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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688314/electrocardiographic-characteristics-anthropometric-features-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-a-large-cohort-of-adolescents
#1
Massimo Santini, Stefania Angela Di Fusco, Furio Colivicchi, Alessio Gargaro
Aims: The characteristics of electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns in the general population of adolescents are insufficiently defined. The purpose of this study is to report ECG patterns and their association with anthropometric characteristics. Methods and results: Twenty-four thousand and sixty-two students of Roman schools, aged 12-19, were screened with ECG and physical examinations. Electrocardiographic abnormalities were classified as either minor/non-clinically relevant or major, and anthropometric measures were evaluated per age class...
April 23, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688082/evidence-of-a-diurnal-rhythm-in-implicit-reward-learning
#2
Alexis E Whitton, Malavika Mehta, Manon L Ironside, Greg Murray, Diego A Pizzagalli
Many aspects of hedonic behavior, including self-administration of natural and drug rewards, as well as human positive affect, follow a diurnal cycle that peaks during the species-specific active period. This variation has been linked to circadian modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system, and is hypothesized to serve an adaptive function by driving an organism to engage with the environment during times where the opportunity for obtaining rewards is high. However, relatively little is known about whether more complex facets of hedonic behavior - in particular, reward learning - follow the same diurnal cycle...
April 24, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683920/the-problem-with-magnitude-based-inference
#3
Kristin L Sainani
PURPOSE: A statistical method called "Magnitude-Based Inference" (MBI) has gained a following in the sports science literature, despite concerns voiced by statisticians. Its proponents have claimed that MBI exhibits superior Type I and Type II error rates compared with standard null hypothesis testing for most cases. I have performed a re-analysis to evaluate this claim. METHODS: Using simulation code provided by MBI's proponents, I estimated Type I and Type II error rates for clinical and non-clinical MBI for a range of effect sizes, sample sizes, and smallest important effects...
April 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682304/implementation-of-hepatitis-c-cure-in-australia-one-year-on
#4
EDITORIAL
Jacqueline A Richmond, Jack Wallace
Objectives: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for the treatment of hepatitis C (HCV) became universally available in Australia in March 2016, with an aim to achieve HCV elimination. Fourteen per cent of Australians with HCV have initiated treatment. The objective of this study was to explore and identify challenges and enablers that have emerged during this initial phase of HCV cure implementation. Methods: Key stakeholders (KS) in primary care, non-government and government sectors were recruited to participate in a telephone-based semi-structured interview to describe challenges and enablers facing individuals with HCV and the healthcare system in implementing HCV cure...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681868/impaired-cognitive-control-of-emotional-conflict-in-trait-anxiety-a-preliminary-study-based-on-clinical-and-non-clinical-individuals
#5
Yongju Yu, Chenggang Jiang, Haiyan Xu, Qian Yang, Jiawen Li, Yuanyuan Xu, Wenjun Xiang, Li Peng, Botao Liu, Fang Lv, Min Li
Background: It has been observed that trait anxiety easily leads to conflict maladaptation under conflict circumstances. However, it remains unclear whether the precise neural mechanisms underlying the effects of high trait anxiety (HTA) on cognitive control are consistent in high trait anxious individuals, with and without anxiety disorders. Methods: The present study recruited 29 healthy volunteers with low trait anxiety (LTA), 37 healthy volunteers with HTA, and 23 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679729/a-longitudinal-study-of-disc-height-narrowing-and-facet-joint-osteoarthritis-at-the-thoracic-and-lumbar-spine-evaluated-by-computed-tomography-the-framingham-study
#6
Mohamed Jarraya, Ali Guermazi, Amanda L Lorbergs, Elana Brochin, Douglas P Kiel, Mary L Bouxsein, L Adrienne Cupples, Elizabeth J Samelson
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Prevalence and progression of disc height narrowing (DHN) and facet joint osteoarthritis (FJOA) in the thoracic and lumbar regions in non-clinical populations are not well-established. PURPOSE: Use computed tomography (CT) images to determine prevalence and progression of DHN and FJOA according to age, sex, and spinal region. STUDY DESIGN: Six-year longitudinal study SAMPLE: 1,196 members of the Framingham Study (mean baseline age 61 ±9 years) OUTCOME MEASURES: We compared prevalence and progression (new or worsening) of moderate-to-severe DHN and FJOA by age, sex, and spinal region...
April 18, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678474/the-impact-of-body-awareness-on-women-s-sexual-health-a-comprehensive-review
#7
REVIEW
Brooke N Seal, Cindy M Meston
INTRODUCTION: Body awareness has been linked to female sexual response in laboratory manipulation studies and is used in clinical settings to ameliorate sexual difficulties. AIM: To evaluate and review the literature on body awareness and female sexual function. METHODS: A literature review was conducted through PsycInfo, PsycARTICLES, and PubMed using terms such as body awareness and sexual function. A manual search also was conducted using reference lists...
