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Youmei Chen, Jing Xu, Li Zhou, Ya Zheng
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia, the reduced capacity to experience pleasure, has long been regarded as a cardinal symptom in depression and schizophrenia. Recent evidence highlights that anhedonia is not a single construct but consists of an anticipatory component and a consummatory component, which is captured by the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS). The current event-related potential study examined the electrophysiological underpinnings of anticipatory and consummatory aspects of anhedonia as assessed by the TEPS in a non-clinical sample...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Steven Davey, Jamin Halberstadt, Elliot Bell, Sunny Collings
BACKGROUND: Alexithymia is a problem of emotion regulation and for this reason alone may relate to suicidality. This article investigates the evidence for a direct relationship. It explores the possibility of an additional role for interoception in future research. METHODS: A scoping review of peer-reviewed journal articles examining alexithymia and suicidality was undertaken, followed by a critical assessment of the overall state of the evidence base in relation to interoception...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Marta Stepien, Andrei Manoliu, Roman Kubli, Karoline Schneider, Philippe N Tobler, Erich Seifritz, Marcus Herdener, Stefan Kaiser, Matthias Kirschner
BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms are a core feature of schizophrenia and also found in healthy individuals in subclinical forms. According to the current literature the two negative symptom domains, apathy and diminished expression may have different underlying neural mechanisms. Previous observations suggest that striatal dysfunction is associated with apathy in schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether apathy is specifically related to ventral or dorsal striatal alterations. Here, we investigated striatal dysfunction during reward anticipation in patients with schizophrenia and a non-clinical population, to determine whether it is associated with apathy...
2018: PloS One
Cécile F Rousseau, Romaldas Mačiulaitis, Dariusz Śladowski, Gopalan Narayanan
Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), i.e ., cell and gene therapy products, is a rapidly evolving field of therapeutic development. A significant proportion of the products are being developed by academia or small/medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The many challenges in translation posed by this class of products include aspects covering: manufacturing, non-clinical development plan as relevant to clinical trial, marketing authorization, and reimbursement. In this context, the term translation refers to the relevance of non-clinical data in relation to how it impacts on appropriate and efficient clinical development...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Siqi Chen, Nisha Yao, Mingyi Qian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although the influence of uncertainty and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) on anxiety pathologies has been well-established, only a few studies examined the interaction between uncertainty and IU in producing anxiety. Meanwhile, there is a lack of research utilizing experimental methods to manipulate the situational uncertainty. Therefore, the current study aimed to more systematically investigate whether and how trait IU interacted with uncertainty in the production of anxiety...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Zuben E Sauna, Daniel Lagassé, Joao Pedras-Vasconcelos, Basil Golding, Amy S Rosenberg
Therapeutic proteins provide interventions for some of the most complex and intractable diseases and are an essential part of modern medicine. Immunogenicity is the development of immune responses, usually measured by antibodies, to therapeutic proteins. These responses can adversely affect the safety and efficacy of the therapeutic agent and may have the following consequences: neutralization of a life-saving biotherapeutic, crossreactivity to non-redundant endogenous proteins, and hypersensitivity responses...
June 13, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
Anke M Klein, Esther O Houtkamp, Elske Salemink, Jeanine M D Baartmans, Mike Rinck, Mariët J van der Molen
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety and depressive symptoms are relatively common in adolescents with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities (MBID). Unfortunately, there are only a few studies that focus on examining processes underlying social anxiety and depression in these adolescents. AIMS: The aim was to examine the differences between self- and peer-rated likability in relation to social anxiety and depression in the classroom environment. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: 631 normative non-clinical adolescents with MBID completed questionnaires to measure social anxiety, depression, and the estimation of their own likability by peers...
June 13, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Brian Fisak, Alicia Kissinger-Knox, Enrique Cibrian
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The mood-as-input hypothesis (MAIH), which emphasizes the role of mood and stop rules on perseverative thinking, has been extensively studied in relation to worry (Meeten & Davey, 2011). However, relatively few studies have focused on the applicability of the MAIH to depressive rumination. Consequently, two studies were conducted to further examine the potential relevance of the MAIH to depressive rumination. METHODS: In the first study, a sample of undergraduate students completed a rumination interview under one of four conditions, including mood (positive vs...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
S Tomczyk, H Muehlan, S Freitag, S Stolzenburg, G Schomerus, S Schmidt
BACKGROUNDS: The concept of mental health literacy suggests that higher literacy increases the likelihood of seeking treatment. However, previous studies mostly use vignettes, and do not investigate actual help-seeking behaviour. METHODS: We assessed depression literacy and type of mental illness in a convenience sample of 207 adults with currently untreated mental health problems from the general population. Our analysis sample comprised 152 adults (Mage   = 52...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Merijn Eikelenboom, Aartjan T F Beekman, Brenda W J H Penninx, Johannes H Smit
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD), represent a major source of risk for suicidality. However, knowledge about risk factors for future suicide attempts (SAs) within MDD is limited. The present longitudinal study examined a wide range of putative non-clinical risk factors (demographic, social, lifestyle, personality) and clinical risk factors (depressive and suicidal indicators) for future SAs among persons with MDD. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between a number of significant predictors and the incidence of a future SA...
June 13, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Sergey S Kurginyan, Ekaterina Y Osavolyuk
The Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI) is a brief self-report measure of the type of cognitive flexibility (CF) necessary to successfully challenge and restructure maladaptive beliefs with more balanced and adaptive thinking; it is particularly popular for use with English speakers. The CFI has recently been translated into five languages (Chinese, Japanese, Iranian, Turkish, and Russian), although estimates of reliability and validity of these translated versions are scarce. This study reports on the factor structure, internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity of the CFI...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
C Harvey, J Lewis, J Farhall
AIMS: Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) recommend evidence-based psychosocial interventions (EBPIs) to improve consumer recovery; however, availability appears limited. We describe receipt of six EBPIs, reported by people with psychoses, and associations with service and consumer characteristics, including indicators of need (eligibility) and benefit (suitability). METHODS: Participants in the 2010 Australian national survey of psychosis (n = 1825) were interviewed to assess demographic, functional, mental and physical health characteristics and service use in the previous year...
