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Vaginal microbiome

Tonya L Ward, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Tim Heisel, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Dan Knights, Cheryl A Gale
With the advent of next-generation sequencing and microbial community characterization, we are beginning to understand the key factors that shape early-life microbial colonization and associated health outcomes. Studies characterizing infant microbial colonization have focused mostly on bacteria in the microbiome and have largely neglected fungi (the mycobiome), despite their relevance to mucosal infections in healthy infants. In this pilot study, we characterized the skin, oral, and anal mycobiomes of infants over the first month of life ( n = 17) and the anal and vaginal mycobiomes of mothers ( n = 16) by internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) amplicon sequencing...
May 2018: MSystems
R M Tribe, P D Taylor, N M Kelly, D Rees, J Sandall, H P Kennedy
Caesarean section and instrumental delivery rates are increasing in many parts of the world due to a range of cultural and medical reasons, with limited consideration as to how 'mode of delivery' may impact on childhood and long-term health. However, babies born particularly by pre-labour caesarean section appear to have a subtly different physiology to those born by normal vaginal delivery, with both acute and chronic complications such as respiratory and other morbidities being apparent. It has been hypothesised that inherent mechanisms within the process of labour and vaginal delivery, far from being a passive mechanical process by which the fetus and placenta are expelled from the birth canal, may trigger certain protective developmental processes permissive for normal immunological and physiological development of the fetus postnatally...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Kathryn A Patras, Victor Nizet
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonizes the gastrointestinal and vaginal epithelium of a significant percentage of healthy women, with potential for ascending intrauterine infection or transmission during parturition, creating a risk of serious disease in the vulnerable newborn. This review highlights new insights on the bacterial virulence determinants, host immune responses, and microbiome interactions that underpin GBS vaginal colonization, the proximal step in newborn infectious disease pathogenesis. From the pathogen perspective, the function GBS adhesins and biofilms, β-hemolysin/cytolysin toxin, immune resistance factors, sialic acid mimicry, and two-component transcriptional regulatory systems are reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Sharon L Achilles, Michele N Austin, Leslie A Meyn, Felix Mhlanga, Zvavahera M Chirenje, Sharon L Hillier
BACKGROUND: Data evaluating the impact of contraceptives on the vaginal microbiome are limited and inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that women initiating copper intrauterine device use would have increased bacterial vaginosis and bacterial vaginosis-associated microbes with use compared to women initiating and using hormonal contraceptive methods. STUDY DESIGN: Vaginal swabs (N=1047 from 266 participants seeking contraception) for Nugent score determination of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses for assessment of specific microbiota were collected from asymptomatic, healthy women aged 18-35 in Harare, Zimbabwe who were confirmed to be free of non-study hormones by mass spectrometry at each visit...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Eileen P Scully
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will outline the multilevel effects of biological sex on HIV acquisition, pathogenesis, treatment response, and prospects for cure. Potential mechanisms will be discussed along with future research directions. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV acquisition risk is modified by sex hormones and the vaginal microbiome, with the latter acting through both inflammation and local metabolism of pre-exposure prophylaxis drugs. Female sex associates with enhanced risk for non-AIDS morbidities including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, suggesting different inflammatory profiles in men and women...
March 5, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Katri Korpela, Paul Igor Costea, Luis Pedro Coelho, Stefanie Kandels-Lewis, Gonneke Willemsen, Dorret I Boomsma, Nicola Segata, Peer Bork
Vertical transmission of bacteria from mother to infant at birth is postulated to initiate a life-long host-microbe symbiosis, playing an important role in early infant development. However, only the tracking of strictly defined unique microbial strains can clarify where the intestinal bacteria come from, how long the initial colonisers persist and whether colonisation by other strains from the environment can replace existing ones. Using rare single nucleotide variants in fecal metagenomes of infants and their family members, we show strong evidence of selective and persistent transmission of maternal strain populations to the vaginally born infant, and their occasional replacement by strains from the environment, including those from family members, in later childhood...
March 1, 2018: Genome Research
Angelamaria Becorpi, Giuseppina Campisciano, Nunzia Zanotta, Zelinda Tredici, Secondo Guaschino, Felice Petraglia, Annalisa Pieralli, Giovanni Sisti, Francesco De Seta, Manola Comar
The composition of vaginal microbiome in menopause and cancer survivor women changes dramatically leading to genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) in up to 7% of patients. Recent reports suggest that laser therapy may be valuable as a not hormonal therapeutic modality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of fractional CO2 laser treatment on the vaginal secretory pathway of a large panel of immune mediators, usually implicated in tissue remodeling and inflammation, and on microbiome composition in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors...
