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Cynthia J Price, Elaine Adams Thompson, Sunny Chieh Cheng
The Scale of Body Connection (SBC) was created to address the need for a self-report measure to examine body awareness and bodily dissociation in mind-body research. Developed in the U.S.A., it has been translated into many languages and tested for validity of scale translation. The burgeoning of mind-body research and the widespread use of the SBC scale underscored the need for critical assessment of the instrument's measurement properties. Thus, a broader evaluation of the SBC was designed using large samples from eight international, cross-sectional studies drawn from community (i...
2017: PloS One
Katarzyna Prochwicz, Joanna Kłosowska
Although both anxiety and cognitive biases contribute to psychosis, it is still unclear whether these factors interact in their influence on psychotic symptoms. The aim of the study was to examine the interactions between trait anxiety, cognitive biases and delusion-like experiences (PLEs) in a non-clinical sample; the moderational role of attentional control on this relationship was also considered in the study. Two subgroups of participants, 92 individuals (M=24.76; SD=6.33) with heightened (HA) trait anxiety and 78 individuals (M=23...
October 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Arundati Nagendra, Benjamin L Twery, Enrique W Neblett, Hasan Mustafic, Tevin S Jones, D'Angelo Gatewood, David L Penn
The Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study consists of a battery of eight tasks selected to measure social-cognitive deficits in individuals with schizophrenia. The battery is currently in a multisite validation process. While the SCOPE study collects basic demographic data, more nuanced race-related factors might artificially inflate cross-cultural differences in social cognition. As an initial step, we investigated whether race, independent of mental illness status, affects performance on the SCOPE battery...
September 27, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Robert A Byrne, Giulio G Stefanini, Davide Capodanno, Yoshinobu Onuma, Andreas Baumbach, Javier Escaned, Michael Haude, Stefan James, Michael Joner, Peter Jüni, Adnan Kastrati, Semih Oktay, William Wijns, Patrick W Serruys, Stephan Windecker
A previous Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) provided a report on recommendations for the non-clinical and clinical evaluation of coronary stents. Following dialogue with the European Commission, the Task Force was asked to prepare an additional report on the class of devices known as bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS). Five BRS have CE-mark approval for use in Europe. Only one device-the Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold-has published randomized clinical trial data and this data show inferior outcomes to conventional drug-eluting stents (DES) at 2-3 years...
August 28, 2017: European Heart Journal
Kathleen E Ryan, Alisa Pedrana, David Leitinger, Anna L Wilkinson, Peter Locke, Margaret E Hellard, Mark Stoové
BACKGROUND: The 2012 regulatory approval of HIV rapid point of care (RPOC) tests in Australia and a national strategic focus on HIV testing provided a catalyst for implementation of non-clinical HIV testing service models. PRONTO! opened in 2013 as a two-year trial delivering peer-led community-based HIV RPOC tests targeting gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM), with the aim of increasing HIV testing frequency. Initial data suggested this aim was not achieved and, as part of a broader service evaluation, we sought to explore client acceptability and barriers to testing at PRONTO! to refine the service model...
October 10, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
Francisco Pinho, João Cerqueira, José Correia, Nuno Sousa, Nuno Dias
The World Health Organisation has pointed that a successful health care delivery, requires effective medical devices as tools for prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation. Several studies have concluded that longer monitoring periods and outpatient settings might increase diagnosis accuracy and success rate of treatment selection. The long-term monitoring of epileptic patients through electroencephalography (EEG) has been considered a powerful tool to improve the diagnosis, disease classification, and treatment of patients with such condition...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Ji S Kim, Min J Jin, Wookyoung Jung, Sang W Hahn, Seung-Hwan Lee
Objective: Although there is strong evidence that childhood trauma is associated with the development of depression and anxiety, relatively few studies have explored potential mediating factors for this relationship. The present study aimed to evaluate the mediating role of rumination in the link between childhood trauma and mood status such as depression, anxiety and affective lability. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and seven non-clinical participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Ruminative Response Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State Anxiety Inventory, and the Affective Lability Scale...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Chloe Orkin, Jean-Michel Molina, Eugenia Negredo, José R Arribas, Joseph Gathe, Joseph J Eron, Erika Van Landuyt, Erkki Lathouwers, Veerle Hufkens, Romana Petrovic, Simon Vanveggel, Magda Opsomer
BACKGROUND: Simplified regimens with reduced pill burden and fewer side-effects are desirable for people living with HIV. We investigated the efficacy and safety of switching to a single-tablet regimen of darunavir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide versus continuing a regimen of boosted protease inhibitor, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. METHODS: EMERALD was a phase-3, randomised, active-controlled, open-label, international, multicentre trial, done at 106 sites across nine countries in North America and Europe...
