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Vaginal microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634475/cesarean-or-vaginal-birth-does-not-impact-the-longitudinal-development-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-a-cohort-of-exclusively-preterm-infants
#1
Christopher J Stewart, Nicholas D Embleton, Elizabeth Clements, Pamela N Luna, Daniel P Smith, Tatiana Y Fofanova, Andrew Nelson, Gillian Taylor, Caroline H Orr, Joseph F Petrosino, Janet E Berrington, Stephen P Cummings
The short and long-term impact of birth mode on the developing gut microbiome in neonates has potential implications for the health of infants. In term infants, the microbiome immediately following birth across multiple body sites corresponds to birth mode, with increased Bacteroides in vaginally delivered infants. We aimed to determine the impact of birth mode of the preterm gut microbiome over the first 100 days of life and following neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge. In total, 867 stool samples from 46 preterm infants (21 cesarean and 25 vaginal), median gestational age 27 weeks, were sequenced (V4 region 16S rRNA gene, Illumina MiSeq)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633864/perinatal-group-b-streptococcal-infections-virulence-factors-immunity-and-prevention-strategies
#2
REVIEW
Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597813/therapeutic-opportunities-in-the-vaginal-microbiome
#3
Gregor Reid
The reproductive tract of females lies at the core of humanity. The immensely complex process that leads to successful reproduction is miraculous yet invariably successful. Microorganisms have always been a cause for concern for their ability to infect this region, yet it is other, nonpathogenic microbial constituents now uncovered by sequencing technologies that offer hope for improving health. The universality of Lactobacillus species being associated with health is the basis for therapeutic opportunities, including through engineered strains...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594946/association-of-vaginal-dysbiosis-and-biofilm-with-contraceptive-vaginal-ring-biomass-in-african-women
#4
Liselotte Hardy, Vicky Jespers, Irith De Baetselier, Jozefien Buyze, Lambert Mwambarangwe, Viateur Musengamana, Janneke van de Wijgert, Tania Crucitti
We investigated the presence, density and bacterial composition of contraceptive vaginal ring biomass and its association with the vaginal microbiome. Of 415 rings worn by 120 Rwandese women for three weeks, the biomass density was assessed with crystal violet and the bacterial composition of biomass eluates was assessed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The biomass was visualised after fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The vaginal microbiome was assessed with Nugent scoring and vaginal biofilm was visualised after FISH...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594779/clinical-validation-of-a-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-vaginitis
#5
Charlotte A Gaydos, Sajo Beqaj, Jane R Schwebke, Joel Lebed, Bonnie Smith, Thomas E Davis, Kenneth H Fife, Paul Nyirjesy, Timothy Spurrell, Dorothy Furgerson, Jenell Coleman, Sonia Paradis, Charles K Cooper
OBJECTIVE: Vaginitis may be diagnosed as bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis, or coinfection. A new molecular test assays the vaginal microbiome and organisms that cause three common infections. The objective of the trial was to evaluate the clinical accuracy of the investigational test for vaginal swabs collected by patients (self) or clinicians. The primary and secondary outcomes were to compare the investigational test with reference methods for the three most common causes of vaginitis and compare clinician-collected with self-collected swabs...
