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Salicylic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933563/effects-of-exogenously-applied-salicylic-acid-and-putrescine-alone-and-in-combination-with-rhizobacteria-on-the-phytoremediation-of-heavy-metals-and-chickpea-growth-in-sandy-soil
#1
Naeem Khan, Asghari Bano
The present attempt was made to study the role of exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) and putrescine (Put) on the phytoremediation of heavy metal and on the growth parameters of chickpea grown in sandy soil. The SA and Put were applied alone as well as in combination with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPRs, isolated from the rhizosphere of chickpea were characterized on the basis of colony morphology and biochemical traits through gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests, and identified by 16S-rRNA gene sequencing as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus megaterium...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932234/stunted-growth-caused-by-blast-disease-in-rice-seedlings-is-associated-with-changes-in-phytohormone-signaling-pathways
#2
Chang-Jie Jiang, Xiao-Long Liu, Xin-Qiong Liu, Hui Zhang, Ying-Jie Yu, Zheng-Wei Liang
In response to pathogen attack, plants prioritize defense reactions generally at the expense of plant growth. In this work, we report that changes in phytohormone signaling pathways are associated with the stunted plant growth caused by blast disease in rice seedlings. Infection of rice seedlings with blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (race 007.0) at the four-leaf stage (three true leaves) resulted in considerable inhibition of the growth of the upper uninfected distal leaves; the length of leaf blade and leaf sheath of the sixth and seventh leaf was reduced by 27 and 82%, and 88 and 72%, respectively, compared to that in the uninoculated plant control...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930578/identification-of-bioactive-glucose-lowering-compounds-of-methanolic-extract-of-hodgsonia-heteroclita-fruit-pulp
#3
Talambedu Usha, Arvind Kumar Goyal, Derhasat Narzary, Lokesh Prakash, Gulshan Wadhwa, Dinesh Babu, Divya Shanmugarajan, Sushil Kumar Middha
We have investigated the anti-oxidative and glucose-lowering effects of 70% methanolic extract of H. heteroclita fruit pulp (MHE). Anti-oxidative property of MHE was assessed by free radical scavenging assays and compound level screening by LC-MS profiling. In silico analysis and in vivo preclinical validation were also performed using molecular docking and alloxan-induced diabetic model, respectively. MHE showed high anti-oxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging assay with an IC50 of 0.37 μg/mL. The LC-MS profile of MHE substantiated the presence of p-hydroxy acids including benzoic, salicylic, p-coumaric, o-coumaric, caffeic, protocatechuic, gentisic, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic, gallic, vanillic, syringic, and ferulic acids...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929638/interactions-of-wrky15-and-wrky33-transcription-factors-and-their-roles-in-the-resistance-of-oilseed-rape-to-sclerotinia-infection
#4
Fei Liu, Xiaoxia Li, Meirong Wang, Jing Wen, Bin Yi, Jinxiong Shen, Chaozhi Ma, Tingdong Fu, Jinxing Tu
WRKY transcription factors are known to participate in the defense responses of higher plants. However, little is known about the roles of such proteins, especially regarding their functions in the resistance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes stem rot. In the present study, we identified BnWRKY33 as a S. sclerotiorum-responsive gene that positively regulates resistance to this pathogen by enhancing the expression of genes involved in camalexin synthesis and genes regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA)...
