growth of duckweed (Landoltia punctata) a model aquatic plant consumed by water fowl and widely found in agricultural runoff ditches in temperate climates. However, prior studies involving CuO NP toxicity to duckweed have focused on systems without the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM)...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240921/cry1-bt-susceptibilities-of-fall-armyworm-lepidoptera-noctuidae-host-strains
#2
David A Ingber, Charles E Mason, Lindsey Flexner
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a highly polyphagous, multivoltine pest of commercial crops including corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium spp. L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and pasture grasses. Fall armyworm has become a growing concern in agricultural communities across the Americas as field populations in many locales have evolved resistance to several Cry1 toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt). An often overlooked aspect of fall armyworm biology is the existence of two host strains, the 'rice' and 'corn' strains...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240906/differential-inhibition-of-helicoverpa-armigera-lep-noctuidae-gut-digestive-trypsin-by-extracted-and-purified-inhibitor-of-datura-metel-solanales-solanaceae
#3
Reza Navaei-Bonab, Majid Kazzazi, Moosa Saber, Mohammad Vatanparast
The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lep: Noctuidae), is an economically important pest of numerous major food crops worldwide. Protease inhibitors from plants, expressed constitutively in transgenic crops, have potential for pest management as an alternative to chemical pesticides. In this study, a protease inhibitor was isolated, purified, and characterized from Datura metel L. seeds. The purity of the isolated inhibitor was confirmed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and activity staining showed one major peak and one clear activity band for the protein...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240818/genetic-dissection-of-main-and-epistatic-effects-of-qtl-based-on-augmented-triple-test-cross-design
#4
Xueli Zhang, Congwei Sun, Zheng Zhang, Zhijun Dai, Yuan Chen, Xiong Yuan, Zheming Yuan, Wenbang Tang, Lanzhi Li, Zhongli Hu
The use of heterosis has considerably increased the productivity of many crops; however, the biological mechanism underpinning the technique remains elusive. The North Carolina design III (NCIII) and the triple test cross (TTC) are powerful and popular genetic mating design that can be used to decipher the genetic basis of heterosis. However, when using the NCIII design with the present quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping method, if epistasis exists, the estimated additive or dominant effects are confounded with epistatic effects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240755/integrating-transcriptomics-and-metabolomics-to-characterize-the-regulation-of-epa-biosynthesis-in-response-to-cold-stress-in-seaweed-bangia-fuscopurpurea
#5
Min Cao, Dongmei Wang, Yunxiang Mao, Fanna Kong, Guiqi Bi, Qikun Xing, Zhen Weng
Bangia fuscopurpurea is a traditional mariculture crop having high nutritional value, eicosapntemacnioc acid (EPA) production, and protein content. As an intertidal species, it can tolerate drastic changes in abiotic factors such as temperature, hydration, and light radiation; however, genomic information on the evolutionary aspect and mechanism of EPA enrichment in B. fuscopurpurea and the role of EPA in cold tolerance in this species remain elusive. We conducted transcriptome profile analysis in B. fuscopurpurea to investigate the biological functions of genes associated with resistance to various environment factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240417/modifying-the-formulation-of-abamectin-to-promote-its-efficacy-on-southern-root-knot-nematode-meloidogyne-incognita-under-blending-of-soil-and-root-irrigation-conditions
#6
Beixing Li, Yupeng Ren, Da-Xia Zhang, Shuangyu Xu, Wei Mu, Feng Liu
The southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, is the most disastrous and prevalent nematode threat to the production of crops, especially vegetables. In the current study, second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita were collected from five regions near Tai'an, China. The toxicity of abamectin to these J2 had insignificant differences, with LC50 values of approximately 2 mg/L. Two pesticide application approaches (i.e., blending-of-soil and root-irrigation) were adopted in pot experiments; blending-of-soil was more beneficial for promoting the efficacy of abamectin on the RKN of tomatoes...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240415/identifying-plant-stress-responses-to-roxarsone-in-soybean-root-exudates-new-insights-from-two-dimensional-correlation-spectroscopy
#7
Qing-Long Fu, Lee Blaney, Dong-Mei Zhou
Roxarsone (ROX) is an organoarsenic feed additive of increasing interest used in the poultry industry. Soybean responses to ROX stress were investigated in root exudates (REs) using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) with fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Environmentally-relevant ROX concentrations caused negligible toxicity to crop growth and photosynthesis activity, but blackened soybean roots at high concentrations. 2D-COS analysis revealed that the protein-like fluorophore and C=C and C=O, aliphatic-OH, and polysaccharide C-O-H moieties in soybean REs were most sensitive to ROX stress...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240123/detecting-crop-population-growth-using-chlorophyll-fluorescence-imaging
#8
Heng Wang, Xiangjie Qian, Lan Zhang, Sailong Xu, Haifeng Li, Xiaojian Xia, Liankui Dai, Liang Xu, Jingquan Yu, Xu Liu
For both field and greenhouse crops, it is challenging to evaluate their growth information on a large area over a long time. In this work, we developed a chlorophyll fluorescence imaging-based system for crop population growth information detection. Modular design was used to make the system provide high-intensity uniform illumination. This system can perform modulated chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics measurement and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter imaging over a large area of up to 45  cm×34  cm...
