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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156607/calcium-dependent-protein-kinases-in-phytohormone-signaling-pathways
#1
REVIEW
Wuwu Xu, Wenchao Huang
Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs/CDPKs) are Ca(2+)-sensors that decode Ca(2+) signals into specific physiological responses. Research has reported that CDPKs constitute a large multigene family in various plant species, and play diverse roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. Although numerous CDPKs have been exhaustively studied, and many of them have been found to be involved in plant hormone biosynthesis and response mechanisms, a comprehensive overview of the manner in which CDPKs participate in phytohormone signaling pathways, regulating nearly all aspects of plant growth, has not yet been undertaken...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151641/foliar-treatment-of-bacillus-methylotrophicus-ke2-reprograms-endogenous-functional-chemicals-in-sesame-to-improve-plant-health
#2
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, In-Jung Lee
The present study was aimed to investigate the health of vegetative and reproductive parts of sesame plants during Bacillus methylotrophicus KE2 interaction by their pigments, sugars, organic acid, amino acids, hormones and antioxidant production analysis. In a green-house study, B. methylotrophicus KE2 was sprayed to sesame plants at late flowering stage. The bacterial treatment enhanced photosynthetic pigments of plants including pods than their controls. The shoots of plants had higher amount of sucrose, glucose, galactose, xylitol and malic acid, and while the pods of plants showed the more accumulation of sucrose, glucose, inulin and xylitol in bacterium treated plants...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149645/xylella-fastidiosa-induces-differential-expression-of-lignification-related-genes-and-lignin-accumulation-in-tolerant-olive-trees-cv-leccino
#3
Erika Sabella, Andrea Luvisi, Alessio Aprile, Carmine Negro, Marzia Vergine, Francesca Nicolì, Antonio Miceli, Luigi De Bellis
Recently, Xylella fastidiosa was reported in Italy, associated with the "Olive Quick Decline Syndrome". The cv. Leccino exhibits an evident tolerance with a slow disease progression compared with the other cultivars. Between the mechanisms proposed to explain the putative tolerance of some hosts to X. fastidiosa diseases, lignin deposition plays an important role. Analysis of phenolic compounds in healthy and infected Leccino and Cellina di Nardò leaves showed, in the two cultivars, a reduction of hydroxytyrosol glucoside (usually associated with drought and cold stress) and, only in Leccino, an increase of quinic acid, precursor of lignin...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149453/melatonin-and-serotonin-mediators-in-the-symphony-of-plant-morphogenesis
#4
Lauren A E Erland, Mukund R Shukla, Amritpal S Singh, Susan J Murch, Praveen K Saxena
Melatonin and serotonin are important signaling and stress mitigating molecules that play important roles across growth and development in plants. Despite many well-documented responses, a systematic investigation of the entire metabolic pathway (tryptophan, tryptamine and N-acetylserotonin) does not exist, leaving many open questions. The objective of this study was to determine the responses of Hypericum perforatum (L.) to melatonin, serotonin and their metabolic precursors. Two well characterized germplasm lines (#4 and 112) created by mutation and a haploid breeding program were compared to wildtype to identify specific responses...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145070/arsenic-forms-and-their-combinations-induce-differences-in-phenolic-accumulation-in-ulmus-laevis-pall
#5
Kinga Drzewiecka, Monika Gąsecka, Paweł Rutkowski, Zuzanna Magdziak, Piotr Goliński, Mirosław Mleczek
Total phenolics and the profile of phenolic acids and flavonoids were investigated in the roots and leaves of Ulmus laevis cultured on the medium with inorganic and organic arsenic - As(III), As(V) and DMA(V) at 0.06mM and their equimolar combinations. Further, the accumulation of salicylic acid (free and glucoside-bound) and lipid oxidation were assayed following a three-month long experiment. As treatment caused elevated production of phenolics, which was higher in photosynthetic tissue than in roots for all As forms and their combinations, and their overall content was correlated with the accumulation of organic As in roots and As(III) in leaves...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140457/genistein-specific-g6dt-gene-for-the-inducible-production-of-wighteone-in-lotus-japonicus
#6
Jinyue Liu, Wenbo Jiang, Yaying Xia, Xuemin Wang, Guoan Shen, Yongzhen Pang
Prenylated isoflavonoids were found in several legume plants, and they possess various biological activities that play important roles in both plant defense and human health. However, it is still unknown whether prenylated isoflavonoids are present in the model legume plant L. japonicus. In the present study, we found that the prenylated isoflavonoid wighteone was produced in L. japonicus when the leaf was supplemented with genistein. Furthermore, a novel prenyltransferase gene LjG6DT was identified, which shared high similarity and was closely related with several known prenyltransferase genes involved in isoflavonoid biosynthesis...
