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Electric current spread

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430533/new-directions-in-the-rational-design-of-electrical-and-magnetic-seizure-therapies-individualized-low-amplitude-seizure-therapy-ilast-and-magnetic-seizure-therapy-mst
#1
Thomas Radman, Sarah H Lisanby
Electroconvulsive therapy remains a key treatment option for severe cases of depression, but undesirable side-effects continue to limit its use. Innovations in the design of novel seizure therapies seek to improve its risk benefit ratio through enhanced control of the focality of stimulation. The design of seizure therapies with increased spatial precision is motivated by avoiding stimulation of deep brain structures implicated in memory retention, including the hippocampus. The development of two innovations in seizure therapy-individualized low-amplitude seizure therapy (iLAST) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST), are detailed...
April 21, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422194/field-induced-anomalous-spreading-oscillation-ejection-spinning-and-breaking-of-oil-droplets-on-a-strongly-slipping-water-surface
#2
Sunny Kumar, Bhaskarjyoti Sarma, Ahsok Kumar Dasmahapatra, Amaresh Dalal, Dipankar Narayan Basu, Dipankar Bandyopadhyay
Application of an electric field on an oil droplet floating on the surface of a deionized water bath showed interesting motions such as spreading, oscillation, and ejection. The electric field was generated by connecting a pointed platinum cathode at the top of the oil droplet and a copper anode coated with polymer at the bottom of the water layer. The experimental setup mimicked a conventional electrowetting setup with the exception that the oil was spread on a soft and deformable water isolator. While at relatively lower field intensities we observed spreading of the droplet, at intermediate field intensities the droplet oscillated around the platinum cathode, before ejecting out at a speed as high as ∼5 body lengths per second at even stronger field intensities...
April 19, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352002/optimisation-of-current-injection-protocol-based-on-a-region-of-interest
#3
Mayo Faulkner, Markus Jehl, Kirill Aristovich, James Avery, Anna Witkowska-Wrobel, David Holder
Electrical Impedance Tomography has the potential to image fast neural activity associated with physiological or epileptic activity throughout the brain. These applications pose a particular challenge as expected voltage changes on the electrodes are less than 1% and geometrical constraints of the body under investigation mean that electrodes can not be evenly distributed around its boundary. Unlike other applications, however, information regarding the location of expected activity is typically available. An informative method for choosing current paths that maximise sensitivity to specific regions is desirable...
March 29, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334303/characterization-of-direct-current-electrical-penetration-graph-waveforms-and-correlation-with-the-probing-behavior-of-matsumuratettix-hiroglyphicus-hemiptera-cicadellidae-the-insect-vector-of-sugarcane-white-leaf-phytoplasma
#4
J Roddee, Y Kobori, H Yorozuya, Y Hanboonsong
The leafhopper Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is an important vector of phytoplasma causing white leaf disease in sugarcane. Thus, the aim of our study was to understand and describe the stylet-probing activities of this vector while feeding on sugarcane plants, by using direct current (DC) electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitoring. The EPG signals were classified into six distinct waveforms, according to amplitude, frequency, voltage level, and electrical origin of the observed traces during stylet penetration into the host plant tissues (probing)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301391/comparison-of-multipole-stimulus-configurations-with-respect-to-loudness-and-spread-of-excitation
#5
Dirk Vellinga, Jeroen Johannes Briaire, David Michael Paul van Meenen, Johannes Hubertus Maria Frijns
OBJECTIVE: Current spread is a substantial limitation of speech coding strategies in cochlear implants. Multipoles have the potential to reduce current spread and thus generate more discriminable pitch percepts. The difficulty with multipoles is reaching sufficient loudness. The primary goal was to compare the loudness characteristics and spread of excitation (SOE) of three types of phased array stimulation, a novel multipole, with three more conventional configurations. DESIGN: Fifteen postlingually deafened cochlear implant users performed psychophysical experiments addressing SOE, loudness scaling, loudness threshold, loudness balancing, and loudness discrimination...
March 15, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291334/rapid-real-time-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-with-electrical-sensing-on-plastic-microchips-with-printed-electrodes
#6
Mohammadali Safavieh, Hardik J Pandya, Maanasa Venkataraman, Prudhvi Thirumalaraju, Manoj Kumar Kanakasabapathy, Anupriya Singh, Devbalaji Prabhakar, Manjyot Kaur Chug, Hadi Shafiee
Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing is important for efficient and timely therapeutic decision making. Due to globally spread bacterial resistance, the efficacy of antibiotics is increasingly being impeded. Conventional antibiotic tests rely on bacterial culture, which is time-consuming and can lead to potentially inappropriate antibiotic prescription and up-front broad range of antibiotic use. There is an urgent need to develop point-of-care platform technologies to rapidly detect pathogens, identify the right antibiotics, and monitor mutations to help adjust therapy...
