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Spinal column injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664852/lower-extremity-motor-function-following-complex-adult-spinal-deformity-surgery-two-year-follow-up-in-the-scoli-risk-1-prospective-multicenter-international-study
#1
Lawrence G Lenke, Christopher I Shaffrey, Leah Y Carreon, Kenneth M C Cheung, Benny T Dahl, Michael G Fehlings, Christopher P Ames, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei, Mark B Dekutoski, Khaled M Kebaish, Stephen J Lewis, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Hossein Mehdian, Ferran Pellisé, Yong Qiu, Frank J Schwab
BACKGROUND: The reported neurologic complication rate following surgery for complex adult spinal deformity (ASD) is variable due to several factors. Most series have been retrospective with heterogeneous patient populations and use of nonuniform neurologic assessments. The aim of this study was to prospectively document lower extremity motor function by means of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) lower extremity motor score (LEMS) before and through 2 years after surgical correction of complex ASD...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642434/a-single-dose-of-atorvastatin-applied-acutely-after-spinal-cord-injury-suppresses-inflammation-apoptosis-and-promotes-axon-outgrowth-which-might-be-essential-for-favorable-functional-outcome
#2
Katarina Bimbova, Maria Bacova, Alexandra Kisucka, Jaroslav Pavel, Jan Galik, Peter Zavacky, Martin Marsala, Andrea Stropkovska, Jana Fedorova, Stefania Papcunova, Jana Jachova, Nadezda Lukacova
The aim of our study was to limit the inflammatory response after a spinal cord injury (SCI) using Atorvastatin (ATR), a potent inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis. Adult Wistar rats were divided into five experimental groups: one control group, two Th9 compression (40 g/15 min) groups, and two Th9 compression + ATR (5 mg/kg, i.p.) groups. The animals survived one day and six weeks. ATR applied in a single dose immediately post-SCI strongly reduced IL-1β release at 4 and 24 h and considerably reduced the activation of resident cells at one day post-injury...
April 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625748/engineering-approaches-to-understanding-mechanisms-of-spinal-column-injury-leading-to-spinal-cord-injury
#3
REVIEW
Claire F Jones, Elizabeth C Clarke
BACKGROUND: The mechanical interactions occurring between the spinal column and spinal cord during an injury event are complex and variable, and likely have implications for the clinical presentation and prognosis of the individual. METHODS: The engineering approaches that have been developed to better understand spinal column and cord interactions during an injury event are discussed. These include injury models utilising human and animal cadaveric specimens, in vivo anaesthetised animals, finite element models, inanimate physical systems and combinations thereof...
March 28, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610299/second-order-spinal-cord-pathway-contributes-to-cortical-responses-after-long-recoveries-from-dorsal-column-injury-in-squirrel-monkeys
#4
Chia-Chi Liao, Jamie L Reed, Hui-Xin Qi, Eva K Sawyer, Jon H Kaas
Months after the occurrence of spinal cord dorsal column lesions (DCLs) at the cervical level, neural responses in the hand representation of somatosensory area 3b hand cortex recover, along with hand use. To examine whether the second-order spinal cord pathway contributes to this functional recovery, we injected cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) into the hand representation in the cuneate nucleus (Cu) to label the spinal cord neurons, and related results to cortical reactivation in four squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri boliviensis ) at least 7 months after DCL...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592888/dorsal-and-ventral-horn-atrophy-is-associated-with-clinical-outcome-after-spinal-cord-injury
#5
Eveline Huber, Gergely David, Alan J Thompson, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Siawoosh Mohammadi, Patrick Freund
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether gray matter pathology above the level of injury, alongside white matter changes, also contributes to sensorimotor impairments after spinal cord injury. METHODS: A 3T MRI protocol was acquired in 17 tetraplegic patients and 21 controls. A sagittal T2-weighted sequence was used to characterize lesion severity. At the C2-3 level, a high-resolution T2*-weighted sequence was used to assess cross-sectional areas of gray and white matter, including their subcompartments; a diffusion-weighted sequence was used to compute voxel-based diffusion indices...