November 10, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140446/up-regulation-of-mpk4-increases-the-feeding-efficiency-of-the-green-peach-aphid-under-elevated-co2-in-nicotiana-attenuata
#7
Huijuan Guo, Xinhong Peng, Liyuan Gu, Jianqiang Wu, Feng Ge, Yucheng Sun
Previous research has shown that elevated CO2 reduces plant resistance against insects and enhances the water use efficiency of C3 plants, which improves the feeding efficiency of aphids. Although plant mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are known to regulate water relations and phytohormone-mediated resistance, little is known about the effect of elevated CO2 on MAPKs and the cascading effects on aphids. By using stably transformed Nicotiana attenuata plants silenced in MPK4, wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK), or salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK), we determined the functions of MAPKs in plant-aphid interactions and their responses to elevated CO2...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138909/improvement-of-biosynthesis-and-accumulation-of-bioactive-compounds-by-elicitation-in-adventitious-root-cultures-of-polygonum-multiflorum
#8
Thanh-Tam Ho, Jong-Du Lee, Cheol-Seung Jeong, Kee-Yoeup Paek, So-Young Park
We examined the effects of abiotic (methyl jasmonate [MeJA] and salicylic acid [SA]) and biotic (yeast extract and chitosan) elicitors for improvement of bioactive compounds production on adventitious root cultures in Polygonum multiflorum. The application of yeast extract resulted in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher dry root biomass (9.98 g/L) and relative growth rate versus the control. Cultures treated with abiotic elicitors showed higher percentage of dry weight than the other samples. Low concentrations of all elicitors (50 μM MeJA and SA, and 50 mg/L yeast extract) improved secondary metabolite production except for chitosan, whose performance was worse than that of the control...
November 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136895/reactive-low-temperature-plasma-ionization-mass-spectrometry-for-the-determination-of-organic-uv-filters-in-personal-care-products
#9
Xuelu Ding, Stefanie Gerbig, Bernhard Spengler, Sabine Schulz
Organic UV filters in personal care products (PCPs) have been persistently reported as a potential threat to human health. In order to guarantee consumers(') safety, the dose of these compounds in PCPs needs to be monitored. Here, a methodology based on reactive low temperature plasma ionization (LTP) mass spectrometry (MS) has been developed for the determination of common organic UV filters in PCPs including benzophenone-3, ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoic acid, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, octocrylene, and ethylhexyl salicylate...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133038/new-metalo-therapeutics-of-nsaids-against-human-breast-cancer-cells
#10
Christina N Banti, Constantina Papatriantafyllopoulou, Anastasios J Tasiopoulos, Sotiris K Hadjikakou
The non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID's)-silver(I) metallodrugs of aspirin (aspH), salicylic acid (salH2), naproxen (napH) acid or p-hydrobenzoic acid (pHbzaH) and the mitochondriotropic triphenylarsine (tpAs) with the formulae [Ag(asp)(tpAs)3] (1), [Ag(salH)(tpAs)3] (2), [Ag(nap)(tpAs)3] (3) and {[Ag(pHbza)(tpAs)3]∙(dmf)} (4) and [Ag(tpAs)3(NO3)] (5) have been synthesized and characterized by m.p., FT-IR, UV-vis and (1)H NMR, spectroscopic techniques and X-ray crystallography. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of 1-5 against human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells: MCF-7 (positive to estrogen receptors (ERs)) and MDA-MB-231 (negative to estrogen receptors (ERs)) was evaluated...
