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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054028/impact-of-fomesafen-on-the-soil-microbial-communities-in-soybean-fields-in-northeastern-china
#1
Xiao-Hu Wu, Ying Zhang, Peng-Qiang Du, Jun Xu, Feng-Shou Dong, Xin-Gang Liu, Yong-Quan Zheng
Fomesafen, a widely adopted residual herbicide, is used throughout the soybean region of northern China for the spring planting. However, the ecological risks of using fomesafen in soil remain unknown. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of fomesafen on the microbial community structure of soil using laboratory and field experiments. Under laboratory conditions, the application of fomesafen at concentrations of 3.75 and 37.5mg/kg decreased the basal respiration (RB) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC)...
October 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053945/tree-uptake-of-excess-nutrients-and-herbicides-in-a-maize-olive-tree-cultivation-system
#2
George Pavlidis, Vassilios A Tsihrintzis, Helen Karasali, Dimitrios Alexakis
Due to the extent of non-point source agricultural pollution, protective measures to control agrochemicals from entering aquatic systems are necessary. Measures may include, among others, vegetated buffer strips (VFS), no spray buffer zones, alley crops and agroforestry systems (AFS). The scope of the present work is to examine the pollution abatement potential of a maize-olive (MO) AFS. The efficiency of a combined MO trees system in reducing nutrients and herbicides is tested through soil monitoring in an experimental plot, located in Koropi, Eastern Attica, Greece, in the period May 2015 to November 2015...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053866/impact-of-litter-salmonella-status-during-feed-withdrawal-on-salmonella-recovery-from-the-broiler-crop-and-ceca
#3
R J Buhr, D V Bourassa, A Hinton, B D Fairchild, C W Ritz
Research was conducted to evaluate the impact of litter Salmonella status during feed withdrawal on Salmonella recovery from the crop and ceca following feed withdrawal. In 4 experiments, pens of broilers in separate rooms were challenged with marker strains of either Salmonella Montevideo or Salmonella Heidelberg. Three d post challenge, a 12-hour feed withdrawal was initiated, and one pen of broilers was switched between rooms for each Salmonella serotype. In experiments 3 and 4, non-challenged broilers also were added to the Salmonella challenge pens...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053716/qtl-controlling-grain-filling-under-terminal-drought-stress-in-a-set-of-wild-barley-introgression-lines
#4
Nora Honsdorf, Timothy J March, Klaus Pillen
Drought is a major abiotic stress impeding the yield of cereal crops globally. Particularly in Mediterranean environments, water becomes a limiting factor during the reproductive developmental stage, causing yield losses. The wild progenitor of cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare ssp spontaneum (Hsp) is a potentially useful source of drought tolerance alleles. Wild barley introgression lines like the S42IL library may facilitate the introduction of favorable exotic alleles into breeding material. The complete set of 83 S42ILs was genotyped with the barley 9k iSelect platform in order to complete genetic information obtained in previous studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053686/empirical-metagenomic-and-computational-techniques-illuminate-the-mechanisms-by-which-fungicides-compromise-bee-health
#5
Shawn A Steffan, Prarthana S Dharampal, Luis Diaz-Garcia, Cameron R Currie, Juan Zalapa, Chris Todd Hittinger
Growers often use fungicide sprays during bloom to protect crops against disease, which exposes bees to fungicide residues. Although considered "bee-safe," there is mounting evidence that fungicide residues in pollen are associated with bee declines (for both honey and bumble bee species). While the mechanisms remain relatively unknown, researchers have speculated that bee-microbe symbioses are involved. Microbes play a pivotal role in the preservation and/or processing of pollen, which serves as nutrition for larval bees...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053643/genome-wide-identification-and-analysis-of-mapk-and-mapkk-gene-families-in-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#6
Haoshuang Zhan, Hong Yue, Xian Zhao, Meng Wang, Weining Song, Xiaojun Nie
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a universal signal transduction module that plays a vital role in regulating growth and development, as well as environmental stress responses in plants. Wheat is one of the most important crops worldwide. Although the MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K) family in wheat has been investigated, the MAPK and MAPK kinase (MAP2K) gene families remain unknown at present. Here, 54 MAPK and 18 MAPKK genes were identified in wheat using recent genomic information. Phylogenetic analysis of Triticum aestivum L...
October 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053639/effects-of-silicon-amendment-on-soilborne-and-fruit-diseases-of-avocado
#7
Elizabeth K Dann, Duy P Le
The effects of silicon (Si) amendment have been studied in several plant/pathogen interactions; however, studies in horticultural tree crops are limited. Effects of amendment with soluble potassium silicate (AgSil(®)32, approximately 30% available Si), or milled cement building board by-products (Mineral Mulch (MM) or Mineral Dust (MD), containing 5% available Si) were investigated in field and greenhouse trials with avocado. Orchard soil drench applications with potassium silicate improved yield and quality of fruit, but visual health of trees declining from Phytophthora root rot (PRR) was not affected...
