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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209395/highlights-from-the-2016-hiv-diagnostics-conference-the-new-landscape-of-hiv-testing-in-laboratories-public-health-programs-and-clinical-practice
#1
Laura G Wesolowski, Monica M Parker, Kevin P Delaney, S Michele Owen
The 2016 HIV Diagnostics Conference, held in Atlanta, Georgia, was attended by public health officials, laboratorians, HIV testing program managers, surveillance coordinators and industry representatives. The conference addressed test performance data, the implementation of new testing algorithms, quality assurance, and the application of new tests in a variety of settings. With regard to the recommended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Association of Public Health Laboratories HIV laboratory testing algorithm, the conference featured performance data, implementation challenges such as a lack of test options for the second and third steps, as well as data needs for new tests that may be used as part of the algorithm...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195061/overview-of-the-preclinical-pharmacological-properties-of-nigella-sativa-black-seeds-a-complementary-drug-with-historical-and-clinical-significance
#2
E Z Dajani, T G Shahwan, N E Dajani
Nigella sativa (N. sativa, black seeds; or sometimes known by many other names such as the blessed seed by the Arabs, black cumin in the Holy Bible, black caraway and Kalonji in South Asia) has been traditionally used for many years not only as a food but also as complementary drug. It is the objective of this communication to review the evidence-based pre-clinical pharmacological actions of N. sativa as a basis of its existing and potential new human clinical uses. Primary PubMed literature searches and secondary Medline searches were conducted to define N...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190597/costs-of-colorectal-cancer-screening-provision-in-cdc-s-colorectal-cancer-control-program-comparisons-of-colonoscopy-and-fobt-fit-based-screening
#3
Sujha Subramanian, Florence K L Tangka, Sonja Hoover, Janet Royalty, Amy DeGroff, Djenaba Joseph
We assess annual costs of screening provision activities implemented by 23 of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) grantees and report differences in costs between colonoscopy and FOBT/FIT-based screening programs. We analysed annual cost data for the first three year of the CRCCP (July 2009-June 2011) for each screening provision activity and categorized them into clinical and non-clinical screening provision activities. The largest cost components for both colonoscopy and FOBT/FIT-based programs were screening and diagnostic services, program management, and data collection and tracking...
February 7, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190415/a-potential-role-of-the-5-httlpr-polymorphism-in-self-reported-executive-functioning
#4
Margarita V Alfimova, Vera Golimbet, Tatyana Lezheiko, Galina Korovaitseva
Intense effort is directed toward searching for associations between genes and neuropsychological measures of executive functions. In contrast, the impact of genetic polymorphisms on self-rating of everyday executive functioning has not been investigated so far. This study was designed to test associations of self-reported executive functioning, measured with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF-A), with dopaminergic and serotoninergic genes in non-clinical population and to assess impact of neuropsychological and personality characteristics on these associations...
February 13, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188672/should-we-intervene-at-stage-0-a-qualitative-study-of-attitudes-of-asymptomatic-youth-at-increased-risk-of-developing-bipolar-disorders-and-parents-with-established-disease
#5
Jo Davison, Jan Scott
BACKGROUND: Studies of potential interventions for asymptomatic individuals at risk of severe mental disorders (ie, clinical stage 0) have focused on genetic counselling or the views of adults with established disease. No study has interviewed youth at risk of bipolar disorders (BD). METHODS: Qualitative analysis of interviews with asymptomatic adolescent offspring of adults with BD (OSBD = 7) and unrelated parents with bipolar disorders (PBD = 6) to examine manifest and latent themes in the dialogue...
February 11, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184070/the-legal-and-moral-perceptions-of-clinical-and-non-clinical-undergraduates-regarding-substance-use-a-pilot-project
#6
J Puryer, A Rowley, J Saimbi, A Waylen
Introduction Heavy alcohol and illicit drug use has been documented amongst medical and dental professionals and educational programs have been developed to attempt to reduce such behaviour in clinical undergraduates. This pilot study aims to investigate the legal and moral perceptions of substance use in clinical and non-clinical undergraduates.Method A cross-sectional self-report questionnaire was administered to 107 clinical and non-clinical undergraduates to investigate their moral and legal perceptions of alcohol and illicit substance use...
February 10, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184067/dental-drugs-drink-a-risky-cocktail
#7
(no author information available yet)
The legal and moral perceptions of clinical and non-clinical undergraduates regarding substance use: A pilot project.