November 10, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131851/gdsl-lipases-modulate-immunity-through-lipid-homeostasis-in-rice
#11
Mingjun Gao, Xin Yin, Weibing Yang, Sin Man Lam, Xiaohong Tong, Jiyun Liu, Xin Wang, Qun Li, Guanghou Shui, Zuhua He
Lipids and lipid metabolites play important roles in plant-microbe interactions. Despite the extensive studies of lipases in lipid homeostasis and seed oil biosynthesis, the involvement of lipases in plant immunity remains largely unknown. In particular, GDSL esterases/lipases, characterized by the conserved GDSL motif, are a subfamily of lipolytic enzymes with broad substrate specificity. Here, we functionally identified two GDSL lipases, OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2, in rice immune responses. Expression of OsGLIP1 and OsGLIP2 was suppressed by pathogen infection and salicylic acid (SA) treatment...
November 13, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131830/transcriptome-profiling-and-digital-gene-expression-analysis-of-sweet-potato-for-the-identification-of-putative-genes-involved-in-the-defense-response-against-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-batatas
#12
Yuli Lin, Weikun Zou, Shiqiang Lin, Dennis Onofua, Zhijian Yang, Haizhou Chen, Songliang Wang, Xuanyang Chen
Sweet potato production is constrained by Fusarium wilt, which is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. batatas (Fob). The identification of genes related to disease resistance and the underlying mechanisms will contribute to improving disease resistance via sweet potato breeding programs. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling of sweet potato challenged with Fob using Illumina HiSeq technology. In total, 89,944,188 clean reads were generated from 12 samples and assembled into 101,988 unigenes with an average length of 666 bp; of these unigenes, 62,605 (61...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129016/exploring-genes-involved-in-benzoic-acid-biosynthesis-in-the-populus-davidiana-transcriptome-and-their-transcriptional-activity-upon-methyl-jasmonate-treatment
#13
Seong-Bum Park, Jong Youn Kim, Jung Yeon Han, Chang-Ho Ahn, Eung-Jun Park, Yong Eui Choi
Benzoic acids (BAs) are important structural elements in a wide variety of essential compounds and natural products, and play crucial roles in plant fitness. BA is a precursor of diverse benzenoid compounds, including the hormone salicylic acid (SA) and the aglycone moiety of salicin, which is particularly important in the Salicaceae family. The biosynthetic pathways leading to BA formation in plants are largely unknown. Recently, the CoA-dependent β-oxidative BA biosynthesis pathway, which occurs in peroxisomes, has been characterized in petunia...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127816/comparative-study-on-the-effects-of-putrescine-and-spermidine-pre-treatment-on-cadmium-stress-in-wheat
#14
Judit Tajti, Tibor Janda, Imre Majláth, Gabriella Szalai, Magda Pál
In several cases a correlation was found between polyamines and abiotic stress tolerance. However, the individual polyamines may have different effects, which also vary depending on the type of treatment. When applied as seed soaking or added hydroponically 0.5mM putrescine and spermidine, different changes were induced during 50µM cadmium stress in wheat plants. Seed-soaked plants were exposed to cadmium immediately after germination for 5 days, while plants pre-treated with polyamines hydroponically were stressed at age of 14 days for 7 days...
November 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124341/phytophagy-of-omnivorous-predator-macrolophus-pygmaeus-affects-performance-of-herbivores-through-induced-plant-defences
#15
Nina Xiaoning Zhang, Gerben J Messelink, Juan M Alba, Robert C Schuurink, Merijn R Kant, Arne Janssen
Plants possess various inducible defences that result in synthesis of specialized metabolites in response to herbivory, which can interfere with the performance of herbivores of the same and other species. Much less is known of the effects of plant feeding by omnivores. We found that previous feeding of the omnivorous predator Macrolophus pygmaeus on sweet pepper plants significantly reduced reproduction of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis on the same plants, also on leaves that had not been exposed to the omnivore...