March 30, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269493/numerical-simulation-of-multipolar-configuration-and-prepulse-technique-to-obtain-spatially-reverse-recruitment-order
#7
Melissa Dali, Olivier Rossel, David Guiraud
In the context of functional electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves, the control of a specific motor or sensory functions may need selective stimulation to target the desired effect without others. In implanted stimulation, spatial selectivity is obtained using multipolar CUFF electrodes with specific spread of the current over each contact. Furthermore, electrical stimulation recruits large fibers before small ones, whereas the targeted function could be elicited by a specific fiber type i.e. fiber diameter...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268666/the-effect-of-inter-electrode-distance-on-the-electric-field-distribution-during-transcutaneous-lumbar-spinal-cord-direct-current-stimulation
#8
Rui Bastos, Sofia R Fernandes, Ricardo Salvador, Cornelia Wenger, Mamede A de Carvalho, Pedro C Miranda
Previous studies have indicated potential neuromodulation of the spinal circuitry by transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS), such as changes in motor unit recruitment, shortening of the peripheral silent period and interference with supraspinal input to lower motor neurons. All of these effects were dependent on the polarity of the electrodes. The present study investigates how the distance between the electrodes during tsDCS influences the electric field's (E-field) spatial distribution in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (SC)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241595/using-tunnel-junctions-to-grow-monolithically-integrated-optically-pumped-semipolar-iii-nitride-yellow-quantum-wells-on-top-of-electrically-injected-blue-quantum-wells
#9
Stacy J Kowsz, Erin C Young, Benjamin P Yonkee, Christopher D Pynn, Robert M Farrell, James S Speck, Steven P DenBaars, Shuji Nakamura
We report a device that monolithically integrates optically pumped (20-21) III-nitride quantum wells (QWs) with 560 nm emission on top of electrically injected QWs with 450 nm emission. The higher temperature growth of the blue light-emitting diode (LED) was performed first, which prevented thermal damage to the higher indium content InGaN of the optically pumped QWs. A tunnel junction (TJ) was incorporated between the optically pumped and electrically injected QWs; this TJ enabled current spreading in the buried LED...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241433/fogging-control-on-ldpe-eva-coextruded-films-wettability-behavior-and-its-correlation-with-electric-performance
#10
Miguel A Waldo-Mendoza, Zoe V Quiñones-Jurado, Juan C Pérez-Medina, Bernardo Yañez-Soto, Pedro E Ramírez-González
The transformation of fog at a non-visible water layer on a membrane of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) was evaluated. Nonionic surfactants of major demand in the polyolefin industry were studied. A kinetic study using a hot fog chamber showed that condensation is controlled by both the diffusion and permanency of the surfactant more than by the change of the surface energy developed by the wetting agents. The greatest permanency of the anti-fog effect of the LDPE/EVA surface was close to 3000 h...
February 22, 2017: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227745/numerical-simulation-of-multipolar-configuration-and-prepulse-technique-to-obtain-spatially-reverse-recruitment-order
#11
Melissa Dali, Olivier Rossel, David Guiraud, Melissa Dali, Olivier Rossel, David Guiraud, Melissa Dali, Olivier Rossel, David Guiraud
In the context of functional electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves, the control of a specific motor or sensory functions may need selective stimulation to target the desired effect without others. In implanted stimulation, spatial selectivity is obtained using multipolar CUFF electrodes with specific spread of the current over each contact. Furthermore, electrical stimulation recruits large fibers before small ones, whereas the targeted function could be elicited by a specific fiber type i.e. fiber diameter...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226850/the-effect-of-inter-electrode-distance-on-the-electric-field-distribution-during-transcutaneous-lumbar-spinal-cord-direct-current-stimulation
#12
Rui Bastos, Sofia R Fernandes, Ricardo Salvador, Cornelia Wenger, Mamede A de Carvalho, Pedro C Miranda, Rui Bastos, Sofia R Fernandes, Ricardo Salvador, Cornelia Wenger, Mamede A de Carvalho, Pedro C Miranda, Pedro C Miranda, Rui Bastos, Cornelia Wenger, Ricardo Salvador, Mamede A de Carvalho, Sofia R Fernandes
Previous studies have indicated potential neuromodulation of the spinal circuitry by transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS), such as changes in motor unit recruitment, shortening of the peripheral silent period and interference with supraspinal input to lower motor neurons. All of these effects were dependent on the polarity of the electrodes. The present study investigates how the distance between the electrodes during tsDCS influences the electric field's (E-field) spatial distribution in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (SC)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225028/stacking-multiple-connecting-functional-materials-in-tandem-organic-light-emitting-diodes
#13
Tao Zhang, Deng-Ke Wang, Nan Jiang, Zheng-Hong Lu
Tandem device is an important architecture in fabricating high performance organic light-emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. The key element in making a high performance tandem device is the connecting materials stack, which plays an important role in electric field distribution, charge generation and charge injection. For a tandem organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with a simple Liq/Al/MoO3 stack, we discovered that there is a significant current lateral spreading causing light emission over an extremely large area outside the OLED pixel when the Al thickness exceeds 2 nm...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216122/pitch-ranking-with-different-virtual-channel-configurations-in-electrical-hearing
#14
Monica Padilla, Natalia Stupak, David M Landsberger
Monopolar Virtual Channels (MPVCs) use current steering to increase the number of spectral channels provided to cochlear implant users beyond the physical number of electrodes. The current spread created with a current steered channel is similar to the spread found for monopolar stimulation, and this spread may be one of the bottlenecks for improved performance with an increased number of channels. Quadrupolar Virtual Channels (QPVCs) use current focusing in combination with steering in an attempt to increase the number of channels while reducing channel interaction...
