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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475160/immunotoxicity-of-ochratoxin-a-and-aflatoxin-b1-in-combination-is-associated-with-the-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-signaling-pathway-in-3d4-21-cells
#1
Lili Hou, Fang Gan, Xuan Zhou, Yajiao Zhou, Gang Qian, Zixuan Liu, Kehe Huang
The co-contamination of cereals, grains, crops, and animal feeds by mycotoxins is a universal problem. Humans and animals are exposed to several mycotoxins simultaneously as evidenced by extensive studies on this topic. Yet, most studies have addressed the effects of mycotoxins individually. Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A can induce immunotoxicity. However, it remains unclear whether a combination of these mycotoxins aggravates immunotoxicity and the potential mechanism underlying this effect. In this study, we used the cell line 3D4/21, swine alveolus macrophages and innate immune cell...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474840/production-of-muconic-acid-in-plants
#2
Aymerick Eudes, Roland Berthomieu, Zhangying Hao, Nanxia Zhao, Veronica Teixeira Benites, Edward E K Baidoo, Dominique Loqué
Muconic acid (MA) is a dicarboxylic acid used for the production of industrially relevant chemicals such as adipic acid, terephthalic acid, and caprolactam. Because the synthesis of these polymer precursors generates toxic intermediates by utilizing petroleum-derived chemicals and corrosive catalysts, the development of alternative strategies for the bio-based production of MA has garnered significant interest. Plants produce organic carbon skeletons by harvesting carbon dioxide and energy from the sun, and therefore represent advantageous hosts for engineered metabolic pathways towards the manufacturing of chemicals...
February 20, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474743/csspl-functions-as-an-adaptor-between-hd-zip-iii-and-cswus-transcription-factors-regulating-anther-and-ovule-development-in-cucumber
#3
Xiaofeng Liu, Kang Ning, Gen Che, Shuangshuang Yan, Lijie Han, Ran Gu, Zheng Li, Yiqun Weng, Xiaolan Zhang
Anther and ovule genesis preconditions crop fertilization and fruit production. However, coordinative regulation of anther and ovule development and underlying molecular pathways remain largely elusive. Here, we found that SPOROCYTELESS (SPL)/NOZZLE (NZZ) expression was nearly abolished in a cucumber mutant with severely defective anther and ovule development. CsSPL was expressed specifically in the developing anthers and ovules. Knockdown of CsSPL reduced male and female fertility with malformed pollen and suppressed ovule development...
February 23, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474735/mads-box-genes-and-crop-domestication-the-jack-of-all-traits
#4
Susanne Schilling, Sirui Pan, Alice Kennedy, Rainer Melzer
MADS-box genes are key regulators of virtually every aspect of plant reproductive development. They play especially prominent roles in flowering time control, inflorescence architecture, floral organ identity determination, and seed development. The developmental and evolutionary importance of MADS-box genes is widely acknowledged. However, their role during flowering plant domestication is less well recognized. Here, we provide an overview illustrating that MADS-box genes have been important targets of selection during crop domestication and improvement...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474732/resource-investments-in-reproductive-growth-proportionately-limit-investments-in-whole-tree-vegetative-growth-in-young-olive-trees-with-varying-crop-loads
#5
Adolfo Rosati, Andrea Paoletti, Raeed Al Hariri, Alessio Morelli, Franco Famiani
It has long been debated whether tree growth is source limited, or whether photosynthesis is adjusted to the actual sink demand, directly regulated by internal and environmental factors. Many studies support both possibilities, but no studies have provided quantitative data at the whole-tree level, across different cultivars and fruit load treatments. This study investigated the effect of different levels of reproductive growth on whole-tree biomass growth across two olive cultivars with different growth rates (i...
