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Spinal column injury

Eijiro Okada, Takashi Tsuji, Kentaro Shimizu, Masanori Kato, Kentaro Fukuda, Shinjiro Kaneko, Jun Ogawa, Kota Watanabe, Ken Ishii, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto
PURPOSE: To clarify correlations between spinal fracture and delayed paralysis in patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) using computed tomography (CT) with multiplanar reformatting (CT-MPR). DISH increases susceptibility to unstable spinal fractures, leading to neurological deterioration. The pathomechanism of the neurological injury is unclear. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study included 42 DISH patients (32 male; 10 female) treated for 45 spinal fractures during a 5-year period...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Tess Torregrosa, Ryan A Koppes
Recovery of motor control is paramount for patients living with paralysis following spinal cord injury (SCI). While a cure or regenerative intervention remains on the horizon for the treatment of SCI, a number of neuroprosthetic devices have been employed to treat and mitigate the symptoms of paralysis associated with injuries to the spinal column and associated comorbidities. The recent success of epidural stimulation to restore voluntary motor function in the lower limbs of a small cohort of patients has breathed new life into the promise of electric-based medicine...
2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Ruiqi Wu, Langting Su, Pai-Feng Yang, Li Min Chen
Reactivation of deafferented cortex plays a key role in mediating the recovery of lost functions, although the precise mechanism is not fully understood. This study simultaneously characterized the dynamic spatiotemporal features of tactile responses in areas 3b and 1 before and 6-8 weeks after partial dorsal column lesion (DCL), and examined how the reactivation relates to the recovery of simple hand use in squirrel monkeys. A combination of high spatiotemporal resolution functional intrinsic optical imaging, microelectrode mapping, behavioral assessment, and tracer histology methods were used...
September 2016: ENeuro
Brian D Stemper, Brian D Corner
Synopsis Despite considerable research effort, the incidence of whiplash injury during automotive collisions has continued to rise. This is due, at least in part, to a limited recognition of biomechanical injury mechanisms and factors influencing injury risk. While automotive safety modifications reduced injury risk in some cases, impact on the overall whiplash incidence was limited. This is likely attributable to significant occupant-related differences that have a profound impact on injury risk. Many of those differences were outlined in research studies, and examples include female sex and the associated sex-based anthropometrical variation that can affect seating orientation; cervical spinal posture; and anatomical attributes, including cervical column slenderness and neck muscle morphometry...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Julio J Jauregui, Dean C Perfetti, Frank S Cautela, David B Frumberg, Qais Naziri, Carl B Paulino
BACKGROUND: Although rare, spinal injuries associated with abuse can have potentially devastating implications in the pediatric population. We analyzed the association of pediatric spine injury in abused children and determined the anatomic level of the spine affected, while also focusing on patient demographics, length of stay, and total hospital charges compared with spine patients without a diagnosis of abuse. METHODS: A retrospective review of the Kids' Inpatient Database was conducted from 2000 to 2012 to identify pediatric patients (below 18 y) who sustained vertebral column fractures or spinal cord injuries...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
P Tomko, D Farkaš, D Čížková, I Vanický
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental animal study. OBJECTIVES: Quantitative analysis of secondary changes in lesion size after experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) in the rat, with special emphasis to the formation of dorsal column lesions. SETTING: Slovakia. METHODS: After SCI in the rat, animals survived for different periods ranging from 5 min to 7 days. Their whole spinal cords were cut transversally into 1 mm thick slabs...