October 5, 2017: Lancet HIV
Isabel Lechner, Marianne Wüthrich, Mireille Meylan, Bart H P van den Borne, Gertraud Schüpbach-Regula
Since its first occurrence in August 2011 in Germany and the Netherlands, the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) spread rapidly across Europe, where it caused production losses and abortions in ruminants as well as congenital malformations in the offspring of affected animals. Several studies have investigated the impact of SBV on fertility and production parameters in dairy cows at herd level. However, the impact of clinical disease at the animal level remained undetermined. This study aimed at estimating the impact of clinical disease during and after an infection with SBV on production and fertility parameters in individual Swiss dairy cows...
October 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
A-L Blanc, S Spasojevic, A Leszek, M Théodoloz, P Bonnabry, T Fumeaux, N Schaad
WHAT IS KNOWN: Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) is an important issue for inpatient management; it has been associated with safety problems, such as increases in adverse drugs events, and with longer hospital stays and higher healthcare costs. OBJECTIVE: To compare two PIM-screening tools-STOPP/START and PIM-Check-applied to internal medicine patients. A second objective was to compare the use of PIMs in readmitted and non-readmitted patients. METHOD: A retrospective observational study, in the general internal medicine ward of a Swiss non-university hospital...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Matthew Schlumbrecht, John Siemon, Guillermo Morales, Marilyn Huang, Brian Slomovitz
BACKGROUND: Preparation in the business of medicine is reported to be poor across a number of specialties. No data exist about such preparation in gynecologic oncology training programs. Our objectives were to evaluate current time dedicated to these initiatives, report recent graduate perceptions about personal preparedness, and assess areas where improvements in training can occur. METHODS: Two separate surveys were created and distributed, one to 183 Society of Gynecologic Oncology candidate members and the other to 48 gynecologic oncology fellowship program directors...
2017: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Ana Cláudia Figueiredo
The lack of efficacy is a major cause of medicine's development failure at the clinical phase, which may lead to question, among other aspects, the translation of the non-clinical data into humans. The objectives of the work here presented were (i) to get an overview (based on public assessment reports) of the nature of the non-clinical efficacy-related studies presented to the regulatory authorities at the marketing authorization application's stage for a group of approved anticancer human medicines (15 in total) and (ii) to conduct a retrospective analysis of such studies in terms of any identified insufficiencies and consistency with the current regulatory non-clinical guidelines...
October 5, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Albenise Santana Alves Barros, Helison Oliveira Carvalho, Igor Victor Ferreira Dos Santos, Talisson Taglialegna, Tafnis Ingret Dos Santos Sampaio, Jonatas Lobato Duarte, Caio Pinho Fernandes, José Carlos Tavares Carvalho
INTRODUCTION: Portulaca pilosa L., belonging to the family Portulacaceae, is a common herbaceous plant in the Americas and in the Amazon, is popularly known as love-grown and is traditionally used as an aid in the treatment of burns, buds, insect bites and wound healing. This study aims to evaluate the non-clinical topical healing activity of the P. pilosa gel (GPP) and the propyleneglycol extract of P. pilosa (EPP) in Wistar rats. METHODS: For the healing activity, wistar rats were divided into the following groups: negative control (GVE - vehicle, 150mg/kg), positive control (Fibrinase(®)- FIB, 100U/kg), Portulaca pilosa gel 10%, (GPP, 150mg/kg), and propylenglycollic extract of Portulaca pilosa (EPP, 150 mg/kg), which were submitted to a surgical procedure to obtain the wounds, and were treated topically for 7days...