February 21, 2018: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474730/integrating-modelling-and-phenotyping-approaches-to-identify-and-screen-complex-traits-illustration-for-transpiration-efficiency-in-cereals
#6
K Chenu, E J van Oosterom, G McLean, K S Deifel, A Fletcher, G Geetika, A Tirfessa, E S Mace, D R Jordan, R Sulman, G L Hammer
Following advances in genetics, genomics, and phenotyping, trait selection in breeding is limited by our ability to understand interactions within the plants and with their environments, and to target traits of most relevance for the target population of environments. We propose an integrated approach that combines insights from crop modelling, physiology, genetics, and breeding to identify traits valuable for yield gain in the target population of environments, develop relevant high-throughput phenotyping platforms, and identify genetic controls and their values in production environments...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474677/review-of-autophagy-related-approaches-for-improving-nutrient-use-efficiency-and-crop-yield-protection
#7
Tamar Avin-Wittenberg, Frantisek Baluška, Peter V Bozhkov, Pernilla H Elander, Alisdair R Fernie, Gad Galili, Ammar Hassan, Daniel Hofius, Erika Isono, Romain Le Bars, Céline Masclaux-Daubresse, Elena A Minina, Hadas Peled-Zehavi, Núria S Coll, Luisa M Sandalio, Béatrice Satiat-Jeunemaitre, Agnieszka Sirko, Pilar S Testillano, Henri Batoko
Autophagy is a eukaryotic catabolic pathway essential for growth and development. In plants, it is activated in response to environmental cues or developmental stimuli. However, in contrast to other eukaryotic systems, we know relatively little regarding the molecular players involved in autophagy and the regulation of this complex pathway. In the framework of the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) action TRANSAUTOPHAGY (2016-2020), we decided to review our current knowledge of autophagy responses in higher plants, with emphasis on knowledge gaps...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474634/the-dynamics-of-strigolactone-perception-in-striga-hermonthica-a-working-hypothesis
#8
Yuichiro Tsuchiya, Masahiko Yoshimura, Shinya Hagihara
Plant-derived strigolactones have diverse functions at ecological scale including the growth of plants themselves. The parasitic plants from a family of Orobanchaceae tinker with the ecological and hormonal functions to generate unique germination abilities based on sensing of host-derived strigolactones. Although the recent discovery of strigolactone receptors has begun the elucidation of the mechanism of strigolactone perception, how it relates to plant parasitism is still a mystery. In this review, we reveal emerging questions by introducing recent advances in strigolactone research in parasitic plants, and attempt to construct a conceptual framework for the unique in planta dynamics of strigolactone perception unveiled through fluorescent probes for strigolactone receptors...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474581/thermopriming-triggers-splicing-memory-in-arabidopsis
#9
Yu Ling, Natalia Serrano, Ge Gao, Mohamed Atia, Morad Mokhtar, Yong H Woo, Jeremie Bazin, Alaguraj Veluchamy, Moussa Benhamed, Martin Crespi, Christoph Gehring, A S N Reddy, Magdy M Mahfouz
Abiotic and biotic stresses limit crop productivity. Exposure to a non-lethal stress, referred to as priming, can allow plants to survive subsequent and otherwise lethal conditions; the priming effect persists even after a prolonged stress-free period. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying priming are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the molecular basis of heat shock memory and the role of priming in Arabidopsisthaliana. Comprehensive analysis of transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression and alternative splicing in primed and non-primed plants revealed that alternative splicing functions as a novel component of heat shock memory...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474560/a-genetic-survey-of-pyrethroid-insecticide-resistance-in-aphids-in-new-brunswick-canada-with-particular-emphasis-on-aphids-as-vectors-of-potato-virus-y
#10
Tyler D B MacKenzie, Irin Arju, René Poirier, Mathuresh Singh
Aphids are viral vectors in potatoes, most importantly of Potato virus Y (PVY), and insecticides are frequently used to reduce viral spread during the crop season. Aphids collected from the potato belt of New Brunswick, Canada, in 2015 and 2016 were surveyed for known and novel mutations in the Na-channel (para) gene, coding for the target of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. Specific genetic mutations known to confer resistance (kdr and skdr) were found in great abundance in Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), which rose from 76% in 2015 to 96% in 2016...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474475/single-nucleotide-polymorphism-snp-markers-associated-with-high-folate-content-in-wild-potato-species
#11
Sapinder Bali, Bruce R Robinson, Vidyasagar Sathuvalli, John Bamberg, Aymeric Goyer
Micronutrient deficiency, also known as the hidden hunger, affects over two billion people worldwide. Potato is the third most consumed food crops in the world, and is therefore a fundamental element of food security for millions of people. Increasing the amount of micronutrients in food crop could help alleviate worldwide micronutrient malnutrition. In the present study, we report on the identification of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with folate, an essential micronutrient in the human diet...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474091/photodegradation-of-dicloran-in-freshwater-and-seawater
#12
Emily Vebrosky, Parichehr Saranjampour, Donald G Crosby, Kevin Armbrust
Dicloran appears to be a model pesticide to investigate photodegradation processes in surface waters. Photodegradation processes are particularly relevant to this compound as it is applied to crops grown in proximity to freshwater and marine ecosystems. The photodegradation of dicloran under simulated sunlight was measured in distilled water, artificial seawater, phosphate buffer, and filter-sterilized estuarine water to determine the half-life, degradation rate, and photodegradation products. The half-life was approximately 7...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474068/investigation-of-rhizospheric-microbial-communities-in-wheat-barley-and-two-rice-varieties-at-the-seedling-stage
