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Vaginal microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178052/fecal-microbiota-transplant-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-pregnant-patient
#1
Bejan J Saeedi, Doree Gardner Morison, Colleen S Kraft, Tanvi Dhere
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection has been associated with negative outcomes in the general population and in pregnant patients. Fecal microbiota transplant has become the standard for treatment of recurrent as well as refractory C difficile infection. CASE: We present a case of a 28-year-old pregnant woman who presented with recurrent C difficile infection despite treatment with vancomycin and fidaxomicin and underwent a successful fecal microbiota transplant through colonoscopy at 18 weeks of gestation...
February 6, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176229/charting-the-maternal-and-infant-microbiome-what-is-the-role-of-diabetes-and-obesity-in-pregnancy
#2
REVIEW
Sirtaj Singh, Margaret R Karagas, Noel T Mueller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence on whether diabetes, obesity, and related metabolic derangements during pregnancy are associated with the maternal and infant microbiomes, and to identify gaps in the literature and offer guidance on future research on this topic. RECENT FINDINGS: We found circumstantial evidence from four observational studies that the maternal gut microbiome was associated with either pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes, and/or related metabolic biomarkers in pregnancy; we did not identify any studies that examined whether the vaginal microbiome varied according to these metabolic parameters...
February 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121709/associations-of-the-vaginal-microbiota-with-hiv-infection-bacterial-vaginosis-and-demographic-factors
#3
Christel Chehoud, Daniel J Stieh, Aubrey G Bailey, Alice L Laughlin, Shannon A Allen, Kerrie L McCotter, Scott A Sherrill-Mix, Thomas J Hope, Frederic D Bushman
OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effects of HIV infection on the vaginal microbiota, and associations with treatment and demographic factors. We thus compared vaginal microbiome samples from HIV+ and HIV- women collected at two Chicago area hospitals. DESIGN: We studied vaginal microbiome samples from 178 women analyzed longitudinally (n = 324 samples), and collected extensive data on clinical status and demographic factors. METHODS: We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize the bacterial lineages present, then UniFrac, Shannon Diversity and other measures to compare community structure to sample metadata...
January 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120845/association-of-hpv-infection-and-clearance-with-cervicovaginal-immunology-and-the-vaginal-microbiota
#4
B Shannon, T J Yi, S Perusini, P Gajer, B Ma, M S Humphrys, J Thomas-Pavanel, L Chieza, P Janakiram, M Saunders, W Tharao, S Huibner, K Shahabi, J Ravel, A Rebbapragada, R Kaul
Cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may increase HIV risk. Since other genital infections enhance HIV susceptibility by inducing inflammation, we assessed the impact of HPV infection and clearance on genital immunology and the cervico-vaginal microbiome. Genital samples were collected from 65 women for HPV testing, immune studies and microbiota assessment; repeat HPV testing was performed after 6 months. All participants were HIV-uninfected and free of bacterial STIs. Cytobrush-derived T cell and dendritic cell subsets were assessed by multiparameter flow cytometry...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112736/maturation-of-the-infant-microbiome-community-structure-and-function-across-multiple-body-sites-and-in-relation-to-mode-of-delivery
#5
Derrick M Chu, Jun Ma, Amanda L Prince, Kathleen M Antony, Maxim D Seferovic, Kjersti M Aagaard
Human microbial communities are characterized by their taxonomic, metagenomic and metabolic diversity, which varies by distinct body sites and influences human physiology. However, when and how microbial communities within each body niche acquire unique taxonomical and functional signatures in early life remains underexplored. We thus sought to determine the taxonomic composition and potential metabolic function of the neonatal and early infant microbiota across multiple body sites and assess the effect of the mode of delivery and its potential confounders or modifiers...
January 23, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103920/ovarian-cycling-and-reproductive-state-shape-the-vaginal-microbiota-in-wild-baboons
#6
Elizabeth A Miller, Joshua A Livermore, Susan C Alberts, Jenny Tung, Elizabeth A Archie
BACKGROUND: The vaginal microbiome is an important site of bacterial-mammalian symbiosis. This symbiosis is currently best characterized for humans, where lactobacilli dominate the microbial community and may help defend women against infectious disease. However, lactobacilli do not dominate the vaginal microbiota of any other mammal studied to date, raising key questions about the forces that shape the vaginal microbiome in non-human mammals. RESULTS: We used Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to investigate variation in the taxonomic composition of the vaginal microbiota in 48 baboons (Papio cynocephalus), members of a well-studied wild population in Kenya...
January 19, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099858/mucosal-microbes-mitigate-maladies
#7
Ivan Vujkovic-Cvijin, Steven G Deeks
Understanding the factors that promote or prevent HIV transmission remains a critical component of the global battle against HIV/AIDS. Gosmann et al. (2017) reveal a putative role for the vaginal microbiome in modulating heterosexual transmission of HIV, uncovering a potential strategy for protecting women from acquisition of the virus.
