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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117630/biophysical-properties-of-microvascular-endothelium-requirements-for-initiating-and-conducting-electrical-signals
#1
Adam Kapela, Erik J Behringer, Steven S Segal, Nikolaos M Tsoukias
OBJECTIVE: Electrical signaling along the endothelium underlies spreading vasodilation and blood flow control. We use mathematical modeling to determine the electrical properties of the endothelium and gain insight into the biophysical determinants of electrical conduction. METHODS: Electrical conduction data along endothelial cell (EC) tubes (40 μm wide, 2.5 mm long) isolated from mouse skeletal muscle resistance arteries were analyzed using cable equations and a multicellular computational model...
November 8, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094473/microscale-electro-hydrodynamic-cell-printing-with-high-viability
#2
Jiankang He, Xiang Zhao, Jinke Chang, Dichen Li
Cell printing has gained extensive attentions for the controlled fabrication of living cellular constructs in vitro. Various cell printing techniques are now being explored and developed for improved cell viability and printing resolution. Here an electro-hydrodynamic cell printing strategy is developed with microscale resolution (<100 µm) and high cellular viability (>95%). Unlike the existing electro-hydrodynamic cell jetting or printing explorations, insulating substrate is used to replace conventional semiconductive substrate as the collecting surface which significantly reduces the electrical current in the electro-hydrodynamic printing process from milliamperes (>0...
November 2, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094085/awareness-and-perception-about-cancer-among-the-public-in-chennai-india
#3
Vidhubala Elangovan, Swaminathan Rajaraman, Barsha Basumalik, Dhivya Pandian
Purpose: Cancer-related stigma influences the way people perceive cancer, which renders cancer control-beginning with prevention and proceeding to palliation-a challenging task. This study aimed to assess the current levels of awareness and perceptions about cancer among people with various socioeconomic status and diverse backgrounds in the city of Chennai, India. Patients and Methods: The sample population (N = 2,981; 18 to 88 years of age) was stratified into four groups: patients (n = 510), caregivers (n = 494) consulting at the Cancer Institute (Women Indian Association), college students (n = 978), and general public (n = 999)...
October 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972468/effect-of-stimulus-polarity-on-physiological-spread-of-excitation-in-cochlear-implants
#4
Emily R Spitzer, Michelle L Hughes
BACKGROUND: Contemporary cochlear implants (CIs) use cathodic-leading, symmetrical, biphasic current pulses, despite a growing body of evidence that suggests anodic-leading pulses may be more effective at stimulating the auditory system. However, since much of this research on humans has used pseudomonophasic pulses or biphasic pulses with unusually long interphase gaps, the effects of stimulus polarity are unclear for clinically relevant (i.e., symmetric biphasic) stimuli. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of stimulus polarity on basic characteristics of physiological spread-of-excitation (SOE) measures obtained with the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) in CI recipients using clinically relevant stimuli...
October 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971420/applications-for-electrical-impedance-tomography-eit-and-electrical-properties-of-the-human-body
#5
Georgios Lymperopoulos, Panagiotis Lymperopoulos, Victoria Alikari, Chrisoula Dafogianni, Sofia Zyga, Nikoletta Margari
Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a promising application that displays changes in conductivity within a body. The basic principle of the method is the repeated measurement of surface voltages of a body, which are a result of rolling injection of known and small-volume sinusoidal AC current to the body through the electrodes attached to its surface. This method finds application in biomedicine, biology and geology. The objective of this paper is to present the applications of Electrical Impedance Tomography, along with the method's capabilities and limitations due to the electrical properties of the human body...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895736/inp-nanowire-biosensor-with-tailored-biofunctionalization-ultrasensitive-and-highly-selective-disease-biomarker-detection
#6
Richard Janissen, Prasana K Sahoo, Clelton A Santos, Aldeliane M da Silva, Antonio A G von Zuben, Denio E P Souto, Alexandre D T Costa, Paola Celedon, Nilson I T Zanchin, Diogo B Almeida, Douglas S Oliveira, Lauro T Kubota, Carlos L Cesar, Anete P de Souza, Monica A Cotta
Electrically active field-effect transistors (FET) based biosensors are of paramount importance in life science applications, as they offer direct, fast, and highly sensitive label-free detection capabilities of several biomolecules of specific interest. In this work, we report a detailed investigation on surface functionalization and covalent immobilization of biomarkers using biocompatible ethanolamine and poly(ethylene glycol) derivate coatings, as compared to the conventional approaches using silica monoliths, in order to substantially increase both the sensitivity and molecular selectivity of nanowire-based FET biosensor platforms...