September 20, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928761/hormonal-regulation-in-shade-avoidance
#5
REVIEW
Chuanwei Yang, Lin Li
At high vegetation density, shade-intolerant plants sense a reduction in the red (660 nm) to far-red (730 nm) light ratio (R/FR) in addition to a general reduction in light intensity. These light signals trigger a spectrum of morphological changes manifested by growth of stem-like tissue (hypocotyl, petiole, etc.) instead of harvestable organs (leaves, fruits, seeds, etc.)-namely, shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). Common phenotypical changes related to SAS are changes in leaf hyponasty, an increase in hypocotyl and internode elongation and extended petioles...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928759/identification-of-biomarkers-for-defense-response-to-plasmopara-viticola-in-a-resistant-grape-variety
#6
Giulia Chitarrini, Evelyn Soini, Samantha Riccadonna, Pietro Franceschi, Luca Zulini, Domenico Masuero, Antonella Vecchione, Marco Stefanini, Gabriele Di Gaspero, Fulvio Mattivi, Urska Vrhovsek
Downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) is one of the most destructive diseases of the cultivated species Vitis vinifera. The use of resistant varieties, originally derived from backcrosses of North American Vitis spp., is a promising solution to reduce disease damage in the vineyards. To shed light on the type and the timing of pathogen-triggered resistance, this work aimed at discovering biomarkers for the defense response in the resistant variety Bianca, using leaf discs after inoculation with a suspension of P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927195/protein-sgpr-of-pseudomonas-putida-strain-ak5-is-a-lysr-type-regulator-of-salicylate-degradation-through-gentisate
#7
Irina Yu Filatova, Alexei S Kazakov, Evgeny N Muzafarov, Marina V Zakharova
Pseudomonas putida strain AK5 was the first characterized natural strain containing the 'classical' nah1 operon and nahR gene along with genes whose products are responsible for the less explored pathway of salicylate degradation through gentisate (the sgp operon). The sgp operon was found to be preceded by the divergently directed sgpR gene. The amino acid sequence of the sgpR product qualifies it as a LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) and suggests its potential function as an sgp operon transcriptional regulator...
July 3, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926983/expression-of-the-grape-vasts19-gene-in-arabidopsis-improves-resistance-to-powdery-mildew-and-botrytis-cinerea-but-increases-susceptibility-to-pseudomonas-syringe-pv-tomato-dc3000
#8
Yaqiong Wang, Dejun Wang, Fan Wang, Li Huang, Xiaomin Tian, Steve van Nocker, Hua Gao, Xiping Wang
Stilbene synthase (STS) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of resveratrol compounds and plays an important role in disease resistance. The molecular pathways linking STS with pathogen responses and their regulation are not known. We isolated an STS gene, VaSTS19, from a Chinese wild grape, Vitis amurensis Rupr. cv. "Tonghua-3", and transferred this gene to Arabidopsis. We then generated VaSTS19-expressing Arabidopsis lines and evaluated the functions of VaSTS19 in various pathogen stresses, including powdery mildew, B...
September 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924985/not-a-simple-plantar-wart-a-case-of-tungiasis
#9
F Peccerillo, F Zambito Spadaro, G Fabrizi, C Feliciani, C Pagliarello, I Stanganelli
A 62-year-old Caucasian woman complained of a painful nodular lesion on her right heel that restricted her walking. She had noticed the onset of the itching after approximately 3 weeks of travel in Brazil. She was initially treated by her general practitioner with topical salicylic acid, suspecting a plantar wart. After a week of increased itching and unbearable pain, the patient was referred to our dermatological service. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 19, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917142/reactions-of-tobacco-genotypes-with-different-antioxidant-capacities-to-powdery-mildew-and-tobacco-mosaic-virus-infections
#10
Gábor Gullner, Csilla Juhász, Adél Németh, Balázs Barna
The interactions of powdery mildew (Golovinomyces orontii) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) with tobacco lines having down or upregulated antioxidants were investigated. Xanthi-nc, its salicylic acid-deficient NahG mutant, a paraquat-sensitive Samsun (PS) and its paraquat tolerant (PT) mutant were used. Cell membrane damage caused by H2O2 was significantly higher in NahG than Xanthi, whereas it was lower in PT than in PS. Leakage of ions from PT was reduced by the powdery mildew infection. On the other hand TMV inoculation led to a 6-fold and 2-fold elevation of ion leakage from hypersensitive resistant NahG and Xanthi leaves, respectively, whereas ion leakage increased slightly from susceptible PS leaves...
