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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965444/intraoperative-neuromonitoring-alerts-in-a-pediatric-deformity-center
#1
Maria Zuccaro, James Zuccaro, Amer F Samdani, Joshua M Pahys, Steven W Hwang
OBJECTIVE Intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) involves the use of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and transcranial electric motor evoked potentials (TceMEPs). In this retrospective study the authors examined the sensitivity and specificity of both SSEPs and TceMEPs during pediatric spinal deformity surgeries. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective quantitative analysis of data obtained in 806 patients (197 males and 609 females) treated from December 2011 until October 2015. All patients were diagnosed with scoliosis that was classified as one of the following: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) (38%), congenital scoliosis (22%), or syndromic scoliosis (40%)...
October 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958356/trauma-spinal-cord-injury
#2
REVIEW
Matthew J Eckert, Matthew J Martin
Injuries to the spinal column and spinal cord frequently occur after high-energy mechanisms of injury, or with lower-energy mechanisms, in select patient populations like the elderly. A focused yet complete neurologic examination during the initial evaluation will guide subsequent diagnostic procedures and early supportive measures to help prevent further injury. For patients with injury to bone and/or ligaments, the initial focus should be spinal immobilization and prevention of inducing injury to the spinal cord...
October 2017: Surgical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937458/transpedicular-corpectomy-and-cage-placement-in-the-treatment-of-traumatic-lumbar-burst-fractures
#3
Martin H Pham, Alexander Tuchman, Thomas C Chen, Frank L Acosta, Patrick C Hsieh, John C Liu
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. OBJECTIVE: To review the feasibility of a posterior-only approach for instrumented reconstruction in lumbar burst fractures. BACKGROUND: Burst fractures of the lumbar spine have been treated through a variety of techniques, including anterior, posterior, or combined approaches. Here we review series of patients undergoing posterior-only transpedicular corpectomy with instrumented fusion for traumatic lumbar burst fracture...
October 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935824/effects-of-expiratory-muscle-activation-via-high-frequency-spinal-cord-stimulation
#4
Krzysztof E Kowalski, Jaroslaw Richard Romaniuk, Tomasz Kowalski, Anthony F DiMarco
In persons with spinal cord injury, lower thoracic low frequency spinal cord stimulation (LF-SCS, 50Hz,15mA) is a useful method to restore an effective cough. Unfortunately, the high stimulus amplitude requirements and potential activation of pain fibers significantly limits this application in persons with intact sensation. In this study, the mechanism of the expiratory muscle activation, via high frequency SCS (HF-SCS;500Hz,1mA) was evaluated in dogs. In group one, the effects of electrode placement on airway pressure generation (P) was evaluated...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913694/emergency-neurological-life-support-traumatic-spine-injury
#5
Deborah M Stein, William A Knight
Traumatic spine injuries (TSIs) carry significantly high risks of morbidity, mortality, and exorbitant health care costs from associated medical needs following injury. For these reasons, TSI was chosen as an ENLS protocol. This article offers a comprehensive review on the management of spinal column injuries using the best available evidence. Though the review focuses primarily on cervical spinal column injuries, thoracolumbar injuries are briefly discussed as well. The initial emergency department (ED) clinical evaluation of possible spinal fractures and cord injuries, along with the definitive early management of confirmed injuries, are also covered...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895456/spatial-and-cellular-expression-patterns-of-erythropoietin-receptor-and-erythropoietin-during-a-42-day-post-lesional-time-course-after-graded-thoracic-spinal-cord-impact-lesions-in-the-rat
#6
Gesa Cohrs, Stephan Goerden, Ralf Lucius, Michael Synowitz, Maximilian Hubertus Mehdorn, Janka Held-Feindt, Friederike Knerlich-Lukoschus
Erythropoietin (Epo) exhibits promising neuroregenerative potential for spinal cord injury (SCI) and might be involved in other long-term sequelae, such as neuropathic pain development. The current studies investigated the time courses and spatial and cellular patterns of Epo and EpoR expression along the spinal axis after graded SCI. Male Long Evans rats received 100-kdyn, 150-kdyn, and 200-kdyn thoracic (T9) contusions from an Infinite Horizon Impactor. Sham controls received laminectomies. Anatomical and quantitative immunohistochemical analyses of the EpoR/Epo expression along the whole spinal axis were performed 7, 15, and 42 DPO after the lesioning...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846013/feasibility-and-data-quality-of-the-national-spinal-cord-injury-registry-of-iran-nscir-ir-a-pilot-study
#7
Khatereh Naghdi, Zahra Azadmanjir, Soheil Saadat, Aidin Abedi, Sahar Koohi Habibi, Pegah Derakhshan, Mahdi Safdarian, Shayan Abdollah Zadegan, Abbas Amirjamshidi, Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini, Jalil Arab Kheradmand, Mahdi Mohammadzadeh, Kazem Zendehdel, Zahra Khazaeipour, Seyed Mahmood Ramak Hashemi, Hooshang Saberi, Kourosh Karimi Yarandi, Seyed Ebrahim Ketabchi, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Hamid Heidari, Arezo Sotodeh, Khalil Pestei, Zahra Ghodsi, Farideh Sadeghian, Vanessa Noonan, Edward C Benzel, Gerard Oreilly, Jens Chapman, Ellen Merete Hagen, Michael G Fehlings, Alexander R Vaccaro, Morteza Faghih Jooybari, Mohammad Reza Zarei, Mohammad Reza Zafarghandi, Payman Salamati, Saeed Nezareh, Moein Khormali, Mohsen Sadeghi-Naini, Seyed Behzad Jazayeri, Bizhan Aarabi, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most disabling consequences of trauma with unparalleled economic, social, and personal burden. Any attempt aimed at improving quality of care should be based on comprehensive and reliable data. This pilot investigation studied the feasibility of implementing the National Spinal Cord and Column Injury Registry of Iran (NSCIR-IR) and scrutinized the quality of the registered data. METHODS: From October 2015 to May 2016, over an 8-month period, 65 eligible trauma patients who were admitted to hospitals in three academic centers in mainland Iran were included in this pilot study...
