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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449326/area-wide-mass-trapping-by-pheromone-based-attractants-for-the-control-of-sugar-beet-weevil-bothynoderes-punctiventris-germar-coleoptera-curculionidae
#1
Z Drmić, M Toth, D Lemić, D Grubišić, M Pospišil, R Bažok
BACKGROUND: Due to the changing climate, narrow crop rotation, and changes in insecticide application practice, sugar beet weevil (SBW) (Bothynoderes punctiventris Germar) has become the most important economic pest in sugar beet. To develop alternative control methods, an area-wide (AW) control program using aggregation pheromones was implemented over four years on an area of 6 and 14.8 km(2) in east Croatia. RESULTS: The mass trapping of SBW on the "old" sugar beet fields reduced the population from 0...
April 27, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449129/phenotypic-differences-determine-drought-stress-responses-in-ecotypes-of-arundo-donax-adapted-to-different-environments
#2
Mastaneh Ahrar, Dilyana Doneva, Massimiliano Tattini, Cecilia Brunetti, Antonella Gori, Mirco Rodeghiero, Georg Wohlfahrt, Franco Biasioli, Claudio Varotto, Francesco Loreto, Violeta Velikova
Arundo donax has been identified as an important biomass and biofuel crop. Yet, there has been little research on photosynthetic and metabolic traits, which sustain the high productivity of A. donax under drought conditions. This study determined phenotypic differences between two A. donax ecotypes coming from stands with contrasting adaptation to dry climate. We hypothesized that the Bulgarian (BG) ecotype, adapted to drier conditions, exhibits greater drought tolerance than the Italian (IT) ecotype, adapted to a more mesic environment...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449073/genetics-of-phenotypic-plasticity-and-biomass-traits-in-hybrid-willows-across-contrasting-environments-and-years
#3
Sofia Berlin, Henrik R Hallingbäck, Friderike Beyer, Nils-Erik Nordh, Martin Weih, Ann-Christin Rönnberg-Wästljung
Background and Aims: Phenotypic plasticity can affect the geographical distribution of taxa and greatly impact the productivity of crops across contrasting and variable environments. The main objectives of this study were to identify genotype-phenotype associations in key biomass and phenology traits and the strength of phenotypic plasticity of these traits in a short-rotation coppice willow population across multiple years and contrasting environments to facilitate marker-assisted selection for these traits...
April 25, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448937/assessment-of-n2o-emissions-from-a-fertilised-vegetable-cropping-soil-under-different-plant-residue-management-strategies-using-15-n-tracing-techniques
#4
M Rezaei Rashti, W J Wang, C R Chen, S H Reeves, C Scheer
Combined application of plant residues and N fertilisers strongly affect soil mineral N dynamics and N2O emissions depending on the quality of the plant residues, their application methods and other management strategies. We investigated the effect of combined application of two vegetable plant residues (cauliflower and sweet corn) and (15)N fertiliser on N dynamics and N2O emission in a glasshouse pot study. The experiment was conducted under two residue management practices (soil incorporation vs surface mulching) over 98days with growing basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448928/potential-environmental-impact-of-bioethanol-production-chain-from-fiber-sorghum-to-be-used-in-passenger-cars
#5
Annachiara Forte, Amalia Zucaro, Massimo Fagnano, Angelo Fierro
A life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to assess the environmental load of a prospective local bioethanol (EtOH) production system in Southern Italy by using lignocellulosic Fiber sorghum (FS) feedstock. A two steps analysis was carried out considering: (i) a "cradle-to-farm gate" LCA to investigate thoroughly the FS cultivation on hilly marginal land and (ii) a "cradle-to-wheels" system boundary encompassing the environmental pressure of the whole EtOH supply-use chain. Primary data related to lignocellulosic biomass production were combined with experimental feedstock conversion processes through advanced second generation technology...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448631/biofortification-se-does-it-increase-the-content-of-phenolic-compounds-in-virgin-olive-oil-voo
#6
Roberto D'Amato, Primo Proietti, Andrea Onofri, Luca Regni, Sonia Esposto, Maurizio Servili, Daniela Businelli, Roberto Selvaggini
Extra-Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) is a fundamental component of the Mediterranean diet and it may contain several anti-oxidant substances, such as phenols. Previous research has shown that this food may be enriched in phenols by spraying a sodium-selenate solution (100 mg L-1 Se) onto the crop canopy before flowering. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of this Se-fertilization before flowering (cv. Leccino) on the phenolic profile of EVOOs, and test to what extent such effects depend on the weather pattern, as observed in two contrasting experimental seasons (2013 and 2014)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448621/biochar-from-kon-tiki-flame-curtain-and-other-kilns-effects-of-nutrient-enrichment-and-kiln-type-on-crop-yield-and-soil-chemistry
#7
Naba Raj Pandit, Jan Mulder, Sarah Elisabeth Hale, Hans Peter Schmidt, Gerard Cornelissen