September 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915397/alleviation-of-cadmium-toxicity-in-lemna-minor-by-exogenous-salicylic-acid
#11
Qianqian Lu, Tingting Zhang, Wei Zhang, Chunlei Su, Yaru Yang, Dan Hu, Qinsong Xu
Cadmium (Cd) is a significant environmental pollutant in the aquatic environment. Salicylic acid (SA) is a ubiquitous phenolic compound. The goal of this study was to assess the morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in duckweed (L. minor) upon exposure to 10μM CdCl2, 10μM CdCl2 plus 50μM SA, or 50μM SA for 7 days. Reversing the effects of Cd, SA decreased Cd accumulation in plants, improved accumulation of minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, B, Mo) absorption, increased endogenous SA concentration, and phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activity...
September 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915349/watery-saliva-secreted-by-the-grain-aphid-sitobion-avenae-stimulates-aphid-resistance-in-wheat
#12
Yong Zhang, Jia Fan, Frederic Francis, Julian Chen
Infestation with Sitobion avenae induces localized defense responses in wheat; in this study, the role of S. avenae watery saliva in resistance induction was examined by infiltrating aphid saliva into wheat leaves. After feeding S. avenae on an artificial diet for 48 h, we first collected watery saliva from them and then separated the salivary proteins using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Gene expression studies showed that infiltration of S. avenae watery saliva in wheat leaves induced strong salicylic acid-responsive defense but moderate jasmonic acid-dependent defense...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913707/endocytic-pathways-involved-in-plga-nanoparticle-uptake-by-grapevine-cells-and-role-of-cell-wall-and-membrane-in-size-selection
#13
Cleofe Palocci, Alessio Valletta, Laura Chronopoulou, Livia Donati, Marco Bramosanti, Elisa Brasili, Barbara Baldan, Gabriella Pasqua
PLGA NPs' cell uptake involves different endocytic pathways. Clathrin-independent endocytosis is the main internalization route. The cell wall plays a more prominent role than the plasma membrane in NPs' size selection. In the last years, many studies on absorption and cell uptake of nanoparticles by plants have been conducted, but the understanding of the internalization mechanisms is still largely unknown. In this study, polydispersed and monodispersed poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) were synthesized, and a strategy combining the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), confocal analysis, fluorescently labeled PLGA NPs, a probe for endocytic vesicles (FM4-64), and endocytosis inhibitors (i...
September 14, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913593/interaction-of-arabidopsis-tga3-and-wrky53-transcription-factors-on-cestrum-yellow-leaf-curling-virus-cmylcv-promoter-mediates-salicylic-acid-dependent-gene-expression-in-planta
#14
Shayan Sarkar, Abhimanyu Das, Prashant Khandagale, Indu B Maiti, Sudip Chattopadhyay, Nrisingha Dey
This paper highlighted a salicylic acid-inducible Caulimoviral promoter fragment from Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus (CmYLCV). Interaction of Arabidopsis transcription factors TGA3 and WRKY53 on CmYLCV promoter resulted in the enhancement of the promoter activity via NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signaling. Several transcriptional promoters isolated from plant-infecting Caulimoviruses are being presently used worldwide as efficient tools for plant gene expression. The CmYLCV promoter has been isolated from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus (Caulimoviruses) and characterized more than 12 years ago; also we have earlier reported a near-constitutive, pathogen-inducible CmYLCV promoter fragment (-329 to +137 from transcription start site; TSS) that enhances stronger (3×) expression than the previously reported fragments; all these fragments are highly efficient in monocot and dicot plants (Sahoo et al...
September 14, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911746/plant-growth-regulator-mediated-anti-herbivore-responses-of-cabbage-brassica-oleracea-against-cabbage-looper-trichoplusia-ni-h%C3%A3-bner-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#15
Ian M Scott, R Samara, J B Renaud, M W Sumarah
Plant elicitors can be biological or chemical-derived stimulators of jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA) pathways shown to prime the defenses in many crops. Examples of chemical elicitors of the JA and SA pathways include methyl-jasmonate and 1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-carbothioate (BTH or the commercial plant activator Actigard 50WG, respectively). The use of specific elicitors has been observed to affect the normal interaction between JA and SA pathways causing one to be upregulated and the other to be suppressed, often, but not always, at the expense of the plant's herbivore or pathogen defenses...