October 11, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861034/playing-music-may-improve-the-gait-pattern-in-patients-with-bilateral-caloric-areflexia-wearing-a-cochlear-implant-results-from-a-pilot-study
#7
Ann Hallemans, Griet Mertens, Paul Van de Heyning, Vincent Van Rompaey
HYPOTHESIS: Auditory information through an active cochlear implant (CI) influences gait parameters in adults with bilateral caloric areflexia and profound sensorineural hearing loss. BACKGROUND: Patients with bilateral caloric areflexia suffer from imbalance, resulting in an increased risk of falling. In case of simultaneous deafness, the lack of auditory feedback results in less awareness of the auditory scene. This combination might produce significant challenges while walking and navigating...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860549/high-performance-metal-mesh-graphene-hybrid-films-using-prime-location-and-metal-doped-graphene
#8
Jung-Hong Min, Woo-Lim Jeong, Hoe-Min Kwak, Dong-Seon Lee
We introduce high-performance metal mesh/graphene hybrid transparent conductive layers (TCLs) using prime-location and metal-doped graphene in near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (NUV LEDs). Despite the transparency and sheet resistance values being similar for hybrid TCLs, there were huge differences in the NUV LEDs' electrical and optical properties depending on the location of the graphene layer. We achieved better physical stability and current spreading when the graphene layer was located beneath the metal mesh, in direct contact with the p-GaN layer...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819053/novel-neurobiological-properties-of-elements-in-the-escape-circuitry-of-the-shrimp
#9
De Forest Mellon
Escape behaviors in penaeid shrimp are mediated by large myelinated medial giant fibers which course from the brain to the last abdominal ganglion in the ventral nerve cord. In each abdominal segment, the medial giant axons make synaptic connections with paired myelinated motor giant axons that excite the abdominal deep flexor muscles and drive the tailflips that constitute the escape behavior. I examined (1) anatomical features of the abdominal motor giant fibers and (2) electrical properties of both the medial and motor giant axons in the pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum The motor giant axons in the paired third roots of shrimp abdominal ganglia emerge from a single fused neurite that originates from two clusters of cell bodies within the ganglion...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798342/nanoparticle-based-plasmonic-transduction-for-modulation-of-electrically-excitable-cells
#10
Parveen Bazard, Robert D Frisina, Joseph P Walton, Venkat R Bhethanabotla
There is a compelling need for the development of new sensory and neural prosthetic devices which are capable of more precise point stimulation. Current prosthetic devices suffer from the limitation of low spatial resolution due to the non-specific stimulation characteristics of electrical stimulation, i.e., the spread of electric fields generated. We present a visible light stimulation method for modulating the firing patterns of electrically-excitable cells using surface plasmon resonance phenomena. In in-vitro studies using gold (Au) nanoparticle-coated nanoelectrodes, we show that this method (substrate coated with nanoparticles) has the potential for incorporating this new technology into neural stimulation prosthetics, such as cochlear implants for the deaf, with very high spatial resolution...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755756/brain-extracellular-space-the-final-frontier-of%C3%A2-neuroscience
#11
REVIEW
Charles Nicholson, Sabina Hrabětová
Brain extracellular space is the narrow microenvironment that surrounds every cell of the central nervous system. It contains a solution that closely resembles cerebrospinal fluid with the addition of extracellular matrix molecules. The space provides a reservoir for ions essential to the electrical activity of neurons and forms an intercellular chemical communication channel. Attempts to reveal the size and structure of the extracellular space using electron microscopy have had limited success; however, a biophysical approach based on diffusion of selected probe molecules has proved useful...
July 26, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754993/neurometabolic-and-electrophysiological-changes-during-cortical-spreading-depolarization-multimodal-approach-based-on-a-lactate-glucose-dual-microbiosensor-arrays
#12
Cátia F Lourenço, Ana Ledo, Greg A Gerhardt, João Laranjinha, Rui M Barbosa
Spreading depolarization (SD) is a slow propagating wave of strong depolarization of neural cells, implicated in several neuropathological conditions. The breakdown of brain homeostasis promotes significant hemodynamic and metabolic alterations, which impacts on neuronal function. In this work we aimed to develop an innovative multimodal approach, encompassing metabolic, electric and hemodynamic measurements, tailored but not limited to study SD. This was based on a novel dual-biosensor based on microelectrode arrays designed to simultaneously monitor lactate and glucose fluctuations and ongoing neuronal activity with high spatial and temporal resolution...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700446/pure-tone-masking-patterns-for-monopolar-and-phantom-electrical-stimulation-in-cochlear-implants
#13
Aniket A Saoji, Kanthaiah Koka, Leonid M Litvak, Charles C Finley
OBJECTIVES: Monopolar stimulation of the most apical electrode produces the lowest pitch sensation in cochlear implants clinically. A phantom electrode that uses out-of-phase electrical stimulation between the most apical and the neighboring basal electrode can produce a lower pitch sensation than that associated with the most apical electrode. However, because of the absence of contacts beyond the apical tip of the array, the ability to assess the spread of electrical excitation associated with phantom stimulation is limited in the typical cochlear implant subject with no residual hearing...