Biochar application to soils has been investigated as a means of improving soil fertility and mitigating climate change through soil carbon sequestration. In the present work, the invasive shrub "Eupatorium adenophorum" was utilized as a sustainable feedstock for making biochar under different pyrolysis conditions in Nepal. Biochar was produced using several different types of kilns; four sub types of flame curtain kilns (deep-cone metal kiln, steel shielded soil pit, conical soil pit and steel small cone), brick-made traditional kiln, traditional earth-mound kiln and top lift up draft (TLUD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448589/morpho-physiological-analysis-of-tolerance-to-aluminum-toxicity-in-rice-varieties-of-north-east-india
#8
Jay Prakash Awasthi, Bedabrata Saha, Preetom Regon, Smita Sahoo, Umakanta Chowra, Amit Pradhan, Anupam Roy, Sanjib Kumar Panda
Aluminum (Al) is the third most abundant metal in earth crust, whose chemical form is mainly dependent on soil pH. The most toxic form of Al with respect to plants is Al3+, which exists in soil pH <5. Acidic soil significantly limits crop production mainly due to Al3+ toxicity worldwide, impacting approximately 50% of the world's arable land (in North-Eastern India 80% soil are acidic). Al3+ toxicity in plants ensues root growth inhibition leading to less nutrient and water uptake impacting crop productivity as a whole...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448540/bruchid-egg-induced-transcript-dynamics-in-developing-seeds-of-black-gram-vigna-mungo
#9
Indrani K Baruah, Debashis Panda, Jagadale M V, Deba Jit Das, Sumita Acharjee, Priyabrata Sen, Bidyut Kumar Sarmah
Black gram (Vigna mungo) seeds are a rich source of digestible proteins, however, during storage these seeds are severely damaged by bruchids (Callosobruchus spp.), reducing seed quality and yield losses. Most of the cultivated genotypes of black gram are susceptible to bruchids, however, few tolerant genotypes have also been identified but the mechanism of tolerance is poorly understood. We employed Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) to identify specifically, but rarely expressed bruchid egg induced genes in black gram...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448529/a-genome-wide-analysis-of-the-rna-guided-silencing-pathway-in-coffee-reveals-insights-into-its-regulatory-mechanisms
#10
Christiane Noronha Fernandes-Brum, Pâmela Marinho Rezende, Thales Henrique Cherubino Ribeiro, Raphael Ricon de Oliveira, Thaís Cunha de Sousa Cardoso, Laurence Rodrigues do Amaral, Matheus de Souza Gomes, Antonio Chalfun-Junior
microRNAs (miRNAs) are derived from self-complementary hairpin structures, while small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are derived from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or hairpin precursors. The core mechanism of sRNA production involves DICER-like (DCL) in processing the smallRNAs (sRNAs) and ARGONAUTE (AGO) as effectors of silencing, and siRNA biogenesis also involves action of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (RDR), Pol IV and Pol V in biogenesis. Several other proteins interact with the core proteins to guide sRNA biogenesis, action, and turnover...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448510/manure-and-tillage-use-in-remediation-of-eroded-land-and-impacts-on-soil-chemical-properties
#11
Maysoon M Mikha, Joseph G Benjamin, Merle F Vigil, David J Poss
Soil loss through wind and water erosion is an ongoing problem in semiarid regions. A thin layer of top soil loss over a hectare of cropland could be corresponding to tons of productive soil loss per hectare. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of beef feedlot manure, tillage and legume grass mixtures on changes in soil quality and nutrient components. The study was initiated in 2006 on an eroded site near Akron, Colorado, on a Norka-Colby very-fine sandy loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic, Aridic, Argiustolls)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448474/innovative-green-and-novel-strategies-for-the-extraction-of-bioactive-added-value-compounds-from-citrus-wastes-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Predrag Putnik, Danijela Bursać Kovačević, Anet Režek Jambrak, Francisco J Barba, Giancarlo Cravotto, Arianna Binello, Jose Manuel Lorenzo, Avi Shpigelman
Citrus is a major processed crop that results in large quantities of wastes and by-products rich in various bioactive compounds such as pectins, water soluble and insoluble antioxidants and essential oils. While some of those wastes are currently valorised by various technologies (yet most are discarded or used for feed), effective, non-toxic and profitable extraction strategies could further significantly promote the valorisation and provide both increased profits and high quality bioactives. The present review will describe and summarize the latest works concerning novel and greener methods for valorisation of citrus by-products...
April 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448202/current-progress-in-orchid-flowering-flower-development-research
#13
Hsin-Mei Wang, Chii-Gong Tong, Seonghoe Jang
Genetic pathways relevant to flowering of Arabidopsis are under the control of environmental cues such as day length and temperatures, and endogenous signals including phytohormones and developmental aging. However, genes and even regulatory pathways for flowering identified in crops show divergence from those of Arabidopsis and often do not have functional equivalents to Arabidopsis and/or existing species- or genus-specific regulators and show modified or novel pathways. Orchids are the largest, most highly evolved flowering plants, and form an extremely peculiar group of plants...