September 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911019/early-arabidopsis-root-hair-growth-stimulation-by-pathogenic-strains-of-pseudomonas-syringae
#16
Tamara Pecenková, Martin Janda, Jitka Ortmannová, Vladimíra Hajná, Zuzana Stehlíková, Viktor Žárský
Background and Aims: Selected beneficial Pseudomonas spp. strains have the ability to influence root architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana by inhibiting primary root elongation and promoting lateral root and root hair formation. A crucial role for auxin in this long-term (1week), long-distance plant-microbe interaction has been demonstrated. Methods: Arabidopsis seedlings were cultivated in vitro on vertical plates and inoculated with pathogenic strains Pseudomonas syringae pv...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906478/complementary-rna-sequencing-based-transcriptomics-and-itraq-proteomics-reveal-the-mechanism-of-the-alleviation-of-quinclorac-stress-by-salicylic-acid-in-oryza-sativa-ssp-japonica
#17
Jian Wang, Faisal Islam, Lan Li, Meijuan Long, Chong Yang, Xiaoli Jin, Basharat Ali, Bizeng Mao, Weijun Zhou
To uncover the alleviation mechanism of quinclorac stress by salicylic acid (SA), leaf samples of Oryza sativa ssp. Japonica under quinclorac stress with and without SA pre-treatment were analyzed for transcriptional and proteomic profiling to determine the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and proteins (DEPs), respectively. Results showed that quinclorac stress altered the expression of 2207 DEGs (1427 up-regulated, 780 down-regulated) and 147 DEPs (98 down-regulated, 49 up-regulated). These genes and proteins were enriched in glutathione (GSH) metabolism, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, and so on...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905991/target-of-rapamycin-signaling-orchestrates-growth-defense-trade-offs-in-plants
#18
David De Vleesschauwer, Osvaldo Filipe, Gena Hoffman, Hamed Soren Seifi, Ashley Haeck, Patrick Canlas, Jonas Van Bockhaven, Evelien De Waele, Kristof Demeestere, Pamela Ronald, Monica Hofte
Plant defense to microbial pathogens is often accompanied by significant growth inhibition. How plants merge immune system function with normal growth and development is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of target of rapamycin (TOR), an evolutionary conserved serine/threonine kinase, in the plant defense response. We used rice as a model system and applied a combination of chemical, genetic, genomic and cell-based analyses. We demonstrate that ectopic expression of TOR and Raptor (regulatory-associated protein of mTOR), a protein previously demonstrated to interact with TOR in Arabidopsis, positively regulates growth and development in rice...
September 14, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904977/misuse-of-topical-corticosteroids-for-cosmetic-purpose-in-antananarivo-madagascar
#19
F A Sendrasoa, I M Ranaivo, M Andrianarison, O Raharolahy, N H Razanakoto, L S Ramarozatovo, F Rapelanoro Rabenja
This cross-sectional study was conducted in Antananarivo, Madagascar, from June to September 2012. We aim to evaluate the misuse of TC on the face for cosmetic purpose and the adverse effects due to its application. A questionnaire-based analysis was done among females who use topical corticosteroids on the face for cosmetic purpose. Of the 770 women questioned, 384 (49,8%) used topical corticosteroids for cosmetic purpose whose mean age was 38 years (range 16-73 years). Two hundred and sixty-one females (68%) used TC combined with handcrafted cosmetics, and 123 (32%) used TC alone...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904280/food-dependent-exercise-induced-anaphylaxis-due-to-ingestion-of-mikan-citrus-unshiu
#20
Yutaka Tanaka, Marie Sugihara, Shuntaro Tsumagari, Nobue Takamatsu, Kazuyuki Kurihara
A 12-year-old girl was referred to our hospital owing to repeated anaphylactic reactions induced by exercise after meals. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIAn) was suspected. However, sequential tests of typical foods, including egg, milk, soy, and wheat, in combination with exercise, were all negative.The results of the skin prick test (SPT) for Citrus unshiu and specific IgE test for orange and grapefruit were positive. Although no symptoms were noted after an exercise challenge combined with the ingestion of only Citrus unshiu, an anaphylactic reaction was induced by additional acetyl-salicylic acid...
2017: Arerugī, [Allergy]
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