February 10, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165767/what-is-the-key-to-culturally-competent-care-reducing-bias-or-cultural-tailoring
#8
Adolfo G Cuevas, Kerth O'Brien, Somnath Saha
OBJECTIVE: To gain a better understanding as to whether disparities in patient-provider relationships arise from ethnic minority patients being treated differently than European American patients while they would prefer to be treated the same, or whether disparities arise when ethnic minority patients are treated the same as European American patients while they would prefer to be treated differently. METHOD: African-American, Latina/Latino and European American community members were recruited to participate in one of 27 focus group discussions...
February 6, 2017: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163133/how-many-blinks-are-necessary-for-a-reliable-startle-response-a-test-using-the-npu-threat-task
#9
Lynne Lieberman, Elizabeth S Stevens, Carter J Funkhouser, Anna Weinberg, Casey Sarapas, Ashley A Huggins, Stewart A Shankman
Emotion-modulated startle is a frequently used method in affective science. Although there is a growing literature on the reliability of this measure, it is presently unclear how many startle responses are necessary to obtain a reliable signal. The present study therefore evaluated the reliability of startle responding as a function of number of startle responses (NoS) during a widely used threat-of-shock paradigm, the NPU-threat task, in a clinical (N=205) and non-clinical (N=92) sample. In the clinical sample, internal consistency was also examined independently for healthy controls vs...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161615/what-do-spanish-adolescents-think-about-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-mental-health-literacy-and-stigma-associated-with-symmetry-order-and-aggression-related-symptoms
#10
Gemma García-Soriano, María Roncero
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a frequent and disabling disorder with a long delay in seeking help that could partly be due to poor mental health literacy and stigmatizing attitudes. This study analyzes the mental health literacy and stigma associated with symmetry/order and aggression-related OCD in a Spanish adolescent sample. This age group was chosen because adolescence is a vulnerable period for the development of OCD, and adolescents are often reluctant to seek professional help. One hundred and two non-clinical adolescents read two vignettes describing symmetry/order and aggression-related OCD...
January 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161373/post-onset-oral-rapamycin-treatment-delays-development-of-mitochondrial-encephalopathy-only-at-supramaximal-doses
#11
Roberta Felici, Daniela Buonvicino, Mirko Muzzi, Leonardo Cavone, Daniele Guasti, Andrea Lapucci, Sara Pratesi, Francesco De Cesaris, Francesca Luceri, Alberto Chiarugi
Mitochondrial encephalopathies are fatal, infantile neurodegenerative disorders caused by a deficit of mitochondrial functioning, for which there is urgent need to identify efficacious pharmacological treatments. Recent evidence shows that rapamycin administered both intraperitoneally or in the diet delays disease onset and enhances survival in the Ndufs4 null mouse model of mitochondrial encephalopathy. To delineate the clinical translatability of rapamycin in treatment of mitochondrial encephalopathy, we evaluated the drug's effects on disease evolution and mitochondrial parameters adopting treatment paradigms with fixed daily, oral doses starting at symptom onset in Ndufs4 knockout mice...
February 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159645/driven-to-distraction-the-nature-and-apparent-purpose-of-interruptions-in-critical-care-and-implications-for-hit
#12
Lena Mamykina, Eileen J Carter, Barbara Sheehan, R Stanley Hum, Bridget C Twohig, David R Kaufman
OBJECTIVES: To examine the apparent purpose of interruptions in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and opportunities to reduce their burden with informatics solutions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective observational study, researchers shadowed clinicians in the unit for one hour at a time, recording all interruptions participating clinicians experienced or initiated, their starting time, duration, and a short description that could help to infer their apparent purpose...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152967/enhancing-a-culture-of-patient-safety-in-an-oncologic-hospital-setting
#13
Shannon Bristow
: 135 Background: Patient safety is a priority for all hospitals and staff members. With approx. 1:10 hospitalized patients experiencing an adverse event(1), healthcare lags behind other industries with regards to safety. Oncology patients have an increased risk of adverse events due to an immunocompromised status, coupled with complex treatments. Cancer Treatment Centers of America at Eastern Regional Medical Center (ERMC) recognized the need to heighten patient safety while maintaining a positive patient experience...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152893/unwarranted-variation-in-time-to-initiation-of-adjuvant-chemotherapy-in-a-statewide-collaborative
#14
Thomas Braun, Andrew W Dick, David H Gorski, Jessica Miley Bensenhaver, Tara M Breslin, Norah Lynn Henry