June 12, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Guillem Feixas, Eric Badia, Arturo Bados, Joan C Medina, Antoni Grau, Ernesto Magallón, Luis Botella, Chris Evans
INTRODUCTION: Given the increasing prevalence of mental health problems in the general population, it is indispensable to use assessment tools aimed to assess the outcome of therapeutic interventions in order to refine the process of psychological rehabilitation. METHOD: We describe the process of adaptation into Spanish and a first psychometric study of the Young Person's- Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (YP-CORE), an instrument designed to measure the outcome in terms of general distress of therapeutic interventions in young people (11-16 years)...
May 2018: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
N J Urie, J E Lombard, K L Marshall, R Digianantonio, A M Pelzel-McCluskey, B J McCluskey, J L Traub-Dargatz, C A Kopral, S L Swenson, J J Schiltz
Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is caused by a contagious rhabdovirus that affects horses, cattle, and swine. Clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection in pigs and cattle are indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), a foreign animal disease and reportable disease in the United States (Rodriguez et al., 2000). A VS epidemic occurred in the Rocky Mountain region in 2014-15. A study was conducted in Colorado to evaluate horse- and management-level factors associated with VS. For a horse to be considered a clinical VS horse, there were two requirements...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Annakarina Mundorf, Judith Schmitz, Onur Güntürkün, Nadja Freund, Sebastian Ocklenburg
New findings identified the MORC1 gene as a link between early life stress and major depression. In this study, MORC1 methylation was investigated in 60 healthy human adults (30 women, 30 men) between 19 and 33 years of age. For analysis, DNA was isolated from buccal cells. The results show that DNA methylation in the MORC1 promoter region significantly correlates with the Beck Depression Inventory score in the examined non-clinical population. Sum score of birth complications, however, seems to correlate negatively with methylation...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Nikolett Fejes, Sándor Rózsa, Anita Must
Background and purpose: The relationship of schizophrenia and its milder, subclinical forms, with creativity has been in the centre of theoretical interest for decades, however, the systematic research of the topic only prevailed more recently. Purpose - Here we aimed to examine the connection between different schizotypal and non-schizotypal personality traits and verbal creativity in a nonclinical sample. We also investigated the correspondence of two schizotypy inventories, the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences and a special character configuration of the Temperament and Character Inventory associated with schizotypy...
March 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Katharine E Chisholm, Johanna T W Wigman, Danielle Hallett, Tamara Woodall, Simone Mahfouda, Renate L E P Reniers, Eoin Killackey, Alison R Yung, Stephen J Wood, Ashleigh Lin
An inverse association between psychosocial functioning and psychotic experiences is now established in both clinical and non-clinical populations, however the mechanisms which drive this are unclear. Adolescents with subclinical psychotic experiences (SPE) are more likely to use maladaptive coping strategies and less likely to use adaptive ones, and maladaptive coping has also been associated with poor functioning. A within study replication in two adolescent samples from the general populations of Melbourne, Australia (n = 723) and Birmingham, United Kingdom (n = 239), was conducted to determine whether the association between SPE and psychosocial functioning is mediated by coping style...
June 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
D Anantharaman, A Billot, T Waterboer, T Gheit, B Abedi-Ardekani, P Lagiou, A Lagiou, W Ahrens, I Holcátová, F Merletti, K Kjaerheim, J Polesel, L Simonato, L Alemany, M Mena Cervigon, T V Macfarlane, A Znaor, P J Thomson, M Robinson, C Canova, D I Conway, S Wright, C M Healy, M E Toner, M Pawlita, M Tommasino, P Brennan
OBJECTIVES: HPV16-positive oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients experience better outcomes compared to HPV16-negative patients. Currently, strategies for treatment de-escalation are based on HPV status, smoking history and disease stage. However, the appropriate cut-point for smoking and the role of other non-clinical factors in OPC survival remains uncertain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined factors associated with OPC outcome in 321 patients recruited in a large European multi-center study...
June 2018: Oral Oncology
Zachary C Pope, Nan Zeng, Rui Zhang, Hee Yun Lee, Zan Gao
Physical activity (PA) among breast cancer survivors (BCS) can improve this population's health and quality of life (QoL). This study evaluated the effectiveness of a combined smartwatch- and social media-based health education intervention on BCS's health outcomes. Thirty BCS ( X ¯ age = 52.6 ± 9.3 years; X ¯ Wt = 80.2 ± 19.6 kg) participated in this 10-week, 2-arm randomized trial, with BCS randomized into: (1) experimental group ( n = 16): received Polar M400 smartwatches for daily PA tracking and joined a Facebook group wherein Social Cognitive Theory-related PA tips were provided twice weekly; and (2) comparison group ( n = 14): only joined separate, but content-identical Facebook group...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Talitha C Ford, Tamara Simpson, Grace McPhee, Con Stough, Luke A Downey
Anxiety is associated with compromised cognitive control functions, such as working memory. State and trait anxiety within the non-clinical population can be utilised to investigate potential neural markers for anxiety, which may help to elucidate potential prevention and intervention methods. Thirty-two healthy adults (20 female, 12 male), aged between 30 and 65 years, performed a 2-back task whilst fMRI BOLD signal was acquired using a 3T scanner. Mean BOLD signal was obtained in cognitive control network regions of interest of: left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and posterior parietal lobe (PPL), and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC)...
May 16, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
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