April 17, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672540/the-impact-of-attachment-distress-on-affect-centered-mentalization-an-experimental-study-in-psychosomatic-patients-and-healthy-adults
#8
Anna S Herrmann, Manfred E Beutel, Katharina Gerzymisch, Richard D Lane, Janine Pastore-Molitor, Jörg Wiltink, Rüdiger Zwerenz, Mita Banerjee, Claudia Subic-Wrana
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the impact of attachment distress on affect-centered mentalization in a clinical and a non-clinical sample, comparing mentalization in a baseline condition to mentalization under a condition of attachment distress. METHODS: The sample consisted of 127 adults who underwent inpatient psychosomatic treatment, and 34 mentally healthy adults. Affect-centered mentalization was assessed by analyzing participants' narratives on interpersonal situations in a baseline condition with the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS), and an experimental condition inducing attachment distress with the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667036/understanding-men-s-self-reported-sexual-interest-in-children
#9
Sandy K Wurtele, Dominique A Simons, Leah J Parker
A few studies have found that even in the general population, a minority of adults-men as well as women-report some sexual interest in a young age group. The purpose of the present study was to identify factors associated with self-reported sexual interest in children among a community-based sample of men. Using an online survey methodology, we examined the extent to which different types of childhood adversities (witnessing parental violence, sexual, physical, and emotional abuse), atypical childhood sexual experiences, and participants' self-reported likelihood of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors (heightened sexual interest) were related to sexual interest in children (SIC) reported by a non-forensic/non-clinical sample of 173 men...
April 17, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664709/non-clinical-efficacy-and-safety-studies-on-g1xcgd-a-lentiviral-vector-for-ex-vivo-gene-therapy-of-x-linked-chronic-granulomatous-disease
#10
Christian Brendel, Michael Rothe, Giorgia Santilli, Sabine Charrier, Stefan Stein, Hana Kunkel, Daniela Abriss, Uta Müller-Kuller, Bobby Gaspar, Ute Modlich, Anne Galy, Axel Schambach, Adrian J Thrasher, Manuel Grez
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a debilitating primary immunodeficiency affecting phagocyte function due to the absence of nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity. The vast majority of CGD patients in the Western world have mutations within the X-linked CYBB gene encoding for gp91phox (NOX2), the redox center of the NADPH oxidase complex (XCGD). Current treatments of XCGD are not entirely satisfactory, and prior attempts at autologous gene therapy using gammaretrovirus vectors did not provide long-term curative effects...
April 17, 2018: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663871/design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-zinc-supplementation-to-improve-markers-of-mortality-and-hiv-disease-progression-in-hiv-positive-drinkers-in-st-petersburg-russia
#11
Natalia Gnatienko, Matthew S Freiberg, Elena Blokhina, Tatiana Yaroslavtseva, Carly Bridden, Debbie M Cheng, Christine E Chaisson, Dmitry Lioznov, Sally Bendiks, Glory Koerbel, Sharon M Coleman, Evgeny Krupitsky, Jeffrey H Samet
Background Russia continues to have an uncontrolled HIV epidemic and its per capita alcohol consumption is among the highest in the world. Alcohol use among HIV-positive individuals is common and is associated with worse clinical outcomes. Alcohol use and HIV each lead to microbial translocation, which in turn results in inflammation. Zinc supplementation holds potential for lowering levels of biomarkers of inflammation, possibly as a consequence of its impact on intestinal permeability. This paper describes the protocol of a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial of zinc supplementation in St...
April 17, 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661209/gastrointestinal-and-urinary-complaints-in-adults-with-hereditary-spastic-paraparesis
#12
Øivind J Kanavin, Krister W Fjermestad
BACKGROUND: Hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) is a group of rare genetic disorders affecting the central nervous system. Pure HSP is limited to lower limb spasticity and urinary voiding dysfunction. Complex HSP involves additional neurological features. Beyond the described core symptoms, knowledge about the burden of disease for adults with HSP is limited, particularly regarding gastrointestinal functions, fecal incontinence, and urinary symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional self-report survey with 108 adult HSP patients (Mage  = 57...
April 16, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660642/mindfulness-based-interventions-and-their-effects-on-emotional-clarity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
David Cooper, Keong Yap, Luisa Batalha
BACKGROUND: An inability to identify or describe internal emotional experience has been linked to a range of affective disorders. Despite burgeoning research on mindfulness-based interventions and their possible effects on emotion regulation, the effects of such interventions on emotional clarity is unclear. This review examines the evidence for the effect of mindfulness-based interventions on self-reported emotional clarity. METHOD: Published studies indexed by PsycINFO, PubMed and Scopus, as available in April 2017, were systematically reviewed...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660570/the-tangled-roots-of-inner-speech-voices-and-delusions
#14
Cherise Rosen, Simon McCarthy-Jones, Kayla A Chase, Clara S Humpston, Jennifer K Melbourne, Leah Kling, Rajiv P Sharma
The role of inner speech in the experience of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) and delusions remains unclear. This exploratory study tested for differences in inner speech (assessed via self-report questionnaire) between 89 participants with psychosis and 37 non-clinical controls. We also tested for associations of inner speech with, i) state/trait AVH, ii) AVH-severity; iii) patients' relations with their voices, and; iv) delusion-severity. Persons with psychosis had greater levels of dialogic inner speech, other people in inner speech, and evaluative/motivational inner speech than non-clinical controls...