: 264 Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and non-clinical factors associated with time to initiation of breast cancer adjuvant chemotherapy following the final definitive surgery in a state-wide collaborative. METHODS: We collected prospective data from all patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy for Stages I - III breast cancer in 25 health systems in the Michigan Breast Oncology Quality Initiative (MiBOQI) between 2006 - 2014...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152861/variation-in-use-of-advanced-imaging-at-the-time-of-breast-cancer-diagnosis-in-a-statewide-registry
#15
Thomas Braun, Elizabeth Lusk, Khan Munir, Jennifer J Griggs, David H Gorski, Samuel M Silver, Tara M Breslin, Haythem Y Ali
: 287 Background: Advanced imaging for diagnosis of metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis of stage 0-II breast cancer is not recommended according to national guidelines. The purpose of this study was to examine the variation in ordering of CT chest, abdomen, and pelvis, PET, and bone scans across the state of Michigan, and to investigate clinical and non-clinical factors associated with test ordering. METHODS: We prospectively collected data from all patients diagnosed with stage 0-II breast cancer from 2008-2014 in 25 health systems in the Michigan Breast Oncology Quality Initiative (MiBOQI), a Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan/Blue Care Network-sponsored quality initiative...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152699/development-of-an-infusion-nurse-staffing-model-for-outpatient-chemotherapy-centers
#16
(no author information available yet)
: 103 Background: Nursing roles and responsibilities within ambulatory oncology infusion suites across our health system are not clearly defined and it is not understood what the appropriate staffing ratio should be per site. It is not clear if employees are working to the highest level of their licensure or skill, and if the appropriate activities are performed by the correct department. A standard staffing model to provide efficiency of clinical services and patient safety does not exist, and nursing roles are variable between the sites...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149692/no-apparent-influence-of-psychometrically-defined-schizotypy-on-orientation-dependent-contextual-modulation-of-visual-contrast-detection
#17
Damien J Mannion, Chris Donkin, Thomas J Whitford
We investigated the relationship between psychometrically-defined schizotypy and the ability to detect a visual target pattern. Target detection is typically impaired by a surrounding pattern (context) with an orientation that is parallel to the target, relative to a surrounding pattern with an orientation that is orthogonal to the target (orientation-dependent contextual modulation). Based on reports that this effect is reduced in those with schizophrenia, we hypothesised that there would be a negative relationship between the relative score on psychometrically-defined schizotypy and the relative effect of orientation-dependent contextual modulation...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139274/examiner-characteristics-and-interrater-reliability-in-a-communication-osce
#18
Achim Mortsiefer, André Karger, Thomas Rotthoff, Bianca Raski, Michael Pentzek
OBJECTIVE: To identify inter-individual examiner factors associated with interrater reliability in a summative communication OSCE in the 4th study year. METHODS: The OSCE consists of 4 stations assessed with a 4-item 5-point global rating instrument. A bivariate secondary analysis of interrater reliability in relation to 4 examiner factors (gender, profession, OSCE experience, examiner training) was conducted. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated and compared between examiner dyads of different similarity...
January 24, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135644/negative-metacognitive-beliefs-moderate-the-influence-of-perceived-stress-and-anxiety-in-long-term-anxiety
#19
Juan Ramos-Cejudo, J Martín Salguero
Metacognitive theory of emotional disorders (Matthews and Wells, 1994; Wells, 2009) suggests that metacognitive beliefs can play a causal role in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms. In this prospective study, we examine the relationships between metacognitive beliefs, perceived stress and anxiety in a non-clinical sample. Participants were 135 undergraduate students who completed a battery of questionnaire at two time points (3- months apart). Results revealed metacognitive beliefs do not predict long-term anxiety independently...
January 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132699/substance-use-and-sociodemographic-background-as-risk-factors-for-lifetime-psychotic-experiences-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#20
Eline Borger Rognli, Jørgen G Bramness, Svetlana Skurtveit, Anne Bukten
INTRODUCTION: Psychotic experiences (PE) are relatively common in the general population. PE is associated with mental health impairment and may be predictive of clinical psychosis. Substance use predicts PE, but the association is insufficiently understood, particularly the role of illicit substances. The purpose of this study was to describe PE (visual and auditory hallucinations and delusions of reference and persecution) in a population characterized by high levels of substance use and to investigate substance use and sociodemographic background characteristics as risk factors for PE...
March 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
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