March 28, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571167/the-association-between-type-of-spine-fracture-and-the-mechanism-of-trauma-a-useful-tool-for-identifying-mechanism-of-trauma-on-legal-medicine-field
#6
Kamran Aghakhani, Roya Kordrostami, Azadeh Memarian, Nahid Dadashzadeh Asl, Fatemeh Noorian Zavareh
BACKGROUND: Determining the association between mechanism of trauma, and the type of spine column fracture is a useful approach for exactly describing spine injury on forensic medicine field. We aimed to determine mechanism of trauma based on distribution of the transition of spinal column fractures. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was performed on 117 consecutive patients with the history of spinal trauma who were admitted to emergency ward of Rasoul-e-Akram Hospital in Tehran, Iran from April 2015 to March 2016...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559244/role-of-disc-area-and-trabecular-bone-density-on-lumbar-spinal-column-fracture-risk-curves-under-vertical-impact
#7
Narayan Yoganandan, Jason Moore, Frank A Pintar, Anjishnu Banerjee, Nicholas DeVogel, JiangYue Zhang
While studies have been conducted using human cadaver lumbar spines to understand injury biomechanics in terms of stability/energy to fracture, and physiological responses under pure-moment/follower loads, data are sparse for inferior-to-superior impacts. Injuries occur under this mode from underbody blasts. OBJECTIVES: determine role of age, disc area, and trabecular bone density on tolerances/risk curves under vertical loading from a controlled group of specimens. T12-S1 columns were obtained, pretest X-rays and CTs taken, load cells attached to both ends, impacts applied at S1-end using custom vertical accelerator device, and posttest X-ray, CT, and dissections done...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526262/a-comparison-of-penetration-and-damage-caused-by-different-types-of-arrowheads-on-loose-and-tight-fit-clothing
#8
Nichole MacPhee, Anne Savage, Nikolas Noton, Eilidh Beattie, Louise Milne, Joanna Fraser
Bows and arrows are used more for recreation, sport and hunting in the Western world and tend not to be as popular a weapon as firearms or knives. Yet there are still injuries and fatalities caused by these low-velocity weapons due to their availability to the public and that a licence is not required to own them. This study aimed to highlight the penetration capabilities of aluminium arrows into soft tissue and bones in the presence of clothing. Further from that, how the type and fit of clothing as well as arrowhead type contribute to penetration capacity...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517657/minimal-invasive-nonfusion-technique-for-the-treatment-of-noncontiguous-lumbar-burst-fractures-in-young-age-patient-a-case-report
#9
Jae-Kwang Kim, Bong Ju Moon, Sang-Deok Kim, Jung-Kil Lee
RATIONALE: In the treatment of noncontiguous lumbar burst fractures, there still remains controversy over proper surgical procedures. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 19-year-old female patient visited our hospital after fall down from 3 m high. DIAGNOSES: Initial neurologic examination revealed an incomplete spinal cord injury characterized by hypoesthesia and motor grade of 2 below the L2 segment. Lumbar computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated L2 and L5 burst fractures severely obliterating the spinal canal...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492149/en-bloc-resection-of-a-giant-cell-tumor-causing-cervical-vertebral-collapse
#10
Seddighi Afsoun, Seddighi Amir Saied, Nikouei Amir, Javadian Hamed
Giant cell tumors (GCTs) are rare, benign, and locally aggressive primary bone neoplasms. Spine is seldom affected, especially above the level of sacrum. In this report, we describe a case with GCT of the cervical vertebrae which causes collapse of the corpus. A 32-year-old female presented with gradual neck pain and abrupt paresthesia of the left hand. Computed tomography scan showed C6 vertebral collapse and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated vertebral plana of C6 by a low signal intensity lesion on T1- and T2-weighted images...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492143/brown-s%C3%A3-quard-syndrome-caused-by-blunt-cervical-trauma-with-radiographic-correlation
#11
David Z Cai, Geoffrey Liu, Christopher F Wolf, Zachary M Mansell, Jonathan P Eskander, Mark Eskander
Brown-Séquard syndrome, while uncommon, is a neurological condition that classically results from the hemisection of the spinal cord as a result of a penetrating injury to the spinal cord. We present a reported case of blunt trauma causing a high-energy cervical burst fracture/dislocation with a significant cord signal change producing Brown-Séquard syndrome. In this case, the burst fracture at the level of C5 obtained from the motor vehicle accident led to the damage of the left-sided lateral spinal thalamic tract, descending lateral cortical spinal tracts, and ascending dorsal column...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489661/complete-fracture-dislocation-of-the-thoracolumbar-spine-without-neurological-deficit-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Junfeng Zeng, Quan Gong, Hao Liu, Xin Rong, Chen Ding
RATIONALE: Traumatic fracture of the thoracolumbar junction (T10-L2) is the most common fracture of the spinal column. Due to the disruption of the entire vertebrae column, the fracture-dislocation of the thoracolumbar spine is almost invariably associated with neurological injury. A complete fracture-dislocation of the thoracolumbar spine without neurological deficit is a rare entity. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 38-year-old man presented with severe low back pain after an accident when he was building a house...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456917/neuromonitoring-in-spinal-deformity-surgery-a-multimodality-approach
#13
REVIEW
Joseph L Laratta, Alex Ha, Jamal N Shillingford, Melvin C Makhni, Joseph M Lombardi, Earl Thuet, Ronald A Lehman, Lawrence G Lenke
Study Design: Literature review. Objective: The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the available intraoperative monitoring techniques and the evidence around their efficacy in vertebral column resection. Methods: The history of neuromonitoring and evolution of the modalities are reviewed and discussed. The authors' specific surgical techniques and preferred methods are outlined in detail. In addition, the authors' experience and the literature regarding vertebral column resection and surgical mitigation of neurologic alarms are discussed at length...
