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Vaginal microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915448/the-composition-of-the-vaginal-microbiome-in-first-trimester-pregnant-women-influences-the-level-of-autophagy-and-stress-in-vaginal-epithelial-cells
#1
Dimitrios Nasioudis, Larry J Forney, G Maria Schneider, Karol Gliniewicz, Michael T France, Allison Boester, Mio Sawai, Jessica Scholl, Steven S Witkin
Epithelial cells lining the vagina are major components of genital tract immunity. The influence of the vaginal microbiome on properties of host epithelial cells is largely unexplored. We evaluated whether differences in the most abundant lactobacilli species or bacterial genera in the vagina of first trimester pregnant women were associated with variations in the extent of stress and autophagy in vaginal epithelial cells. Vaginal swabs from 154 first trimester pregnant women were analyzed for bacterial composition by amplification and sequencing of the V1-V3 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893284/role-of-sex-hormones-and-the-vaginal-microbiome-in-susceptibility-and-mucosal-immunity-to-hiv-1-in-the-female-genital-tract
#2
REVIEW
Danielle Vitali, Jocelyn M Wessels, Charu Kaushic
While the prevalence of Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection has stabilized globally, it continues to be the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. The majority of new infections are transmitted heterosexually, and women have consistently been found to be more susceptible to HIV-1 infection during heterosexual intercourse compared to men. This emphasizes the need for a deeper understanding of how the microenvironment in the female genital tract (FGT) could influence HIV-1 acquisition...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878691/spontaneous-preterm-birth-is-associated-with-differential-expression-of-vaginal-metabolites-by-lactobacilli-dominated-microflora
#3
Graham P Stafford, Jennifer L Parker, Emmanuel Amabebe, James Kistler, Steven Reynolds, Victoria Stern, Martyn Paley, Dilly O C Anumba
A major challenge in preventing preterm birth (PTB) is identifying women at greatest risk. This pilot study prospectively examined the differences in vaginal microbiota and metabolite profiles of women who delivered prematurely compared to their term counterparts in a cohort of asymptomatic (studied at 20-22, n = 80; and 26-28 weeks, n = 41) and symptomatic women (studied at 24-36 weeks, n = 37). Using 16S rRNA sequencing, the vaginal microbiota from cervicovaginal fluid samples was characterized into five Community State Types (CST) dominated by Lactobacillus spp...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877893/randomized-controlled-trial-on-the-impact-of-early-life-intervention-with-bifidobacteria-on-the-healthy-infant-fecal-microbiota-and-metabolome
#4
Monika Bazanella, Tanja V Maier, Thomas Clavel, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Marianna Lucio, Maria X Maldonado-Gòmez, Chloe Autran, Jens Walter, Lars Bode, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Dirk Haller
Background: Early-life colonization of the intestinal tract is a dynamic process influenced by numerous factors. The impact of probiotic-supplemented infant formula on the composition and function of the infant gut microbiota is not well defined.Objective: We sought to determine the effects of a bifidobacteria-containing formula on the healthy human intestinal microbiome during the first year of life.Design: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of newborn infants assigned to a standard whey-based formula containing a total of 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU)/g of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, B...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860491/influence-of-pregnancy-history-on-the-vaginal-microbiome-of-pregnant-women-in-their-first-trimester
#5
Dimitrios Nasioudis, Larry J Forney, G Maria Schneider, Karol Gliniewicz, Michael France, Allison Boester, Mio Sawai, Jessica Scholl, Steven S Witkin
Pregnancy permanently alters maternal anatomy, physiology and immunity. We evaluated if the vaginal microbiome differed between women with a first or subsequent conception. Relative abundance of bacteria in the vaginal microbiome in first trimester pregnant women, 52 with their first known conception, 26 with a prior spontaneous or induced abortion but no deliveries and 77 with at least one prior birth, was determined by classifying DNA sequences from the V1-V3 region of bacterial 16 S rRNA genes. Lactobacillus crispatus was the numerically most abundant bacterium in 76...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846702/association-between-statin-use-the-vaginal-microbiome-and-gardnerella-vaginalis-vaginolysin-mediated-cytotoxicity
#6
Abdallah A Abdelmaksoud, Philippe H Girerd, Erin M Garcia, J Paul Brooks, Lauren M Leftwich, Nihar U Sheth, Steven P Bradley, Myrna G Serrano, Jennifer M Fettweis, Bernice Huang, Jerome F Strauss, Gregory A Buck, Kimberly K Jefferson
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the leading dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiome. The pathways leading towards the development of BV are not well understood. Gardnerella vaginalis is frequently associated with BV. G. vaginalis produces the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC), vaginolysin, which can lyse a variety of human cells and is thought to play a role in pathogenesis. Because membrane cholesterol is required for vaginolysin to function, and because HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) affect not only serum levels of cholesterol but membrane levels as well, we hypothesized that statins might affect the vaginal microbiome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844447/women-and-their-microbes-the-unexpected-friendship
#7
REVIEW
Jessica A Younes, Elke Lievens, Ruben Hummelen, Rebecca van der Westen, Gregor Reid, Mariya I Petrova
Communities of microbiota have been associated with numerous health outcomes, and while much emphasis has been placed on the gastrointestinal niche, there is growing interest in the microbiome specific for female reproductive health and the health of their offspring. The vaginal microbiome plays an essential role not only in health and dysbiosis, but also potentially in successful fertilization and healthy pregnancies. In addition, microbial communities have been isolated from formerly forbidden sterile niches such as the placenta, breast, uterus, and Fallopian tubes, strongly suggesting an additional microbial role in women's health...