July 11, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698652/electrical-properties-of-graphene-metal-contacts
#14
Teresa Cusati, Gianluca Fiori, Amit Gahoi, Vikram Passi, Max C Lemme, Alessandro Fortunelli, Giuseppe Iannaccone
The performance of devices and systems based on two-dimensional material systems depends critically on the quality of the contacts between 2D material and metal. A low contact resistance is an imperative requirement to consider graphene as a candidate material for electronic and optoelectronic devices. Unfortunately, measurements of contact resistance in the literature do not provide a consistent picture, due to limitations of current graphene technology, and to incomplete understanding of influencing factors...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685578/vital-role-of-oxygen-for-the-formation-of-highly-rectifying-schottky-barrier-diodes-on-amorphous-zinc-tin-oxide-with-various-cation-compositions
#15
Sofie Bitter, Peter Schlupp, Holger von Wenckstern, Marius Grundmann
We present electrical properties of Schottky barrier diodes on room-temperature deposited amorphous zinc-tin-oxide (ZTO) with Zn/(Zn + Sn) contents between 0.12 and 0.72. A combinatorial approach with continuous composition spread pulsed laser deposition is used to achieve the wide range of compositions with four samples each on 50 × 50 mm(2) glass substrates. The Schottky barrier contacts were fabricated by the reactive direct-current sputtering of platinum. Best diode properties (rectification ratio SV = 2...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671809/aln-ito-based-hybrid-electrodes-with-conducting-filaments-their-application-to-ultraviolet-light-emitting-diodes
#16
Kyeong Heon Kim, Tae Ho Lee, Tae Geun Kim
A hybrid-type transparent conductive electrode (H-TCE) structure comprising an AlN rod array with conducting filaments (CFs) and indium tin oxide (ITO) films is proposed to improve both current injection and distribution as well as optical transmittance in the UV region. These CFs, generated in UV-transparent AlN rod areas using an electric field, can be used as conducting paths for carrier injection from a metal to a semiconductor such as p-(Al)GaN, which allows perfect Ohmic behavior with high transmittance (>95% at 365 nm) to be obtained...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652411/saturation-in-phosphene-size-with-increasing-current-levels-delivered-to-human-visual-cortex
#17
William H Bosking, Ping Sun, Muge Ozker, Xiaomei Pei, Brett L Foster, Michael S Beauchamp, Daniel Yoshor
Electrically stimulating early visual cortex results in a visual percept known as a phosphene. Although phosphenes can be evoked by a wide range of electrode sizes and current amplitudes, they are invariably described as small. To better understand this observation, we electrically stimulated 93 electrodes implanted in the visual cortex of 13 human subjects who reported phosphene size while stimulation current was varied. Phosphene size increased as the stimulation current was initially raised above threshold, but then rapidly reached saturation...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642698/enhanced-working-memory-binding-by-direct-electrical-stimulation-of-the-parietal-cortex
#18
Agustina Birba, Eugenia Hesse, Lucas Sedeño, Ezequiel P Mikulan, María Del C García, Juan Ávalos, Federico Adolfi, Agustina Legaz, Tristán A Bekinschtein, Máximo Zimerman, Mario Parra, Adolfo M García, Agustín Ibáñez
Recent works evince the critical role of visual short-term memory (STM) binding deficits as a clinical and preclinical marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These studies suggest a potential role of posterior brain regions in both the neurocognitive deficits of Alzheimer's patients and STM binding in general. Thereupon, we surmised that stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) might be a successful approach to tackle working memory deficits in this condition, especially at early stages. To date, no causal evidence exists of the role of the parietal cortex in STM binding...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628917/anatomical-characteristics-of-facial-nerve-and-cochlea-interaction
#19
Nadine Schart-Morén, Sune Larsson, Helge Rask-Andersen, Hao Li
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study the relationship between the labyrinthine portion (LP) of the facial canal and the cochlea in human inner ear molds and temporal bones using micro-CT and 3D rendering. A reduced cochlea-facial distance may spread electric currents from the cochlear implant to the LP and cause facial nerve stimulation. Influencing factors may be the topographic anatomy and otic capsule properties. METHODS: An archival collection of human temporal bones underwent micro-CT and 3D reconstruction...
2017: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613412/myoendothelial-coupling-through-cx40-contributes-to-edh-induced-vasodilation-in-murine-renal-arteries-evidence-from-experiments-and-modelling
#20
Jens Christian Brasen, Cor de Wit, Charlotte Mehlin Sorensen
Regulation of renal vascular resistance plays a major role in controlling arterial blood pressure. The endothelium participates in this regulation as endothelial derived hyperpolarization plays a significant role in smaller renal arteries and arterioles but the exact mechanisms are still unknown AIM: to investigate the role of vascular gap junctions and potassium channels in the renal endothelial derived hyperpolarization. METHODS: in interlobar arteries from wild-type and connexin40 knock-out mice we assessed the role of calcium activated small (SK) and intermediate (IK) conductance potassium channels...
June 14, 2017: Acta Physiologica
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