January 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098358/subclinical-alteration-of-the-cervical-vaginal-microbiome-in-women-with-idiopathic-infertility
#8
Giuseppina Campisciano, Fiorella Florian, Angela D'Eustacchio, David Stanković, Giuseppe Ricci, Manola Comar
Biomarkers have a wide application in research and clinic, they help to choose the correct treatment for diseases. Recent studies, addressing the vaginal microbiome using next generation sequencing (NGS), reported the involvement of bacterial species in infertility. We compared the vaginal microbiome of idiopathic infertility diagnosed women with that of healthy, non-idiopathic infertile and bacterial vaginosis affected women, to identify bacterial species suitable as biomarkers. Information on microorganisms was obtained from the V3-16S rDNA sequencing of cervical-vaginal fluids of 96 women using the Ion Torrent platform...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095889/evolution-of-gut-microbiota-composition-from-birth-to-24-weeks-in-the-infantmet-cohort
#9
Cian J Hill, Denise B Lynch, Kiera Murphy, Marynka Ulaszewska, Ian B Jeffery, Carol Anne O'Shea, Claire Watkins, Eugene Dempsey, Fulvio Mattivi, Kieran Touhy, R Paul Ross, C Anthony Ryan, Paul W O' Toole, Catherine Stanton
BACKGROUND: The gut is the most extensively studied niche of the human microbiome. The aim of this study was to characterise the initial gut microbiota development of a cohort of breastfed infants (n = 192) from 1 to 24 weeks of age. METHODS: V4-V5 region 16S rRNA amplicon Illumina sequencing and, in parallel, bacteriological culture. The metabolomic profile of infant urine at 4 weeks of age was also examined by LC-MS. RESULTS: Full-term (FT), spontaneous vaginally delivered (SVD) infants' microbiota remained stable at both phylum and genus levels during the 24-week period examined...
January 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093107/characterization-and-identification-of-microbial-communities-in-bovine-necrotic-vulvovaginitis
#10
N Y Shpigel, L Adler-Ashkenazy, S Scheinin, T Goshen, A Arazi, Z Pasternak, Y Gottlieb
Bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis (BNVV) is a severe and potentially fatal disease of post-partum cows that emerged in Israel after large dairy herds were merged. While post-partum cows are commonly affected by mild vulvovaginitis (BVV), in BNVV these benign mucosal abrasions develop into progressive deep necrotic lesions leading to sepsis and death if untreated. The etiology of BNVV is still unknown and a single pathogenic agent has not been found. We hypothesized that BNVV is a polymicrobial disease where the normally benign vaginal microbiome is remodeled and affects the local immune response...
January 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073296/the-microbiome-and-complement-activation
#11
Alexis B Dunn, Anne L Dunlop, Carol J Hogue, Andrew Miller, Elizabeth J Corwin
Preterm birth (PTB, <37 completed weeks' gestation) is one of the leading obstetrical problems in the United States, affecting approximately one of every nine births. Even more concerning are the persistent racial disparities in PTB, with particularly high rates among African Americans. There are several recognized pathophysiologic pathways to PTB, including infection and/or exaggerated systemic or local inflammation. Intrauterine infection is a causal factor linked to PTB thought to result most commonly from inflammatory processes triggered by microbial invasion of bacteria ascending from the vaginal microbiome...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011908/genital-injury-signatures-and-microbiome-alterations-associated-with-depot-medroxyprogesterone-acetate-usage-and-intravaginal-drying-practices
#12
Kenzie D Birse, Laura M Romas, Brandon L Guthrie, Peter Nilsson, Rose Bosire, James Kiarie, Carey Farquhar, Kristina Broliden, Adam D Burgener
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and intravaginal practices may be associated with an increased risk of HIV infection; however the mechanisms are not fully understood. This study evaluated the effect of DMPA and intravaginal practices on the genital mucosal proteome and microbiome to gain mechanistic insights. METHODS: Cervicovaginal secretions from 86 Kenyan women, including self-reported DMPA (n=23) and non-hormonal contraceptive users (n=63), and women who practice vaginal drying (n=46) were analyzed using tandem-mass spectrometry in a cross sectional manner...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008325/lactobacilli-dominance-and-vaginal-ph-why-is-the-human-vaginal-microbiome-unique
#13
Elizabeth A Miller, DeAnna E Beasley, Robert R Dunn, Elizabeth A Archie
The human vaginal microbiome is dominated by bacteria from the genus Lactobacillus, which create an acidic environment thought to protect women against sexually transmitted pathogens and opportunistic infections. Strikingly, lactobacilli dominance appears to be unique to humans; while the relative abundance of lactobacilli in the human vagina is typically >70%, in other mammals lactobacilli rarely comprise more than 1% of vaginal microbiota. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain humans' unique vaginal microbiota, including humans' distinct reproductive physiology, high risk of STDs, and high risk of microbial complications linked to pregnancy and birth...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007924/impact-of-periodic-presumptive-treatment-for-bacterial-vaginosis-on-the-vaginal-microbiome-among-women-participating-in-the-preventing-vaginal-infections-trial
#14
Jennifer E Balkus, Sujatha Srinivasan, Omu Anzala, Joshua Kimani, Chloe Andac, Jane Schwebke, David N Fredricks, R Scott McClelland
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests specific vaginal bacteria that are associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) may increase risk of adverse health outcomes in women. Among women participating in a randomized trial, we assessed the effect of periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) on detection and concentrations of select vaginal bacteria. METHODS: HIV-uninfected, nonpregnant women from the US and Kenya received intravaginal metronidazole 750mg plus miconazole 200mg or placebo for 5 consecutive nights each month for 12 months...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007229/sexually-transmitted-diseases-and-infertility
#15
REVIEW
Danielle G Tsevat, Harold C Wiesenfeld, Caitlin Parks, Jeffrey F Peipert
Female infertility, including tubal factor infertility, is a major public health concern worldwide. Most cases of tubal factor infertility are attributable to untreated sexually transmitted diseases that ascend along the reproductive tract and are capable of causing tubal inflammation, damage, and scarring. Evidence has consistently demonstrated the effects of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae as pathogenic bacteria involved in reproductive tract morbidities including tubal factor infertility and pelvic inflammatory disease...