October 20, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053633/diversity-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-bacterial-symbionts-in-three-whitefly-species-from-southeast-europe
#8
Marisa Skaljac, Surapathrudu Kanakala, Katja Zanic, Jasna Puizina, Ivana Lepen Pleic, Murad Ghanim
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), and Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) are whitefly species that harm agricultural crops in many regions of the world. These insects live in close association with bacterial symbionts that affect host fitness and adaptation to the environment. In the current study, we surveyed the infection of whitefly populations in Southeast Europe by various bacterial symbionts and performed phylogenetic analyses on the different symbionts detected. Arsenophonus and Hamiltonella were the most prevalent symbionts in all three whitefly species...
October 20, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053587/heat-responsive-photosynthetic-and-signaling-pathways-in-plants-insight-from-proteomics
#9
REVIEW
Xiaoli Wang, Chenxi Xu, Xiaofeng Cai, Quanhua Wang, Shaojun Dai
Heat stress is a major abiotic stress posing a serious threat to plants. Heat-responsive mechanisms in plants are complicated and fine-tuned. Heat signaling transduction and photosynthesis are highly sensitive. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanism in heat stressed-signaling transduction and photosynthesis is necessary to protect crop yield. Current high-throughput proteomics investigations provide more useful information for underlying heat-responsive signaling pathways and photosynthesis modulation in plants...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053585/companion-plants-for-aphid-pest-management
#10
REVIEW
Refka Ben-Issa, Laurent Gomez, Hélène Gautier
A potential strategy for controlling pests is through the use of "companion plants" within a crop system. This strategy has been used in several trials to fight against a major crop insect pest: the aphid. We reviewed the literature to highlight the major mechanisms by which a companion plant may act. Trials carried out under laboratory or field conditions revealed that companion plants operate through several mechanisms. A companion plant may be associated with a target crop for various reasons. Firstly, it can attract aphids and draw them away from their host plants...
October 20, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053349/essential-metal-and-metalloid-elements-in-the-philippi-horticultural-area-and-their-uptake-into-selected-vegetable-crops
#11
Marÿke Malan, Francuois Müller, Lincoln Raitt, Lilburne Cyster, Luc Brendonck
This study evaluated Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Se, Sn and V status in the soils of the PHA, as well as the vegetables produced on these soils. We also determined the agronomic sources of these elements to the soils in the PHA. Farmyard manures applied as fertilizer amendments to the soils in the PHA were found to be the major agronomic sources of the metal and metalloid elements. These elements were however, retained in significantly higher concentrations in the soils compared to the concentrations found in the edible portions of the vegetable crops collected...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053347/phytotoxicity-of-tin-mine-waste-and-accumulation-of-involved-heavy-metals-in-common-buckwheat-fagopyrum-esculentum-moench
#12
Jürgen Franzaring, Walter Damsohn, Andreas Fangmeier, Sonja Schlosser, Hannes Kurz, Philipp Büttner
Extraction and processing of cassiterite (SnO2) left large tailings with high concentrations of tin, tungsten, molybdenum and lithium. Information on the phytotoxicity of mine waste is important with regard to ecological hazards. Exposure studies help to identify plants useful for the stabilization of waste tips and the phytomining of metals. A greenhouse study was performed using a dilution series of mine waste and four crops, a halophytic and a metallophytic species to derive dose response curves. Based on effective doses for growth reductions, sensitivity increased in the following order: maize > common buckwheat > quinoa > garden bean...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053340/the-beneficial-role-of-potassium-in-cd-induced-stress-alleviation-and-growth-improvement-in-gladiolus-grandiflora-l
#13
Nasim Ahmad Yasin, Malik Muhammad Zaheer, Waheed Ullah Khan, Sajid Rashid Ahmad, Aqeel Ahmad, Aamir Ali, Waheed Akram
Heavy metal contaminated agricultural soils are one of the most important constraints for successful cultivation of crops. The current research was conducted to evaluate the role of potassium (K) on plant growth and amelioration of cadmium (Cd) stress in Gladiolus grandiflora under greenhouse conditions. G. grandiflora corms were sown in media contaminated with 0 (C), 50 (Cd50) and 100 (Cd100) mg Cd kg(-1) soil. The plants growing in Cd-contaminated media exhibited reduced gas exchange attributes, chlorophyll (Chl) contents, vegetative and reproductive growth as compared to control...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053214/herbicide-discovery-in-light-of-rapidly-spreading-resistance-and-ever-increasing-regulatory-hurdles
#14
Bodo Peters, Harry J Strek
According to the UN the global population is expected to grow to almost 10 billion people in 2050. This means that the demand for food, feed and fiber will double while at the same time agriculture is being challenged by a scarcity of water, global warming, less land available for farming, protection of natural habitats, demand for biodiversity on farms and other factors. In addition crop protection products are under pressure from rapidly spreading resistance and increasing regulatory requirements. Many regulatory bodies are also moving away from a risk assessment approach to a more hazard-based approach to grant registrations...