September 20, 2016: Spinal Cord
Miao He, Yuetong Ding, Chen Chu, Jing Tang, Qi Xiao, Zhen-Ge Luo
Remodeling of cytoskeleton structures, such as microtubule assembly, is believed to be crucial for growth cone initiation and regrowth of injured axons. Autophagy plays important roles in maintaining cellular homoeostasis, and its dysfunction causes neuronal degeneration. The role of autophagy in axon regeneration after injury remains speculative. Here we demonstrate a role of autophagy in regulating microtubule dynamics and axon regeneration. We found that autophagy induction promoted neurite outgrowth, attenuated the inhibitory effects of nonpermissive substrate myelin, and decreased the formation of retraction bulbs following axonal injury in cultured cortical neurons...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Satoshi Maki, Masao Koda, Junya Saito, Sho Takahashi, Taigo Inada, Koshiro Kamiya, Mitsutoshi Ota, Yasushi Iijima, Yoshitada Masuda, Koji Matsumoto, Masatoshi Kojima, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Takayuki Obata, Masashi Yamazaki, Takeo Furuya
BACKBROUND: Patients with cervical compression myelopathy (CCM) generally present bilateral neurological symptoms in their extremities. However, a substantial portion of patients with CCM exhibit laterality of neurological symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between intrinsic structural damage and laterality of symptoms using spinal cord diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the corticospinal tract. METHODS: We enrolled 10 healthy volunteers and 40 patients with CCM in this study...
September 5, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Shari Cui, Gennadiy A Busel, Aki S Puryear
BACKGROUND: Pediatric spine trauma often results from high-energy mechanisms. Despite differences in healing potential, comorbidities, and length of remaining life, treatment is frequently based on adult criteria; ligamentous injuries are fused and bony injuries are treated accordingly. In this study, we present short-term results of a select group of adolescent patients treated using percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation without fusion. METHODS: An IRB-approved retrospective review was performed at a level 1 pediatric trauma center for thoracolumbar spine fractures treated by percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Shuang Wang, Zhuowen Liang, Yuzhe Gong, Yaning Yin, Kaige Wang, Qingli He, Zhe Wang, Jintao Bai
Confocal Raman microspectral imaging (CRMI) provides a versatile tool to illustrate the biochemical nature and structure of biological tissue without introducing any external labels. In this work, a precise correlation was established between the biochemical profile and histological architecture of ex vivo human spinal cord tissue by using CRMI with 633nm excitation. After precisely linking the spectral features to the chemical constituents, much information about the molecular composition of both gray and white matter were revealed...
October 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Derek A Jones, James P Gaewsky, Mireille E Kelley, Ashley A Weaver, Anna N Miller, Joel D Stitzel
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to reconstruct 4 real-world motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), 2 with lumbar vertebral fractures and 2 without vertebral fractures in order to elucidate the MVC and/or restraint variables that increase this injury risk. METHODS: A finite element (FE) simplified vehicle model (SVM) was used in conjunction with a previously developed semi-automated tuning method to arrive at 4 SVMs that were tuned to mimic frontal crash responses of a 2006 Chevrolet Cobalt, 2012 Ford Escape, 2007 Hummer H3, and 2002 Chevrolet Cavalier...
September 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Jamie L Reed, Chia-Chi Liao, Hui-Xin Qi, Jon H Kaas
Here, we review recent work on plasticity and recovery after dorsal column spinal cord injury in nonhuman primates. Plasticity in the adult central nervous system has been established and studied for the past several decades; however, capacities and limits of plasticity are still under investigation. Studies of plasticity include assessing multiple measures before and after injury in animal models. Such studies are particularly important for improving recovery after injury in patients. In summarizing work by our research team and others, we suggest how the findings from plasticity studies in nonhuman primate models may affect therapeutic interventions for conditions involving sensory loss due to spinal cord injury...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Melissa R Andrews, Sara Soleman, Menghon Cheah, David A Tumbarello, Matthew R J Mason, Elizabeth Moloney, Joost Verhaagen, Jean-Charles Bensadoun, Bernard Schneider, Patrick Aebischer, James W Fawcett
The regenerative ability of CNS axons decreases with age, however, this ability remains largely intact in PNS axons throughout adulthood. These differences are likely to correspond with age-related silencing of proteins necessary for axon growth and elongation. In previous studies, it has been shown that reintroduction of the α9 integrin subunit (tenascin-C receptor, α9) that is downregulated in adult CNS can improve neurite outgrowth and sensory axon regeneration after a dorsal rhizotomy or a dorsal column crush spinal cord lesion...