December 10, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239714/fusion-proteins-towards-fungi-and-bacteria-in-plant-protection
#9
Ana Margarida Pinheiro, Alexandra Carreira, Ricardo B Ferreira, Sara Monteiro
In agriculture, although fungi are considered the foremost problem, infections by bacteria also cause significant economical losses. The presence of different diseases in crops often leads to a misuse of the proper therapeutic, or the combination of different diseases forces the use of more than one pesticide. This work concerns the development of a 'super-Blad': a chimeric protein consisting of Blad polypeptide, the active ingredient of a biological fungicide already on the market, and two selected peptides, SP10-5 and Sub5, proven to possess biological potential as antibacterial agents...
December 14, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239602/improving-estimates-of-nitrogen-emissions-for-life-cycle-assessment-of-cropping-systems-at-the-scale-of-an-agricultural-territory
#10
Laure Nitschelm, Virginie Parnaudeau, Francoise Vertès, Hayo M G van der Werf, Michael S Corson, Valerie Viaud, Joel Aubin, Christian Walter
In life cycle assessment (LCA), simple models are currently used to estimate cropping system nitrogen (N) emissions on farms. At large spatial scales (e.g., countries), these models are valid. At a smaller spatial scale (e.g., territories), these models may be less accurate, since they completely or partially ignore local conditions such as management practices, soil or climate. The purpose of this study was to consider the variability of those factors when estimating N emissions in LCA at the watershed scale...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239512/inheritance-and-fitness-costs-of-spodoptera-frugiperda-lepidoptera-noctuidae-resistance-to-spinosad-in-brazil
#11
Daniela M Okuma, Daniel Bernardi, Renato J Horikoshi, Oderlei Bernardi, Aline P Silva, Celso Omoto
BACKGROUND: Spodoptera frugiperda is a pest of economically important crops in the South America. In Brazil, this species is considered the most destructive pest of maize. The use of spinosyn insecticides in Insect Resistance Management (IRM) has been one of the strategies to control this pest. In this study, we selected a resistant strain of S. frugiperda to spinosad and evaluated the inheritance and fitness costs of the resistance. RESULTS: The estimated LC50 values were 0...
December 14, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239176/development-of-betalain-producing-callus-lines-from-colored-quinoa-varieties-chenopodium-quinoa-willd
#12
Paula Henarejos-Escudero, Berenice Guadarrama-Flores, M Alejandra Guerrero-Rubio, Luz Rayda Gómez-Pando, Francisco García-Carmona, Fernando Gandía-Herrero
Betalains are water soluble plant pigments of hydrophilic nature with promising bioactive potential. Among the scarce edible sources of betalains is the grain crop quinoa (Chenopodim quinoa Willd), with violet, red, and yellow grains being colored by these pigments. In this work callus cultures have been developed from differently colored plant varieties. Stable callus lines exhibited color and pigment production when maintained on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with the plant growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (8...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238598/breeding-next-generation-tree-fruits-technical-and-legal-challenges
#13
REVIEW
Lorenza Dalla Costa, Mickael Malnoy, Ivana Gribaudo
The new plant breeding technologies (NPBTs) have recently emerged as powerful tools in the context of 'green' biotechnologies. They have wide potential compared to classical genetic engineering and they are attracting the interest of politicians, stakeholders and citizens due to the revolutionary impact they may have on agriculture. Cisgenesis and genome editing potentially allow to obtain pathogen-resistant plants or plants with enhanced qualitative traits by introducing or disrupting specific genes in shorter times compared to traditional breeding programs and by means of minimal modifications in the plant genome...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238398/description-of-olive-morphological-parameters-by-using-open-access-software
#14
Konstantinos N Blazakis, Maria Kosma, George Kostelenos, Luciana Baldoni, Marina Bufacchi, Panagiotis Kalaitzis
Background: The morphological analysis of olive leaves, fruits and endocarps may represent an efficient tool for the characterization and discrimination of cultivars and the establishment of relationships among them. In recent years, much attention has been focused on the application of molecular markers, due to their high diagnostic efficiency and independence from environmental and phenological variables. Results: In this study, we present a semi-automatic methodology of detecting various morphological parameters...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238358/characterization-of-the-wheat-leaf-metabolome-during-grain-filling-and-under-varied-n-supply
#15
Elmien Heyneke, Mutsumi Watanabe, Alexander Erban, Guangyou Duan, Peter Buchner, Dirk Walther, Joachim Kopka, Malcolm J Hawkesford, Rainer Hoefgen