November 9, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122175/enhancing-taxol-production-in-a-novel-endophytic-fungus-aspergillus-aculeatinus-tax-6-isolated-from-taxus-chinensis-var-mairei
#16
Weichuan Qiao, Fei Ling, Lei Yu, Yifang Huang, Ting Wang
Taxol is a curatively effective but rare anti-tumor agent extracted from Taxus (yew) barks; however, the high cost and low production of the extraction method have limited its widespread use. In this study, fungi isolated from Taxus chinensis var. mairei were tested for their ability to produce taxol. High performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry confirmed that Aspergillus aculeatinus Tax-6, one of the endophytic fungi, could produce taxol in potato dextrose agar liquid medium. NaOAc, Cu(2+), and salicylic acid were introduced into the medium to enhance taxol production of strain Tax-6 because NaOAc is an important precursor of taxol, Cu(2+) may enhance the activity of oxidase and catalyze the formation of taxol, and salicylic acid could be an elicitor signal...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119491/the-mechanism-of-2-chlorobiphenyl-oxidative-degradation-by-nanoscale-zero-valent-iron-in-the-presence-of-dissolved-oxygen
#17
Yu Wang, Linhao Liu, Guodong Fang, Lei Wang, Fredrick Orori Kengara, Changyin Zhu
It has recently been demonstrated that the addition of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) to oxygen-containing water or soil aquifers results in the oxidation of organic compounds. However, there has been little insight about the generation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) that play a vital role in the transformation of contaminants in the presence of nZVI. This study investigated (i) the degradation of 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-CB) by nZVI; (ii) the generation and role of ROS in this process. Under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, the removal efficiency of 2-CB was 65...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119165/a-photoredox-neutral-smiles-rearrangement-of-2-aryloxybenzoic-acids
#18
Jose C Gonzalez-Gomez, Nieves P Ramirez, Teresa Lana-Villarreal, Pedro Bonete
We report on the use of visible light photoredox catalysis for the radical Smiles rearrangement of 2-aryloxybenzoic acids to obtain aryl salicylates. The method is free of noble metals and operationally simple and the reaction can be run under mild batch or flow conditions. Being a redox neutral process, no stoichiometric oxidants or reductants are needed.
November 9, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112167/overexpression-of-a-new-chitinase-gene-euchit2-enhances-resistance-to-erysiphe-cichoracearum-dc-in-tobacco-plants
#19
Xuan Dong, Yichen Zhao, Xin Ran, Linxia Guo, De-Gang Zhao
In this study, we cloned a new chitinase gene, EuCHIT2, from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver (E. ulmoides) using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology and constructed an overexpression vector, pSH-35S-EuCHIT2, to introduce it into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi). Resistance to Erysiphe cichoracearum de Candolle (E.cichoracearum DC) and molecular mechanisms in the transgenic tobacco were determined by drop inoculation, spore counting, determination of physicochemical indicators, and analysis of gene expression...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109746/comparative-evaluation-of-root-canal-morphology-of-mandibular-premolars-using-clearing-and-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#20
Abbasali Khademi, Mojdeh Mehdizadeh, Maryam Sanei, Hamidreza Sadeqnejad, Saber Khazaei
Background: Different techniques are used to evaluate the anatomy of root canal system. The present study was aimed to evaluate the root canal morphology of mandibular premolars using clearing and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) techniques. Materials and Methods: A total of 182 mandibular first and second premolars were evaluated in vitro using 100 μm CBCT cross sections. The root canal morphology of the teeth was determined based on Vertucci classification in relation to the prevalence of C-shaped canals, lateral canals, and furcation location...
September 2017: Dental Research Journal
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