July 2016: ENeuro
Di Hu, Shuyu Zhu, Jason Robert Potas
BACKGROUND: The development of hypersensitivity following spinal cord injury can result in incurable persistent neuropathic pain. Our objective was to examine the effect of red light therapy on the development of hypersensitivity and sensorimotor function, as well as on microglia/macrophage subpopulations following spinal cord injury. METHODS: Wistar rats were treated (or sham treated) daily for 30 min with an LED red (670 nm) light source (35 mW/cm(2)), transcutaneously applied to the dorsal surface, following a mild T10 hemicontusion injury (or sham injury)...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Idiris Altun, Kasım Zafer Yuksel
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. PURPOSE: We retrospectively reviewed our patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) to identify their patterns of spinal fractures to help clarify management strategies and the morbidity and mortality rates associated with this group of patients. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Because of the brittleness of bone and long autofused spinal segments in AS, spinal fractures are common even after minor trauma and often associated with overt instability...
August 2016: Asian Spine Journal
Andrew D Gaudet, Shweta Mandrekar-Colucci, Jodie C E Hall, David R Sweet, Philipp J Schmitt, Xinyang Xu, Zhen Guan, Xiaokui Mo, Mireia Guerau-de-Arellano, Phillip G Popovich
UNLABELLED: Axon regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) fails due to neuron-intrinsic mechanisms and extracellular barriers including inflammation. microRNA (miR)-155-5p is a small, noncoding RNA that negatively regulates mRNA translation. In macrophages, miR-155-5p is induced by inflammatory stimuli and elicits a response that could be toxic after SCI. miR-155 may also independently alter expression of genes that regulate axon growth in neurons. Here, we hypothesized that miR-155 deletion would simultaneously improve axon growth and reduce neuroinflammation after SCI by acting on both neurons and macrophages...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ann Kobiela Ketz, Kimberly R Byrnes, Neil E Grunberg, Christine E Kasper, Lisa Osborne, Brian Pryor, Nicholas L Tosini, Xingjia Wu, Juanita J Anders
OBJECTIVE: Neuropathic pain is common and debilitating with limited effective treatments. Macrophage/microglial activation along ascending somatosensory pathways following peripheral nerve injury facilitates neuropathic pain. However, polarization of macrophages/microglia in neuropathic pain is not well understood. Photobiomodulation treatment has been used to decrease neuropathic pain, has anti-inflammatory effects in spinal injury and wound healing models, and modulates microglial polarization in vitro...
August 6, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
W Reith, N Harsch, C Kraus
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Patients who have experienced high energy trauma have a particularly high risk of suffering from fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine. The detection of spinal injuries and the correct classification of fractures before surgery are not only absolute requirements for the implementation of appropriate surgical treatment but they are also decisive for the choice of surgical procedure. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: By the application of spiral computed tomography (CT) crucial additional information on the morphology of the fracture can be gained in order to estimate the fracture type and possibly the indications for specific surgical treatment options...
August 2016: Der Radiologe
Rani Nasser, Doniel Drazin, Jonathan Nakhla, Lutfi Al-Khouja, Earl Brien, Eli M Baron, Terrence T Kim, J Patrick Johnson, Reza Yassari
OBJECTIVE The use of intraoperative stereotactic navigation has become more available in spine surgery. The authors undertook this study to assess the utility of intraoperative CT navigation in the localization of spinal lesions and as an intraoperative tool to guide resection in patients with spinal lesions. METHODS This was a retrospective multicenter study including 50 patients from 2 different institutions who underwent biopsy and/or resection of spinal column tumors using image-guided navigation. Of the 50 cases reviewed, 4 illustrative cases are presented...
August 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
Vahe M Zohrabian, Adam E Flanders
The goal of imaging in spine trauma is to gauge the extent of bony, vascular, and neurologic compromise. Neurologic and mechanical stability are key pieces of information that must be efficiently communicated to the referring clinician. From immobilization and steroid therapy, to vascular repair and emergent surgical intervention, clinical outcomes of spine-injured patients depend on timely and well-chosen imaging studies. Multidetector computed tomography (CT) has essentially replaced radiography in clearance of the spine and is the gold standard in evaluation of the bony spinal column...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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