Progress in improving crop growth is an absolute goal despite the influence multifactorial components have on crop yield and quality. An Avalon × Cadenza doubled-haploid wheat mapping population was used to study the leaf metabolome of field grown wheat at weekly intervals during the time in which the canopy contributes to grain filling, i.e., from anthesis to 5 weeks post-anthesis. Wheat was grown under four different nitrogen supplies reaching from residual soil N to a luxury over-fertilization (0, 100, 200, and 350 kg N ha-1)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238277/the-incidence-of-alternaria-species-associated-with-infected-sesamum-indicum-l-seeds-from-fields-of-the-punjab-pakistan
#16
Brian Gagosh Nayyar, Steve Woodward, Luis A J Mur, Abida Akram, Muhammad Arshad, S M Saqlan Naqvi, Shaista Akhund
Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is an important oil seed crop of Asia. Yields can be negatively impacted by various factors, including disease, particularly those caused by fungi which create problems in both production and storage. Foliar diseases of sesame such as Alternaria leaf blight may cause significant yield losses, with reductions in plant health and seed quality. The work reported here determined the incidence of Alternaria species infecting sesame seeds grown in the Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 428 Alternaria isolates were obtained from 105 seed samples and grouped into 36 distinct taxonomic groups based on growth pattern and morphological characters...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238078/the-genetic-architecture-of-ecological-adaptation-intraspecific-variation-in-host-plant-use-by-the-lepidopteran-crop-pest-chloridea-virescens
#17
Sara J Oppenheim, Fred Gould, Keith R Hopper
Intraspecific variation in ecologically important traits is a cornerstone of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. The evolution and maintenance of this variation depends on genetic architecture, which in turn determines responses to natural selection. Some models suggest that traits with complex architectures are less likely to respond to selection than those with simple architectures, yet rapid divergence has been observed in such traits. The simultaneous evolutionary lability and genetic complexity of host plant use in the Lepidopteran subfamily Heliothinae suggest that architecture may not constrain ecological adaptation in this group...
December 14, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237281/reactive-oxygen-species-photosynthesis-and-environment-in-the-regulation-of-stomata
#18
Sanna Ehonen, Dmitry Yarmolinsky, Hannes Kollist, Jaakko Kangasjärvi
SIGNIFICANCE: Stomata can sense the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and water availability and adjust their aperture in order to maintain optimal conditions to photosynthesis under changing environmental conditions. Stomatal movements are regulated by complex network of signaling cascades where reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role as signaling component. Recent Advances: Recent research has uncovered several signaling components involved in CO2 and ABA-triggered stomatal guard cell signaling...
December 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237240/plant-behaviour-under-combined-stress-tomato-responses-to-combined-salinity-and-pathogen-stress
#19
Yuling Bai, Christos Kissoudis, Zhe Yan, Richard G F Visser, Gerard van der Linden
Crop plants are subjected to a variety of stresses during their lifecycle, including abiotic stress factors such as salinity and biotic stress factors such as pathogens. Plants have developed a multitude of defense and adaption responses to these stress factors. In the field, different stress factors mostly occur concurrently resulting in a new state of stress, the combined stress. There is evidence that plant resistance to pathogens can be attenuated or enhanced by abiotic stress factors. With stress tolerance research being mostly focused on plant responses to individual stresses, the understanding of a plants' ability to adapt to combined stresses is limited...
December 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236872/photosynthetic-capacity-and-water-use-efficiency-in-ricinus-communis-l-under-drought-stress-in-semi-humid-and-semi-arid-areas
#20
Claudiana M Dos Santos, Laurício Endres, Vilma M Ferreira, José V Silva, Eduardo V Rolim, Humberto C L Wanderley Filho
Castor bean is one of the crops with potential to provide raw material for production of oils for biodiesel. This species possess adaptive mechanisms for maintaining the water status when subjected to drought stress. A better understanding these mechanisms under field conditions can unravel the survival strategies used by this species. This study aimed to compare the physiological adaptations of Ricinus communis (L.) in two regions with different climates, the semi-arid and semi-humid subject to water stress...
December 7, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
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