August 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817819/progressive-kyphosis-associated-with-tethered-cord-syndrome-treated-by-posterior-vertebral-column-resection-in-a-pediatric-patient
#8
Kadir Oktay, Kerem Mazhar Ozsoy, Yurdal Gezercan, Nuri Eralp Cetinalp, Tahsin Erman
Posterior vertebral column resection is a novel surgical approach for the treatment of progressive kyphosis associated with tethered cord syndrome that was first treated with untethering surgery. A patient with tethered cord syndrome associated with kyphosis first underwent untethering surgery, resulting in progressive kyphosis. Posterior vertebral column resection was performed to correct the kyphosis while shortening the spinal column to prevent the spinal cord from stretch injury. Good correction of kyphosis and reduction of tension on the neural elements were achieved without any neurological deficits...
2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816877/fractures-in-spinal-ankylosing-disorders-a-narrative-review-of-disease-and-injury-types-treatment-techniques-and-outcomes
#9
Tarush Rustagi, Doniel Drazin, Cumhur Oner, Jonathan York, Gregory D Schroeder, Alexander R Vaccaro, Rod J Oskouian, Jens R Chapman
INTRODUCTION: Spinal ankylosing disorders encompass ankylosing spondylitis (AS), disseminated hyperostosis of the spine, and end-stage spondylosis. All these result in a stiffened and frequently deformed spinal column. This makes the spinal column highly susceptible to severe injuries that are commonly associated with unfavorable outcomes. Improved understanding of the underlying disease processes and clinical comorbidities may alter the poor injury related morbidity and mortality outcomes...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816874/does-surgical-intervention-or-timing-of-surgery-have-an-effect-on-neurological-recovery-in-the-setting-of-a-thoracolumbar-burst-fracture
#10
So Kato, Jean-Christophe Murray, Brian K Kwon, Gregory D Schroeder, Alexander R Vaccaro, Michael G Fehlings
Traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures are one of the most common forms of spinal trauma with the majority occurring at the junctional area where mechanical load is maximal (AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System Subtype A3 or A4). Burst fractures entail the involvement of the middle column, and therefore, they are typically associated with bone fragment in the spinal canal, which may cause compression of the spinal cord, conus medullaris, cauda equina, or a combination of these. Fortunately, approximately half of the patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures are neurologically intact due to the wide canal diameter...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804608/remyelination-improvement-after-neurotrophic-factors-secreting-cells-transplantation-in-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Shahnaz Razavi, Nazem Ghasemi, Mohammad Mardani, Hossein Salehi
OBJECTIVES: Neurotrophic factors secreting cells (NTS-SCs) may be a superior cell source for cell-based therapy in neurodegenerative diseases. NTS-SCs are able to secrete some neurotrophic Such as nerve growth factor and glia-derived neurotrophic factor. Our primary aim was to assess transplantation of neurotrophic factor secreting cells derived from human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) into the damaged spinal cord rats and determine the potential of these cells in remyelination...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761411/the-crossed-phrenic-phenomenon
#12
REVIEW
Michael George Zaki Ghali
The cervical spine is the most common site of traumatic vertebral column injuries. Respiratory insufficiency constitutes a significant proportion of the morbidity burden and is the most common cause of mortality in these patients. In seeking to enhance our capacity to treat specifically the respiratory dysfunction following spinal cord injury, investigators have studied the "crossed phrenic phenomenon", wherein contraction of a hemidiaphragm paralyzed by a complete hemisection of the ipsilateral cervical spinal cord above the phrenic nucleus can be induced by respiratory stressors and recovers spontaneously over time...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738168/role-of-age-and-injury-mechanism-on-cervical-spine-injury-tolerance-from-head-contact-loading
#13
Narayan Yoganandan, Sajal Chirvi, Liming Voo, Frank A Pintar, Anjishnu Banerjee
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the influence of age and injury mechanism on cervical spine tolerance to injury from head contact loading using survival analysis. METHODS: This study analyzed data from previously conducted experiments using post mortem human subjects (PMHS). Group A tests used the upright intact head-cervical column experimental model. The inferior end of the specimen was fixed, the head was balanced by a mechanical system, and natural lordosis was removed...