April 27, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447887/cyclopiazonic-acid-is-a-pathogenicity-factor-for-aspergillus-flavus-and-a-promising-target-for-screening-germplasm-for-ear-rot-resistance
#14
Subbaiah C Chalivendra, Catherine DeRobertis, Perng-Kuang Chang, Kenneth E Damann
Aspergillus flavus, an opportunistic pathogen, contaminates maize and other key crops with carcinogenic aflatoxins (AFs). Besides AFs, A. flavus makes many more secondary metabolites (SMs) whose toxicity in insects or vertebrates has been studied. However, the role of SMs in the invasion of plant hosts by A. flavus remains to be investigated. Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a neurotoxic SM made by A. flavus, is a nanomolar inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases (ECAs) and a potent inducer of cell death in plants...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447117/a-new-major-effect-qtl-for-waterlogging-tolerance-in-wild-barley-h-spontaneum
#15
Xuechen Zhang, Yun Fan, Sergey Shabala, Anthony Koutoulis, Lana Shabala, Peter Johnson, Hongliang Hu, Meixue Zhou
We report the first study on the unique allele from wild barley that can improve waterlogging tolerance in cultivated barley with a substantially higher contribution to aerenchyma formation. Waterlogging is one of the major abiotic stresses that dramatically reduce barley crop yield. Direct selection on waterlogging tolerance in the field is less effective due to its viability to environment. The most effective way of selection is to choose traits that make significant contributions to the overall tolerance and are easy to score...
April 26, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447029/cornell-alliance-for-science-evaluation-of-consensus-on-genetically-modified-food-safety-weaknesses-in-study-design
#16
Michael N Antoniou, Claire J Robinson
Cornell Alliance for Science has launched an initiative in which "citizen scientists" are called upon to evaluate studies on health risks of genetically modified (GM) crops and foods. The purpose is to establish whether the consensus on GM food safety claimed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is supported by a review of the scientific literature. The Alliance's citizen scientists are examining more than 12,000 publication abstracts to quantify how far the scientific literature supports the AAAS's statement...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446919/high-nitrogen-supply-induces-physiological-responsiveness-to-long-photoperiod-in-barley
#17
Jian Zeng, Huajin Sheng, Yang Liu, Yao Wang, Yi Wang, Houyang Kang, Xing Fan, Lina Sha, Shu Yuan, Yonghong Zhou
Photoperiod and nutrient nitrogen (N) supply influence the growth, development, and productivity of crops. This study examined the physiological, biochemical, and morpho-anatomical traits of NA5 and NA9, two barley cultivars with contrasting photoperiod lengths, under the combined treatment of photoperiod regime and N supply. Under long photoperiod, high N supply decreased net photosynthesis; decreased chlorophyll a and chlorophyll a/b; decreased ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities; decreased ascorbate, glutathione, soluble protein, and soluble sugar; destroyed mesophyll cell integrity; and increased [Formula: see text], malondialdehyde, and proline in both NA5 and NA9...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446916/oil-accumulation-in-transgenic-potato-tubers-alters-starch-quality-and-nutritional-profile
#18
Madeline Mitchell, Jenifer Pritchard, Shoko Okada, Oscar Larroque, Dina Yulia, Filomena Pettolino, Nicolas Szydlowski, Surinder Singh, Qing Liu, Jean-Philippe Ral
Plant storage compounds such as starch and lipids are important for human and animal nutrition as well as industry. There is interest in diverting some of the carbon stored in starch-rich organs (leaves, tubers, and cereal grains) into lipids in order to improve the energy density or nutritional properties of crops as well as providing new sources of feedstocks for food and manufacturing. Previously, we generated transgenic potato plants that accumulate up to 3.3% triacylglycerol (TAG) by dry weight in the tubers, which also led to changes in starch content, starch granule morphology and soluble sugar content...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446904/dynamic-response-of-ammonia-oxidizers-to-four-fertilization-regimes-across-a-wheat-rice-rotation-system
#19
Jichen Wang, Lei Ni, Yang Song, Geoff Rhodes, Jing Li, Qiwei Huang, Qirong Shen
Ammonia oxidation by microorganisms is a rate-limiting step of the nitrification process and determines the efficiency of fertilizer utilized by crops. Little is known about the dynamic response of ammonia-oxidizers to different fertilization regimes in a wheat-rice rotation system. Here, we examined ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) communities across eight representative stages of wheat and rice growth and under four fertilization regimes: no nitrogen fertilization (NNF), chemical fertilization (CF), organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer (OIMF) and organic fertilization (OF)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446879/the-mammalian-peptide-adrenomedullin-acts-as-a-growth-factor-in-tobacco-plants
#20
Rafael Peláez, María Niculcea, Alfredo Martínez
Growth factors are extracellular signals that regulate cell proliferation and total body mass. Some animal growth factors can work on plant tissues and vice versa. Here we show that the mammalian growth factor adrenomedullin (AM) induces growth in tobacco plants. Addition of synthetic AM resulted in a dose-dependent growth of tobacco calluses. Furthermore, AM transgenic plants showed enhanced survival and significant increases in stem diameter, plant height, leaf length, weight of all organs, and a reduction in the time to flowering when compared to plants transformed with the control vector...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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