January 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984345/vulvodynia-what-we-know-and-where-we-should-be-going
#16
Logan M Havemann, David R Cool, Pascal Gagneux, Michael P Markey, Jerome L Yaklic, Rose A Maxwell, Ashvin Iyer, Steven R Lindheim
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to review the current nomenclature and literature examining microbiome cytokine, genomic, proteomic, and glycomic molecular biomarkers in identifying markers related to the understanding of the pathophysiology and diagnosis of vulvodynia (VVD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Computerized searches of MEDLINE and PubMed were conducted focused on terminology, classification, and "omics" variations of VVD. Specific MESH terms used were VVD, vestibulodynia, metagenomics, vaginal fungi, cytokines, gene, protein, inflammation, glycomic, proteomic, secretomic, and genomic from 2001 to 2016...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933401/improvement-of-abnormal-vaginal-flora-in-ugandan-women-by-self-testing-and-short-use-of-intravaginal-antimicrobials
#17
G Donders, G Bellen, F Donders, J Pinget, I Vandevelde, T Michiels, J Byamughisa
The vaginal composition of African women is more often lactobacillus-deficient compared to that of women from other areas around the world. Lactobacillus-deficient microflora is a known risk factor for serious health problems, such as preterm birth, cervix cancer, and entrapment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of local vaginal antibiotic or antiseptic treatment on abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), aerobic vaginitis (AV), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in rural, semi-urban, and urban areas in Uganda, as compared to placebo...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923099/cesarean-birth-is-not-associated-with-early-childhood-body-mass-index
#18
L G Smithers, B W Mol, L Jamieson, J W Lynch
Cesarean birth leads to a markedly different microbiome compared to vaginal birth, and the microbiome has been implicated in childhood obesity. Among mothers who had a previous cesarean, we compared anthropometry of 3- to 6-year-old children who were subsequently born by cesarean section versus vaginal birth. This large population-based study involved linking de-identified administrative perinatal and anthropometric data. Children's weight and height were collected at community-based clinics and converted to age- and sex-adjusted z-scores of height-for-age (HFAz), weight-for-age (WFAz) and BMI-for-age (BMIz)...
December 6, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913230/effects-of-combined-oral-contraceptives-depot-medroxyprogesterone-acetate-and-the-levonorgestrel-releasing-intrauterine-system-on-the-vaginal-microbiome
#19
J Paul Brooks, David J Edwards, Diana L Blithe, Jennifer M Fettweis, Myrna G Serrano, Nihar U Sheth, Jerome F Strauss, Gregory A Buck, Kimberly K Jefferson
OBJECTIVES: Prior studies suggest that the composition of the vaginal microbiome may positively or negatively affect susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Some female hormonal contraceptive methods also appear to positively or negatively influence STI transmission and BV. Therefore, changes in the vaginal microbiome that are associated with different contraceptive methods may explain, in part, effects on STI transmission and BV. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective study of 16S rRNA gene survey data of vaginal samples from a subset of participants from the Human Vaginal Microbiome Project at Virginia Commonwealth University...
November 29, 2016: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899809/does-vaginal-delivery-mitigate-or-strengthen-the-intergenerational-association-of-overweight-and-obesity-findings-from-the-boston-birth-cohort
#20
N T Mueller, G Mao, W L Bennet, S K Hourigan, M G Dominguez-Bello, L J Appel, X Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The intergenerational association of obesity may be driven by mother-to-newborn transmission of microbiota at birth. Yet cesarean delivery circumvents newborn acquisition of vaginal microbiota, and has been associated with greater childhood adiposity. Here we examined the independent and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) and delivery mode with childhood overweight or obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We prospectively followed 1441 racially and ethnically diverse mother-child dyads in the Boston Birth Cohort until age 5 years (range: 2...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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