June 6, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594642/ce-health-and-the-human-microbiome-a-primer-for-nurses
#6
Katie Gresia McElroy, Seon-Yoon Chung, Mary Regan
What findings about the GI and vaginal microbiota mean for patient care. ABSTRACT: The profound impact of the human microbiome on health makes it imperative that nurses understand the basic structures and functions of the various microbial communities. In studying the human microbiome, advances in DNA and RNA sequencing technology offer benefits over traditional culturebased methods. Such technology has permitted more thorough investigations of microbial communities, particularly those of the gastrointestinal (GI) and female reproductive tracts...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590950/systematic-review-the-impact-of-cancer-treatment-on-the-gut-and-vaginal-microbiome-in-women-with-a-gynecological-malignancy
#7
Ann Muls, Jervoise Andreyev, Susan Lalondrelle, Alexandra Taylor, Christine Norton, Ailsa Hart
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Worldwide, 1,470,900 women are diagnosed yearly with a gynecological malignancy (21,000 in the UK). Some patients treated with pelvic radiotherapy develop chronic changes in their bowel function. This systematic review summarizes current research on the impact of cancer treatment on the gut and vaginal microbiome in women with a gynecological malignancy. METHODS: The Preferred reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines for systematic reviews were used to ensure transparent and complete reporting...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572753/changes-in-vaginal-community-state-types-reflect-major-shifts-in-the-microbiome
#8
J Paul Brooks, Gregory A Buck, Guanhua Chen, Liyang Diao, David J Edwards, Jennifer M Fettweis, Snehalata Huzurbazar, Alexander Rakitin, Glen A Satten, Ekaterina Smirnova, Zeev Waks, Michelle L Wright, Chen Yanover, Yi-Hui Zhou
Background: Recent studies of various human microbiome habitats have revealed thousands of bacterial species and the existence of large variation in communities of microorganisms in the same habitats across individual human subjects. Previous efforts to summarize this diversity, notably in the human gut and vagina, have categorized microbiome profiles by clustering them into community state types (CSTs). The functional relevance of specific CSTs has not been established. Objective: We investigate whether CSTs can be used to assess dynamics in the microbiome...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572367/vaginal-microbiome-influences-hiv-acquisition
#9
EDITORIAL
Priscilla N Kelly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571577/protocol-for-the-emory-university-african-american-vaginal-oral-and-gut-microbiome-in-pregnancy-cohort-study
#10
Elizabeth J Corwin, Carol J Hogue, Bradley Pearce, Cherie C Hill, Timothy D Read, Jennifer Mulle, Anne L Dunlop
BACKGROUND: Adverse birth and neonatal outcomes disproportionately affect African American women and infants compared to those of other races/ethnicities. While significant research has sought to identify underlying factors contributing to these disparities, current understanding remains limited, constraining prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment. With the development of next generation sequencing techniques, the contribution of the vaginal microbiome to adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes has come under consideration...
June 1, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552417/quantification-isolation-and-characterization-of-bifidobacterium-from-the-vaginal-microbiomes-of-reproductive-aged-women
#11
Aline C Freitas, Janet E Hill
The vaginal microbiome plays an important role in women's reproductive health. Imbalances in this microbiota, such as the poorly defined condition of bacterial vaginosis, are associated with increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections and negative reproductive outcomes. Currently, a "healthy" vaginal microbiota in reproductive aged women is understood to be dominated by Lactobacillus, although "atypical" microbiomes, such as Bifidobacterium-dominated profiles, have been described. Despite these observations, vaginal bifidobacteria remain relatively poorly characterized, and questions remain regarding their actual abundance in the microbiome...
May 25, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549981/early-pregnancy-vaginal-microbiome-trends-and-preterm-birth
#12
Molly J Stout, Yanjiao Zhou, Kristine M Wylie, Phillip I Tarr, George A Macones, Methodius G Tuuli
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of attempts to link infectious agents to preterm birth, an exact causative microbe or community of microbes remains elusive. Non-culture 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing suggests important racial differences and pregnancy specific changes in the vaginal microbial communities. A recent study examining the association of the vaginal microbiome and preterm birth documented important findings but was performed in a predominantly White cohort. Given the important racial differences in bacterial communities within the vagina as well as persistent racial disparities in preterm birth it is important to examine cohorts with varied demographic compositions...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512451/colonization-and-succession-within-the-human-gut-microbiome-by-archaea-bacteria-and-microeukaryotes-during-the-first-year-of-life
#13
Linda Wampach, Anna Heintz-Buschart, Angela Hogan, Emilie E L Muller, Shaman Narayanasamy, Cedric C Laczny, Luisa W Hugerth, Lutz Bindl, Jean Bottu, Anders F Andersson, Carine de Beaufort, Paul Wilmes
Perturbations to the colonization process of the human gastrointestinal tract have been suggested to result in adverse health effects later in life. Although much research has been performed on bacterial colonization and succession, much less is known about the other two domains of life, archaea, and eukaryotes. Here we describe colonization and succession by bacteria, archaea and microeukaryotes during the first year of life (samples collected around days 1, 3, 5, 28, 150, and 365) within the gastrointestinal tract of infants delivered either vaginally or by cesarean section and using a combination of quantitative real-time PCR as well as 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504576/is-the-role-of-human-female-reproductive-tract-microbiota-underestimated
#14
D Kamińska, M Gajecka
An issue that is currently undergoing extensive study is the influence of human vaginal microbiota (VMB) on the health status of women and their neonates. Healthy women are mainly colonised with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners; however, other bacteria may be elements of the VMB, particularly in women with bacterial vaginosis. The implementation of culture-independent molecular methods in VMB characterisation, especially next-generation sequencing, have provided new information regarding bacterial diversity in the vagina, revealing a large number of novel, fastidious, and/or uncultivated bacterial species...