August 22, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841911/blood-as-a-route-of-transmission-of-uterine-pathogens-from-the-gut-to-the-uterus-in-cows
#8
Soo Jin Jeon, Federico Cunha, Achilles Vieira-Neto, Rodrigo C Bicalho, Svetlana Lima, Marcela L Bicalho, Klibs N Galvão
BACKGROUND: Metritis is an inflammatory disease of the uterus caused by bacterial infection, particularly Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, and Fusobacterium. Bacteria from the environment, feces, or vagina are believed to be the only sources of uterine contamination. Blood seeps into the uterus after calving; therefore, we hypothesized that blood could also be a seeding source of uterine bacteria. Herein, we compared bacterial communities from blood, feces, and uterine samples from the same cows at 0 and 2 days postpartum using deep sequencing and qPCR...
August 25, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835692/the-vaginal-microbiome-of-pregnant-women-is-less-rich-and-diverse-with-lower-prevalence-of-mollicutes-compared-to-non-pregnant-women
#9
Aline C Freitas, Bonnie Chaban, Alan Bocking, Maria Rocco, Siwen Yang, Janet E Hill, Deborah M Money
The vaginal microbiome plays an important role in maternal and neonatal health. Imbalances in this microbiota (dysbiosis) during pregnancy are associated with negative reproductive outcomes, such as pregnancy loss and preterm birth, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Consequently a comprehensive understanding of the baseline microbiome in healthy pregnancy is needed. We characterized the vaginal microbiomes of healthy pregnant women at 11-16 weeks of gestational age (n = 182) and compared them to those of non-pregnant women (n = 310)...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827640/intestinal-colonisation-patterns-in-breastfed-and-formula-fed-infants-during-the-first-12-weeks-of-life-reveal-sequential-microbiota-signatures
#10
Harro M Timmerman, Nicole B M M Rutten, Jos Boekhorst, Delphine M Saulnier, Guus A M Kortman, Nikhat Contractor, Martin Kullen, Esther Floris, Hermie J M Harmsen, Arine M Vlieger, Michiel Kleerebezem, Ger T Rijkers
The establishment of the infant gut microbiota is a highly dynamic process dependent on extrinsic and intrinsic factors. We characterized the faecal microbiota of 4 breastfed infants and 4 formula-fed infants at 17 consecutive time points during the first 12 weeks of life. Microbiota composition was analysed by a combination of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantitative PCR (qPCR). In this dataset, individuality was a major driver of microbiota composition (P = 0.002) and was more pronounced in breastfed infants...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825919/the-maternal-infant-microbiome-considerations-for-labor-and-birth
#11
Alexis B Dunn, Sheila Jordan, Brenda J Baker, Nicole S Carlson
The human microbiome plays a role in maintaining health, but is also thought to attenuate and/or exacerbate risk factors for adverse maternal-child health outcomes. The development of the microbiome begins in utero; however, factors related to the labor and birth environment have been shown to influence the initial colonization process of the newborn microbiome. This "seeding" or transfer of microbes from the mother to newborn may serve as an early inoculation process with implications for the long-term health outcomes of newborns...
August 18, 2017: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822242/mucosal-immunity-of-the-postpartum-bovine-genital-tract
#12
REVIEW
Dinesh Dadarwal, Colin Palmer, Philip Griebel
In this review, mucosal immune defense mechanisms used to control infections in the bovine genital tract (vestibule, vagina, cervix, uterus and oviduct) during the postpartum period are reviewed. Knowledge gaps are highlighted to emphasize the need for further investigations. Physical barriers to the entry of microbes include vulvar sealing, vestibule-vaginal constriction, a narrow cervical opening and the mucosal epithelium along with the overlying mucus layer. Genital tract mucosal epithelial cells recognize damage-associated molecular patterns and pathogen-associated molecular patterns and respond by secreting antimicrobial peptides and cytokines to recruit and activate immune cells...