April 9, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657720/promising-novel-therapy-with-hydrogen-gas-for-emergency-and-critical-care-medicine
#15
REVIEW
Motoaki Sano, Masaru Suzuki, Koichiro Homma, Kei Hayashida, Tomoyoshi Tamura, Tadashi Matsuoka, Yoshinori Katsumata, Shuko Onuki, Junichi Sasaki
It has been reported that hydrogen gas exerts a therapeutic effect in a wide range of disease conditions, from acute illness such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, shock, and damage healing to chronic illness such as metabolic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of hydrogen gas have been proposed, but the molecular target of hydrogen gas has not been identified. We established the Center for Molecular Hydrogen Medicine to promote non-clinical and clinical research on the medical use of hydrogen gas through industry-university collaboration and to obtain regulatory approval of hydrogen gas and hydrogen medical devices (http://www...
April 2018: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656430/individual-differences-in-stop-related-activity-are-inflated-by-the-adaptive-algorithm-in-the-stop-signal-task
#16
Nicholas D'Alberto, Bader Chaarani, Catherine A Orr, Philip A Spechler, Matthew D Albaugh, Nicholas Allgaier, Alexander Wonnell, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Erin Burke Quinlan, Patricia J Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Juliane H Fröhner, Vincent Frouin, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Itterman, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Eric Artiges, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Luise Poustka, Trevor W Robbins, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Alexandra S Potter, Hugh Garavan
Research using the Stop Signal Task employing an adaptive algorithm to accommodate individual differences often report inferior performance on the task in individuals with ADHD, OCD, and substance use disorders compared to non-clinical controls. Furthermore, individuals with deficits in inhibitory control tend to show reduced neural activity in key inhibitory regions during successful stopping. However, the adaptive algorithm systematically introduces performance-related differences in objective task difficulty that may influence the estimation of individual differences in stop-related neural activity...
April 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653354/a-self-tuned-graph-based-framework-for-localization-and-grading-prostate-cancer-lesions-an-initial-evaluation-based-on-multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#17
Weifu Chen, Mingquan Lin, Eli Gibson, Matthew Bastian-Jordan, Derek W Cool, Zahra Kassam, Huageng Liang, Guocan Feng, Aaron D Ward, Bernard Chiu
Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has been established as the state-of-the-art examination for the detection and localization of prostate cancer lesions. Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) has been established as a scheme to standardize the reporting of mpMRI findings. Although lesion delineation and PI-RADS ratings could be performed manually, human delineation and ratings are subjective and time-consuming. In this article, we developed and validated a self-tuned graph-based model for PI-RADS rating prediction...
April 3, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649794/effects-of-volume-overload-and-current-techniques-for-the-assessment-of-fluid-status-in-patients-with-renal-disease
#18
Can Ekinci, Merve Karabork, Dimitrie Siriopol, Neris Dincer, Adrian Covic, Mehmet Kanbay
Volume overload is an important, may be the foremost, independent prognostic factor determining the outcome of hemodialysis patients. Therefore, it is crucial to measure fluid status of these patients and avoid volume overload. This review aims to evaluate volume overload, its effects on patients with renal diseases and current methodologies measuring volume status in the body. These techniques will be first classified as clinical evaluation and non-clinical and/or instrumental techniques, which includes biomarkers, ultrasonography, relative blood volume monitoring, bioimpedance, echocardiography, pulmonary artery catheterization, esophageal and/or suprasternal Doppler, and blood viscosity...
April 12, 2018: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649708/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-the-efficacy-of-internet-delivered-behavioral-activation
#19
REVIEW
Anna Huguet, Alyssa Miller, Steve Kisely, Sanjay Rao, Nelda Saadat, Patrick J McGrath
BACKGROUND: Behavioral activation (BA) is an evidence-based treatment for depression which has attracted interest and started to accumulate evidence for other conditions when delivered face-to-face. Due to its parsimoniousness, it is suitable to be delivered via the Internet. The goal of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the efficacy of Internet-based BA and assess the quality of this evidence. METHODS: Studies were identified from electronic databases (EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, Medline, CINHAL, PsychINFO, Cochrane) and reference lists of included studies...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643337/association-between-hedonic-hunger-and-body-mass-index-versus-obesity-status
#20
Gabriela Ribeiro, Marta Camacho, Osvaldo Santos, Cristina Pontes, Sandra Torres, Albino J Oliveira-Maia
Obesity-associated differences in hedonic hunger, while consistently reported, have not been adequately quantified, with most studies failing to demonstrate strong correlations between Body Mass Index (BMI) and hedonic hunger indicators. Here, we quantified and assessed the nature of the relationship between hedonic hunger and BMI, in a cross-sectional study using the Portuguese version of the PFS (P-PFS) to measure hedonic hunger. Data were collected from 1266 participants belonging to non-clinical, clinical (candidates for weight-loss surgery) and population samples...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
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