#13
Tao Lu, Mingjing Ke, W J G M Peijnenburg, Youchao Zhu, Meng Zhang, Liwei Sun, Zhengwei Fu, Haifeng Qian
The plant rhizosphere microbiota plays multiple roles in plant growth. We investigated the taxonomic and functional variations in the rhizosphere microbial community, examining both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, of four crops at the seedling stage: wheat, barley and two rice varieties (indica and japonica) seeded in paddy soil. The diversity of rhizosphere communities in these four species were determined. Results showed that wheat and barley had much stronger selection effects than rice for the rhizosphere microbial community...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473969/isolation-and-characterization-of-n-2-fixing-bacteria-from-giant-reed-and-switchgrass-for-plant-growth-promotion-and-nutrient-uptake
#14
Jia Xu, Joseph W Kloepper, Ping Huang, John A McInroy, Chia H Hu
The aims of this study were to isolate and characterize N2 -fixing bacteria from giant reed and switchgrass and evaluate their plant growth promotion and nutrient uptake potential for use as biofertilizers. A total of 190 bacteria were obtained from rhizosphere soil and inside stems and roots of giant reed and switchgrass. All the isolates were confirmed to have nitrogenase activity, 96.9% produced auxin, and 85% produced siderophores. Then the top six strains, including Sphingomonas trueperi NNA-14, Sphingomonas trueperi NNA-19, Sphingomonas trueperi NNA-17, Sphingomonas trueperi NNA-20, Psychrobacillus psychrodurans NP-3, and Enterobacter oryzae NXU-38, based on nitrogenase activity, were inoculated on maize and wheat seeds in greenhouse tests to assess their potential benefits to plants...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472938/novel-%C3%AE-tubulin-mutations-conferring-resistance-to-dinitroaniline-herbicides-in-lolium-rigidum
#15
Zhizhan Chu, Jinyi Chen, Alex Nyporko, Heping Han, Qin Yu, Stephen Powles
The dinitroaniline herbicides (particularly trifluralin) have been globally used in many crops for selective grass weed control. Consequently, trifluralin resistance has been documented in several important crop weed species and has recently reached a level of concern in Australian Lolium rigidum populations. Here, we report novel mutations in the L. rigidum α-tubulin gene which confer resistance to trifluralin and other dinitroaniline herbicides. Nucleotide mutations at the highly conserved codon Arg-243 resulted in amino acid substitutions of Met or Lys...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472935/chlorophyll-fluorescence-video-imaging-a-versatile-tool-for-identifying-factors-related-to-photosynthesis
#16
REVIEW
Thilo Rühle, Bennet Reiter, Dario Leister
Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence provide an elegant and non-invasive means of probing the dynamics of photosynthesis. Advances in video imaging of chlorophyll fluorescence have now made it possible to study photosynthesis at all levels from individual cells to entire crop populations. Since the technology delivers quantitative data, is easily scaled up and can be readily combined with other approaches, it has become a powerful phenotyping tool for the identification of factors relevant to photosynthesis...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472909/metagenomic-profiling-of-soil-microbes-to-mine-salt-stress-tolerance-genes
#17
Vasim Ahmed, Manoj K Verma, Shashank Gupta, Vibha Mandhan, Nar S Chauhan
Osmotolerance is one of the critical factors for successful survival and colonization of microbes in saline environments. Nonetheless, information about these osmotolerance mechanisms is still inadequate. Exploration of the saline soil microbiome for its community structure and novel genetic elements is likely to provide information on the mechanisms involved in osmoadaptation. The present study explores the saline soil microbiome for its native structure and novel genetic elements involved in osmoadaptation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472908/mining-halophytes-for-plant-growth-promoting-halotolerant-bacteria-to-enhance-the-salinity-tolerance-of-non-halophytic-crops
#18
REVIEW
Hassan Etesami, Gwyn A Beattie
Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. Interest is increasing in the application of PGPRs (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) to ameliorate stresses such as salinity stress in crop production. The identification of salt-tolerant, or halophilic, PGPRs has the potential to promote saline soil-based agriculture. Halophytes are a useful reservoir of halotolerant bacteria with plant growth-promoting capabilities. Here, we review recent studies on the use of halophilic PGPRs to stimulate plant growth and increase the tolerance of non-halophytic crops to salinity...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472782/grafting-improves-cucumber-water-stress-tolerance-in-saudi-arabia
#19
Abdulaziz R Al-Harbi, Abdulrasoul M Al-Omran, Khadiga Alharbi
Water scarcity is a major limiting factor for crop productivity in arid and semi-arid areas. Grafting elite commercial cultivars onto selected vigorous rootstocks is considered as a useful strategy to alleviate the impact of environmental stresses. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of using grafting to improve fruit yield and quality of cucumber under water stress conditions. Alosama F1 cucumber cultivar ( Cucumis sativus L.) was grafted onto Affyne ( Cucumis sativus L.) and Shintoza A90 ( Cucurbitamaxima × C...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472598/climate-driven-crop-yield-and-yield-variability-and-climate-change-impacts-on-the-u-s-great-plains-agricultural-production
#20
Meetpal S Kukal, Suat Irmak
Climate variability and trends affect global crop yields and are characterized as highly dependent on location, crop type, and irrigation. U.S. Great Plains, due to its significance in national food production, evident climate variability, and extensive irrigation is an ideal region of investigation for climate impacts on food production. This paper evaluates climate impacts on maize, sorghum, and soybean yields and effect of irrigation for individual counties in this region by employing extensive crop yield and climate datasets from 1968-2013...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
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