May 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150534/evaluating-multipulse-integration-as-a-neural-health-correlate-in-human-cochlear-implant-users-relationship-to-psychometric-functions-for-detection
#15
Ning Zhou, Lixue Dong
In electrical hearing, multipulse integration (MPI) describes the rate at which detection threshold decreases with increasing stimulation rate in a fixed-duration pulse train. In human subjects, MPI has been shown to be dependent on the psychophysically estimated spread of neural excitation at a high stimulation rate, with broader spread predicting greater integration. The first aim of the present study was to replicate this finding using alternative methods for measuring MPI and spread of neural excitation...
2017: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093818/intraoperative-microstimulation-predicts-outcome-of-postoperative-macrostimulation-in-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Raja Mehanna, Andre G Machado, John E Connett, Faisal Alsaloum, Scott E Cooper
BACKGROUND: In deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus for treatment of Parkinson's Disease, a commonly encountered stimulation side effect is involuntary muscle contractions from spread of electrical current to cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar fibers in the internal capsule. During surgery, a variety of techniques, including microelectrode recording (MER), are used to avoid positioning the DBS electrode too close to the internal capsule. At some centers, MER includes stimulating through the microelectrode (microstimulation)...
January 17, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058649/electrically-pumped-iii-n-microcavity-light-emitters-incorporating-an-oxide-confinement-aperture
#17
Ying-Yu Lai, Tsu-Chi Chang, Ya-Chen Li, Tien-Chang Lu, Shing-Chung Wang
In this work, we report on electrically pumped III-N microcavity (MC) light emitters incorporating oxide confinement apertures. The utilized SiO2 aperture can provide a planar ITO design with a higher index contrast (~1) over other previously reported approaches. The fabricated MC light emitter with a 15-μm-aperture shows a turn-on voltage of 3.3 V, which is comparable to conventional light emitting diodes (LEDs), showing a good electrical property of the proposed structure. A uniform light output profile within the emission aperture suggesting the good capability of current spreading and current confinement of ITO and SiO2 aperture, respectively...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028801/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-basic-principles-and-clinical-applications-in-migraine
#18
REVIEW
Anthony T Barker, Kevin Shields
PURPOSE: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a neurophysiological technique with a long established pedigree of safety, tolerability, and efficacy. Initially TMS was used to study the function of the cerebral cortex, but it has now become a treatment for migraine, one of the most common and debilitating neurological conditions. In this review we discuss the scientific background and development of the technique. We explore its application for the treatment of migraine and ponder the possible mechanisms of action in this most common neurological condition...
March 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990816/glass-based-transparent-conductive-electrode-its-application-to-visible-to-ultraviolet-light-emitting-diodes
#19
Tae Ho Lee, Kyeong Heon Kim, Byeong Ryong Lee, Ju Hyun Park, E Fred Schubert, Tae Geun Kim
Nitride-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) are promising replacements for conventional UV lamps. However, the external quantum efficiency of UV LEDs is much lower than for visible LEDs due to light absorption in the p-GaN contact and electrode layers, along with p-AlGaN growth and doping issues. To minimize such absorption, we should obtain direct ohmic contact to p-AlGaN using UV-transparent ohmic electrodes and not use p-GaN as a contact layer. Here, we propose a glass-based transparent conductive electrode (TCE) produced using electrical breakdown (EBD) of an AlN thin film, and we apply the thin film to four (Al)GaN-based visible and UV LEDs with thin buffer layers for current spreading and damage protection...
December 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990231/fast-simulation-and-optimization-tool-to-explore-selective-neural-stimulation
#20
Mélissa Dali, Olivier Rossel, David Guiraud
In functional electrical stimulation, selective stimulation of axons is desirable to activate a specific target, in particular muscular function. This implies to simulate a fascicule without activating neighboring ones i.e. to be spatially selective. Spatial selectivity is achieved by the use of multicontact cuff electrodes over which the stimulation current is distributed. Because of the large number of parameters involved, numerical simulations provide a way to find and optimize electrode configuration. The present work offers a computation effective scheme and associated tool chain capable of simulating electrode-nerve interface and find the best spread of current to achieve spatial selectivity...
June 13, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
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