July 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720984/spinal-cord-injury-the-role-of-surgical-treatment-for-neurological-improvement
#14
REVIEW
N Rath, B Balain
Acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) is common and no consensuses have been reached regarding timing of surgical decompression. This article highlights the main issues regarding surgical management of ASCI patients. The importance of timing of surgery along with physiological stability of the cord, and indications for surgery has been discussed to facilitate better understanding of the condition. The importance of the type of injury to the spinal column, besides the cord injury, is also discussed. A brief review of relevant literature has been done to try and answer the question whether early or late surgical treatment for ASCI is better than conservative management, reflecting the ethos of treatment for these problems in Robert Jones And Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital in Oswestry...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709993/intracellular-calcium-release-through-ip3r-or-ryr-contributes-to-secondary-axonal-degeneration
#15
Ben C Orem, Nicolas Pelisch, Joshua Williams, Jacqueline M Nally, David P Stirling
Severed CNS axons often retract or dieback away from the injury site and fail to regenerate. The precise mechanisms underlying acute axonal dieback and secondary axonal degeneration remain poorly understood. Here we investigate the role of Ca(2+) store mediated intra-axonal Ca(2+) release in acute axonal dieback and secondary axonal degeneration. To differentiate between primary (directly transected) and "bystander" axonal injury (axons spared by the initial injury but then succumb to secondary degeneration) in real-time we use our previously published highly focal laser-induced spinal cord injury (LiSCI) ex vivo model...
July 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701541/afferent-input-and-sensory-function-after-human-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Recep Ali Ozdemir, Monica A Perez
Spinal cord injury (SCI) often disrupts the integrity of afferent (sensory) axons projecting through the spinal cord dorsal columns to the brain. Examinations of ascending sensory tracts, therefore, are critical for monitoring the extent of SCI and recovery processes. In this review, we discuss the most common electrophysiological techniques used to assess transmission of afferent inputs to the primary motor cortex (i.e., afferent-input induced facilitation and inhibition) and the somatosensory cortex (i.e...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696485/repeatability-of-a-dislocation-spinal-cord-injury-model-in-a-rat-a-high-speed-biomechanical-analysis
#17
Stephen Mattucci, Jie Liu, Paul Fijal, Wolfram Tetzlaff, Thomas R Oxland
Dislocation is the most common, and severe, spinal cord injury (SCI) mechanism in humans, yet there are few preclinical models. While dislocation in the rat model has been shown to produce unique outcomes, like other closed column models it exhibits higher outcome variability. Refinement of the dislocation model will enhance the testing of neuroprotective strategies, further biomechanical understanding, and guide therapeutic decisions. The overall objective of this study is to improve biomechanical repeatability of a dislocation SCI model in the rat, through the following specific aims: (i) design new injury clamps that pivot and self-align to the vertebrae; (ii) measure intervertebral kinematics during injury using the existing and redesigned clamps; and (iii) compare relative motion at the vertebrae-clamp interface to determine which clamps provide the most rigid connection...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673596/intra-spinal-microstimulation-may-alleviate-chronic-pain-after-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Bin Shu, Fei Yang, Yun Guan
Chronic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) is a form of central neuropathic pain that is debilitating and often refractory to current pharmacological treatments. Neurostimulation pain therapies, such as epidural spinal cord stimulation, have only moderate success in reducing SCI pain. The pathogenesis of SCI pain may involve a state of central neuronal hyperexcitability, especially in the spinal cord dorsal horn, that develops after injury. We hypothesize that the neuronal structures near the spinal cord injury site may be an important pain generator, and intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) may normalize dorsal horn neuronal hyperexcitability and hence alleviate SCI pain...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672981/neurotrophic-factor-and-trk-signaling-mechanisms-underlying-the-promotion-of-motor-recovery-after-acute-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#19
Hua Fang, Chong Liu, Miao Yang, Huafeng Li, Fangxiang Zhang, Weijing Zhang, Jianping Zhang
Neurotrophic factor (NF) and Trk signaling mechanisms underlying the promotion of motor recovery following acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats were investigated. Thirty-six adult Sprague-Dawley rats of both genders were randomly divided into three groups: Sham-operated, model, and NF/Trk. Each group consisted of 12 rats, with four subgroups in each group: 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. Sham-operated rats received a laminectomy without SCI, while in model group rats, SCI was induced using an improved version of the Allen's method...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670409/traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-long-term-motor-sensory-and-urinary-outcomes
#20
Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi, Homa Sadeghian
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. PURPOSE: To evaluate how motor, sensory, and urinary outcomes of spinal cord injury (SCI) patients were influenced in the long term. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: SCI is a potentially disabling and devastating neurological outcome that can occur because of spinal column fractures. Most studies have not evaluated or have failed to show the influence of different surgical approaches and other parameters on neurological recovery...
June 2017: Asian Spine Journal
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