May 15, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480290/group-b-streptococci-colonization-in-pregnant-guatemalan-women-prevalence-risk-factors-and-vaginal-microbiome
#15
Anne-Marie Rick, Angie Aguilar, Rosita Cortes, Remei Gordillo, Mario Melgar, Gabriela Samayoa-Reyes, Daniel N Frank, Edwin J Asturias
BACKGROUND: Infection causes 1 of every 5 neonatal deaths globally. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most significant pathogen, although little is known about its epidemiology and risk in low-income countries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in 2015 at a public hospital in Guatemala City enrolled women ≥35 weeks' gestation. Vaginal and rectal swabs were processed using Lim broth and GBS CHROMagar then agglutination testing. Risk factors were assessed using multivariate analysis...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479120/what-fertility-specialists-should-know-about-the-vaginal-microbiome-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Juan Antonio García-Velasco, Marco Menabrito, Isidoro Bruna Catalán
Our understanding of the composition of the microbial communities that inhabit the human body, known as the 'microbiome', is aided by the development of non-culture-dependent DNA sequencing. It is increasingly apparent that the balance of microbial species greatly affects the health of the host. Disturbances in the composition of bacterial communities have been shown to contribute to various disease states, and there is a growing body of evidence that the vaginal microbiota, which is unique to each woman, plays an important role in determining many facets of reproductive health...
April 19, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456518/vaginal-ecosystem-modeling-of-growth-patterns-of-anaerobic-bacteria-in-microaerophilic-conditions
#17
Audrie A Medina-Colorado, Kathleen L Vincent, Aaron L Miller, Carrie A Maxwell, Lauren N Dawson, Trevelyn Olive, Elena V Kozlova, Marc M Baum, Richard B Pyles
The human vagina constitutes a complex ecosystem created through relationships established between host mucosa and bacterial communities. In this ecosystem, classically defined bacterial aerobes and anaerobes thrive as communities in the microaerophilic environment. Levels of CO2 and O2 present in the vaginal lumen are impacted by both the ecosystem's physiology and the behavior and health of the human host. Study of such complex relationships requires controlled and reproducible causational approaches that are not possible in the human host that, until recently, was the only place these bacterial communities thrived...
June 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454704/the-normal-vaginal-and-uterine-bacterial-microbiome-in-giant-pandas-ailuropoda-melanoleuca
#18
Xin Yang, Guangyang Cheng, Caiwu Li, Jiang Yang, Jianan Li, Danyu Chen, Wencheng Zou, SenYan Jin, Hemin Zhang, Desheng Li, Yongguo He, Chengdong Wang, Min Wang, Hongning Wang
While the health effects of the colonization of the reproductive tracts of mammals by bacterial communities are widely known, there is a dearth of knowledge specifically in relation to giant panda microbiomes. In order to investigate the vaginal and uterine bacterial diversity of healthy giant pandas, we used high-throughput sequence analysis of portions of the 16S rRNA gene, based on samples taken from the vaginas (GPV group) and uteri (GPU group) of these animals. Results showed that the four most abundant phyla, which contained in excess of 98% of the total sequences, were Proteobacteria (59...
June 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436097/the-vaginal-microbiome-and-gynaecological-cancer-exercise-caution-when-considering-causation
#19
N C Ramchander, E J Crosbie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418713/defence-factors-of-vaginal-lactobacilli
#20
S Kovachev
Accurate knowledge of the composition and ecology of the vaginal microbial environment in healthy women is necessary for understanding lactobacilli-dominated normal microbiota and the mechanisms by which it reduces disease risk. The vagina and its microbiota form a balanced ecosystem; any movement outside the normal range for this ecosystem of obligate and/or facultative microbes, termed dysbacteriosis, can lead to infection and disease. This review summarizes recent research on the vaginal ecosystem, the Lactobacillus species that dominate it, and the means by which they suppress the growth, development, and/or proliferation of pathogenic microbial species...
April 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
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