October 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Andrew M Buckley, A T Cox, P Rees
Automated external defibrillator (AED) devices have been in routine clinical use since the early 1990s to deliver life-saving shocks to appropriate patients in non-clinical environments. As expectations of survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest increase, and evidence incontrovertibly points to reduced timelines as the most crucial factor in achieving return of spontaneous circulation, questions regarding the availability and location of AEDs in the UK military need to be readdressed. This article explores the background of AEDs and reviews their history, life-saving potential and defines current and best practice...
October 5, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Katherine Newman-Taylor, Christie Garner, Elizabeth Vernon-Wilson, Karlien H W Paas, Lesley Herbert, Sheena K Au-Yeung
BACKGROUND: The development of safe and effective mental health services is a priority. This requires valid measures of personal recovery, yet these tools are not embedded in routine clinical practice. Brief "patient reported measures" are most likely to be acceptable to service-users and clinicians. The 4-item "Hope, Agency and Opportunity" (HAO) was co-produced to assess recovery outcomes and experience of mental health services. AIM: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the HAO...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
Claire A Wolniewicz, Mojisola F Tiamiyu, Justin W Weeks, Jon D Elhai
For many individuals, excessive smartphone use interferes with everyday life. In the present study, we recruited a non-clinical sample of 296 participants for a cross-sectional survey of problematic smartphone use, social and non-social smartphone use, and psychopathology-related constructs including negative affect, fear of negative and positive evaluation, and fear of missing out (FoMO). Results demonstrated that FoMO was most strongly related to both problematic smartphone use and social smartphone use relative to negative affect and fears of negative and positive evaluation, and these relations held when controlling for age and gender...
September 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Karl-Uwe Petersen
BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia is a heterogeneous disorder lacking an established therapeutic strategy. Historical treatment attempts with pepsin products were shrugged off, as a simple calculation shows that quantitative substitution is pointless. However, such attempts might have been right for the wrong reason. SUMMARY: Today, the role of pepsins is primarily seen in the provision of signalling amino acids (especially phenylalanine and tryptophan) and peptides, which initiate processes promoting digestion...
October 5, 2017: Digestive Diseases
Margaret Thibodeau, Gary J Pickering
1. Abstract: Alcohol consumption is widespread, and high levels of use are associated with increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder. Thus, understanding the factors that influence alcohol intake is important for disease prevention and management. Additionally, elucidating the factors that associate with alcohol preference and intake in non-clinical populations allows for product development and optimisation opportunities for the alcoholic beverage industry. The literature on how taste (orosensation) influences alcohol behavior is critically appraised in this review...
October 5, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Rachel Sellers, Richard Emsley, Adrian Wells, Anthony P Morrison
OBJECTIVES: It is increasingly accepted that paranoia lies on a continuum of severity that can be observed in the general population. Several psychological factors have been implicated in the development of more distressing persecutory ideas including negative affect (i.e., anxiety and depression), beliefs about oneself and other people (i.e., schemas), and metacognitive beliefs. This study aimed to explore the combined role of cognition and metacognition in paranoia. Specifically, unhelpful metacognitive beliefs and schematic beliefs were tested as potential moderators of the relationship between non-clinical paranoid ideation and negative affect...
October 5, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
Michelle Shaw, Benjamin Harris, Stephen Bonner
Research is key to intensive care practice but it is not certain whether trainees get the research experience they want to prepare them for clinical practice as consultants. We distributed a survey via Research & Audit Federation of Trainees to 478 current intensive care medicine trainees to establish their views. We restricted analysis to regions with an 80% or greater response rate (n = 235 responses) to reduce self-selection bias. Our results indicated that the desire for research activities was high but multiple barriers exist...
May 2017: J Intensive Care Soc
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