February 2018: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454115/traumatic-spinal-injury-global-epidemiology-and-worldwide-volume
#14
Ramesh Kumar, Jaims Lim, Rania A Mekary, Abbas Rattani, Michael C Dewan, Salman Y Sharif, Enrique Osorio-Fonseca, Kee B Park
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal injury (TSI) results from injury to bony, ligamentous and/or neurological structures of the spinal column and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. The global burden of TSI is poorly understood, so we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the global volume of TSI. METHODS: We performed a systematic review through PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Databases on TSI studies published from 2000 to 2016. Collected data were used to perform a meta-analysis to estimate the annual incidence of TSI across World Health Organization (WHO) regions and World Bank income groups using random effect models...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452281/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-post-operative-neurological-decline-after-complex-adult-spinal-deformity-surgery-results-of-the-scoli-risk-1-study
#15
Michael G Fehlings, So Kato, Lawrence G Lenke, Hiroaki Nakashima, Narihito Nagoshi, Christopher I Shaffrey, Kenneth M C Cheung, Leah Carreon, Mark B Dekutoski, Frank J Schwab, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei, Khaled M Kebaish, Christopher P Ames, Yong Qiu, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Benny T Dahl, Hossein Mehdian, Ferran Pellisé-Urquiza, Stephen J Lewis, Sigurd H Berven
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Significant variability in neurologic outcomes following surgical correction for adult spinal deformity (ASD) has been reported. Risk factors for decline in neurologic motor outcomes are poorly understood. PURPOSE: The objective of the present investigation was to identify the risk factors for post-operative neurological motor decline in patients undergoing complex ASD surgery. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: A prospective international multicenter cohort study...
February 13, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434794/biomechanical-analysis-of-brachial-plexus-injury-availability-of-three-dimensional-finite-element-model-of-the-brachial-plexus
#16
Atsushi Mihara, Tsukasa Kanchiku, Norihiro Nishida, Haruki Tagawa, Junji Ohgi, Hidenori Suzuki, Yasuaki Imajo, Masahiro Funaba, Daisuke Nakashima, Xian Chen, Toshihiko Taguchi
Adult brachial plexus injuries frequently lead to significant and permanent physical disabilities. Investigating the mechanism of the injury using biomechanical approaches may lead to further knowledge with regard to preventing brachial plexus injuries. However, there are no reports of biomechanical studies of brachial plexus injuries till date. Therefore, the present study used a complex three-dimensional finite element model (3D-FEM) of the brachial plexus to analyze the mechanism of brachial plexus injury and to assess the validity of the model...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416908/acute-tetraplegia-following-laryngotracheal-reconstruction-surgery
#17
Belgin Erhan, Rahsan Kemerdere, Osman Kizilkilic, Berrin Gunduz, Murat Hanci
Background: Paraplegia following thoracic spinal surgery or abdominal operations is usually attributed to spinal cord ischemia due to interruption of the segmental spinal vascular supply. Alternatively, the etiology of spinal cord ischemia following cervical surgery is less clear. Case Description: A 14-year-old male became acutely tetraplegic with a C4 sensory level and sphincteric dysfunction 12 h following surgery for tracheal stenosis due to prior intubation...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408659/axonal-regeneration-of-different-tracts-following-transplants-of-human-glial-restricted-progenitors-into-the-injured-spinal-cord-in-rats
#18
Ying Jin, Jed S Shumsky, Itzhak Fischer
The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of human glial restricted progenitors (hGRPs) in promoting axonal growth of different tracts. We examined the potential of hGRPs grafted into a cervical (C4) dorsal column lesion to test sensory axons, and into a C4 hemisection to test motor tracts. The hGRPs, thawed from frozen stocks, were suspended in a PureCol matrix and grafted acutely into a C4 dorsal column or hemisection lesion. Control rats received PureCol only. Five weeks after transplantation, all transplanted cells survived in rats with the dorsal column lesion but only about half of the grafts in the hemisection...
January 31, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405182/-the-characteristic-features-of-vertebral-lesions-in-the-victims-of-a-road-traffic-accident-with-intrusion-into-the-passenger-car-compartment
#19
I A Dubrovin, E P Sedykh, A S Mosoyan, A A Bychkov, D N Akhmetova
The objective of the present study was to develop the diagnostic criteria for determining the positions of the participants of a road traffic accident inside the passenger car compartment based on the analysis of the characteristic features of vertebral lesions in the victims. The archival documents of forensic medical expertises were used to analyze the specific characteristics of fractured cervical vertebra in the victims of the accident inside the passenger car compartments including the drivers (n=92), the occupants of the forward (n=43) and rear (n=37) seats of the car...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404636/-frequency-and-age-distribution-of-combined-sternovertebral-injuries-analysis-of-routine-data-from-german-hospitals-2005-2012
#20
S Krinner, S Schmitt, S Grupp, F F Hennig, A Langenbach, S Schulz-Drost
BACKGROUND: Combinations of sternal and spinal fractures often occur due to high velocity accidents and are associated with a high incidence of concomitant injuries. The anterior thoracic wall is described as the fourth column of torso stability, which is why sternovertebral injuries (SVI) present a high risk of sagittal deformation of the trunk, in particular injuries of the thoracic spine. To date, no studies have been published on the frequency distribution of the involved vertebral bodies in large patient groups...
February 5, 2018: Der Unfallchirurg
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