October 20, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052764/fine-mapping-and-candidate-gene-analysis-of-the-virescent-gene-v-1-in-upland-cotton-gossypium-hirsutum
#15
Guangzhi Mao, Qiang Ma, Hengling Wei, Junji Su, Hantao Wang, Qifeng Ma, Shuli Fan, Meizhen Song, Xianlong Zhang, Shuxun Yu
The young leaves of virescent mutants are yellowish and gradually turn green as the plants reach maturity. Understanding the genetic basis of virescent mutants can aid research of the regulatory mechanisms underlying chloroplast development and chlorophyll biosynthesis, as well as contribute to the application of virescent traits in crop breeding. In this study, fine mapping was employed, and a recessive gene (v 1) from a virescent mutant of Upland cotton was narrowed to an 84.1-Kb region containing ten candidate genes...
October 20, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052528/different-genetic-architectures-underlie-crop-responses-to-the-same-pathogen-the-helianthus-annuus-phoma-macdonaldii-interaction-case-for-black-stem-disease-and-premature-ripening
#16
Amandine Bordat, Gwenaëlle Marchand, Nicolas B Langlade, Nicolas Pouilly, Stéphane Muños, Grégory Dechamp-Guillaume, Patrick Vincourt, Emmanuelle Bret-Mestries
BACKGROUND: Phoma macdonaldii has been reported as the causal agent of black stem disease (BS) and premature ripening (PR) on sunflower. PR is considered as the most widespread and detrimental disease on sunflower in France. While genetic variability and QTL mapping for partial resistance of sunflower to stem, collar and roots attacks have been reported on plantlets in controlled conditions, this work aims to describe the genetic variability in a subset of a sunflower lines, and for the first time to map QTL involved in PR resistance evaluated in field conditions using controlled inoculation...
October 19, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052491/an-assessment-of-the-acute-dietary-exposure-to-glyphosate-using-deterministic-and-probabilistic-methods
#17
C L Stephenson, C A Harris, R Clarke
Use of glyphosate in crop production can lead to residues of the active substance and related metabolites in food. Glyphosate has never been considered acutely toxic; however in 2015 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) proposed an acute reference dose (ARfD). This differs from the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) who in 2016, in line with their existing position, concluded that an ARfD was not necessary for glyphosate. This paper makes a comprehensive assessment of short-term dietary exposure to glyphosate from potentially-treated crops grown in the EU and imported third country food sources...
October 20, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052188/a-method-to-identify-nucleolus-associated-chromatin-domains-nads
#18
Marie-Christine Carpentier, Ariadna Picart-Picolo, Frédéric Pontvianne
The nuclear context needs to be taken into consideration to better understand the mechanisms shaping the epigenome and its organization, and therefore its impact on gene expression. For example, in Arabidopsis, heterochromatin is preferentially localized at the nuclear and the nucleolar periphery. Although chromatin domains associating with the nuclear periphery remain to be identified in plant cells, Nucleolus Associated chromatin Domains (NADs) can be identified thanks to a protocol allowing the isolation of pure nucleoli...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052058/complete-genome-sequence-of-maize-yellow-striate-virus-a-new-cytorhabdovirus-infecting-maize-and-wheat-crops-in-argentina
#19
Fernanda Maurino, Analía D Dumón, Gabriela Llauger, Vanina Alemandri, Luis A de Haro, M Fernanda Mattio, Mariana Del Vas, Irma Graciela Laguna, María de la Paz Giménez Pecci
A rhabdovirus infecting maize and wheat crops in Argentina was molecularly characterized. Through next-generation sequencing (NGS) of symptomatic leaf samples, the complete genome was obtained of two isolates of maize yellow striate virus (MYSV), a putative new rhabdovirus, differing by only 0.4% at the nucleotide level. The MYSV genome consists of 12,654 nucleotides for maize and wheat virus isolates, and shares 71% nucleotide sequence identity with the complete genome of barley yellow striate mosaic virus (BYSMV, NC028244)...
October 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051970/construction-of-an-ultra-high-density-consensus-genetic-map-and-enhancement-of-the-physical-map-from-genome-sequencing-in-lupinus-angustifolius
#20
Gaofeng Zhou, Jianbo Jian, Penghao Wang, Chengdao Li, Ye Tao, Xuan Li, Daniel Renshaw, Jonathan Clements, Mark Sweetingham, Huaan Yang
An ultra-high density genetic map containing 34,574 sequence-defined markers was developed in Lupinus angustifolius. Markers closely linked to nine genes of agronomic traits were identified. A physical map was improved to cover 560.5 Mb genome sequence. Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is a recently domesticated legume grain crop. In this study, we applied the restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) method to genotype an F9 recombinant inbred line population derived from a wild type × domesticated cultivar (W × D) cross...
October 19, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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