August 10, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819919/the-microbial-mother-meets-the-independent-organ-cultural-discourses-of-reproductive-microbiomes
#13
Jessica R Houf
The human microbiome is changing the way experts and non-experts think about germs and microorganisms. This essay is a gender analysis of contemporary discourses surrounding the human reproductive microbiome, specifically the vaginal microbiota and the penile microbiota. I first historically situate the human reproductive microbiome within the germ theory of disease. Then, I draw on Heather Paxson's Foucauldian and Latourian concept of microbiopolitics to argue that microbiopolitics is not only about how humans should live with microorganisms; but it also impacts how humans and microbes live together as gendered beings...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818087/bugs-drugs-and-hiv-the-role-of-the-vaginal-microbiome-in-hiv-risk-and-antiretroviral-efficacy-for-hiv-prevention
#14
Lenine J P Liebenberg, Derseree Archary, Aida Sivro, Douglas S Kwon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812207/the-vaginal-microbiome-and-its-potential-to-impact-efficacy-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-women
#15
REVIEW
Jennifer Velloza, Renee Heffron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes existing evidence addressing the potential modulation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) products, specifically 1% tenofovir (TFV) gel and oral tenofovir-based PrEP, by vaginal dysbiosis and discusses future considerations for delivering novel, long-acting PrEP products to women at high risk for vaginal dysbiosis and HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: We describe results from analyses investigating the modification of PrEP efficacy by vaginal dysbiosis and studies of biological mechanisms that could render PrEP ineffective in the presence of specific microbiota...
August 15, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769875/a-stoichioproteomic-analysis-of-samples-from-the-human-microbiome-project
#16
Briana Vecchio-Pagan, Sharon Bewick, Kumar Mainali, David K Karig, William F Fagan
Ecological stoichiometry (ES) uses organism-specific elemental content to explain differences in species life histories, species interactions, community organization, environmental constraints and even ecosystem function. Although ES has been successfully applied to a range of different organisms, most emphasis on microbial ecological stoichiometry focuses on lake, ocean, and soil communities. With the recent advances in human microbiome research, however, large amounts of data are being generated that describe differences in community composition across body sites and individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719701/vaginal-microbiome-affects-efficacy-of-hiv-microbicide
#17
M J Friedrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704429/effects-of-coconut-oil-on-glycemia-inflammation-and-urogenital-microbial-parameters-in-female-ossabaw-mini-pigs
#18
Annie E Newell-Fugate, Katherine Lenz, Cassandra Skenandore, Romana A Nowak, Bryan A White, Andrea Braundmeier-Fleming
Forty percent of American women are obese and at risk for type II diabetes, impaired immune function, and altered microbiome diversity, thus impacting overall health. We investigated whether obesity induced by an excess calorie, high fat diet containing hydrogenated fats, fructose, and coconut oil (HFD) altered glucose homeostasis, peripheral immunity, and urogenital microbial dynamics. We hypothesized that HFD would cause hyperglycemia, increase peripheral inflammation, and alter urogenital microbiota to favor bacterial taxonomy associated with inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700642/bacterial-communities-found-in-placental-tissues-are-associated-with-severe-chorioamnionitis-and-adverse-birth-outcomes
#19
Ronan M Doyle, Kathryn Harris, Steve Kamiza, Ulla Harjunmaa, Ulla Ashorn, Minyanga Nkhoma, Kathryn G Dewey, Kenneth Maleta, Per Ashorn, Nigel Klein
Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Bacterial infection and the subsequent inflammatory response are recognised as an important cause of preterm birth. It is hypothesised that these organisms ascend the cervical canal, colonise placental tissues, cause chorioamnionitis and in severe cases infect amniotic fluid and the foetus. However, the presence of bacteria within the intrauterine cavity does not always precede chorioamnionitis or preterm birth. Whereas previous studies observing the types of bacteria present have been limited in size and the specificity of a few predetermined organisms, in this study we characterised bacteria found in placental tissues from a cohort of 1391 women in rural Malawi using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674641/quantifying-the-human-vaginal-community-state-types-csts-with-the-species-specificity-index
#20
Zhanshan Sam Ma, Lianwei Li
The five community state types (CSTs) first identified by Ravel et al. (2011) offered a powerful scheme to classify the states of human vaginal microbial communities (HVMC). The classification is a significant advance because it devised an effective handle to deal with the enormous inter-subject heterogeneity and/or intra-subject temporal variability, the quantification of which is extremely difficult but of critical importance such as the understanding of BV (bacterial vaginosis) etiology. Indeed, arguably the most plausible ecological hypothesis for interpreting the BV etiology heavily depends on the CST classification (Gajer et al...
2017: PeerJ
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