March 1, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Yi-Chao Shi, He Guo, Jing Chen, Gang Sun, Rong-Rong Ren, Ming-Zhou Guo, Li-Hua Peng, Yun-Sheng Yang
Previous studies have revealed significant differences in microbiome compositions between infants delivered via cesarean section (C-section) and natural vaginal birth. However, the importance of the delivery mode in the first days of life remains unclear. Importantly, this stage is minimally affected by infant feeding. Here, we used a metagenomic sequencing technique to characterize the meconium microbiome from the feces of a Chinese cohort of vaginally and C-section-delivered infants, including in vitro fertilization (IVF) newborns, during the first 24 h after birth...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gilbert Gerard Ghislain Donders, G Bellen, Kateryna Ruban, Ben Van Bulck
BACKGROUND: Recurrent vulvovaginal infections are a frequent complaint in young women in need of contraception. However, the influence of the contraceptive method on the course of the disease is not well known. AIM: To investigate the influence of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine-system (LNG-IUS) on the vaginal microflora. METHODS: Short-term (3 months) and long-term (1 to 5 years) changes of vaginal microbiota were compared with pre-insertion values in 252 women presenting for LNG-IUS insertion...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Carl J Yeoman, Suzanne L Ishaq, Elena Bichi, Sarah K Olivo, James Lowe, Brian M Aldridge
The impact of maternal microbial influences on the early choreography of the neonatal calf microbiome were investigated. Luminal content and mucosal scraping samples were collected from ten locations in the calf gastrointestinal tract (GIT) over the first 21 days of life, along with postpartum maternal colostrum, udder skin, and vaginal scrapings. Microbiota were found to vary by anatomical location, between the lumen and mucosa at each GIT location, and differentially enriched for maternal vaginal, skin, and colostral microbiota...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Melis N Anahtar, David B Gootenberg, Caroline M Mitchell, Douglas S Kwon
Cervicovaginal microbiota play a critical role in women's health and reproductive outcomes. Despite being one of the simplest commensal bacterial communities in the human body, we are only beginning to appreciate its complex dynamic nature and important role in host immune modulation. In this review, we discuss the "optimal" cervicovaginal bacterial community composition, the impact of microbiota on gynecologic and obstetric outcomes, and the hurdles to developing a deeper mechanistic understanding of the function of the cervicovaginal microbiome...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Khoudia Diop, Awa Diop, Anthony Levasseur, Oleg Mediannikov, Catherine Robert, Nicholas Armstrong, Carine Couderc, Florence Bretelle, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Florence Fenollar
Microbial culturomics is a new subfield of postgenomic medicine and omics biotechnology application that has broadened our awareness on bacterial diversity of the human microbiome, including the human vaginal flora bacterial diversity. Using culturomics, a new obligate anaerobic Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped bacterium designated strain khD1 T was isolated in the vagina of a patient with bacterial vaginosis and characterized using taxonogenomics. The most abundant cellular fatty acids were C 15:0 anteiso (36%), C 16:0 (19%), and C 15:0 iso (10%)...
February 15, 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
McKenna C Eastment, R Scott McClelland
: Bacterial vaginosis, characterized by the replacement of the Lactobacillus-dominant microbiota with anaerobic bacteria and facultative Gram-negative rods, has been associated with adverse reproductive health outcomes including HIV acquisition. With the advent of newer molecular techniques, the vaginal microbiota can be investigated in more detail and the association with HIV examined more thoroughly. This review examines recent evidence suggesting that vaginal dysbiosis with increased microbial diversity, specific vaginal bacterial communities, and the presence and concentrations of some individual bacterial species, may increase HIV susceptibility...
February 8, 2018: AIDS
Jessica Eden Miller, Chunsen Wu, Lars Henning Pedersen, Nicholas de Klerk, Jørn Olsen, David P Burgner
Background: The early life microbiome contributes to immune development. Antibiotics during pregnancy alter the microbiome and may influence disease risks in the offspring. We investigated the relationship between maternal antibiotic exposure before and during pregnancy, and risk of childhood hospitalization with infection. Methods: We used population-based Danish national databases for pregnancies between 1995 and 2009. Infants were followed from birth until their first infection-related hospitalization, death, 14th birthday, emigration or end-2009...
February 4, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Giuseppina Campisciano, Nunzia Zanotta, Danilo Licastro, Francesco De Seta, Manola Comar
The microbiota fulfils a key role in the training and function of the immune system, which contributes to the symbiosis between the host and complex microbial communities. In this study, we characterized the interplay between vaginal bacteria and local immune mediators during dysbiosis in selected women of reproductive age who were grouped according to Nugent's criteria. The abundance of Gardnerella vaginalis and Bifidobacterium breve was increased in the intermediate dysbiotic status, while the presence of a plethora of non-resident bacteria characterized the group with overt vaginosis...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Raivo Kolde, Eric A Franzosa, Gholamali Rahnavard, Andrew Brantley Hall, Hera Vlamakis, Christine Stevens, Mark J Daly, Ramnik J Xavier, Curtis Huttenhower
BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing recognition that microbial communities within the human body are linked to health, we have an incomplete understanding of the environmental and molecular interactions that shape the composition of these communities. Although host genetic factors play a role in these interactions, these factors have remained relatively unexplored given the requirement for large population-based cohorts in which both genotyping and microbiome characterization have been performed...
January 29, 2018: Genome Medicine
Noelle Noyes, Kyu-Chul Cho, Jacques Ravel, Larry J Forney, Zaid Abdo
The vaginal microbiome plays an influential role in several disease states in reproductive age women, including bacterial vaginosis (BV). While demographic characteristics are associated with differences in vaginal microbiome community structure, little is known about the influence of sexual and hygiene habits. Furthermore, associations between the vaginal microbiome and risk symptoms of bacterial vaginosis have not been fully elucidated. Using Bayesian network (BN) analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence results, demographic and extensive questionnaire data, we describe both novel and previously documented associations between habits of women and their vaginal microbiome...
2018: PloS One
Rafael Guerrero-Preston, James Robert White, Filipa Godoy-Vitorino, Arnold Rodríguez-Hilario, Kelvin Navarro, Herminio González, Christina Michailidi, Anne Jedlicka, Sierra Canapp, Jessica Bondy, Amanda Dziedzic, Barbara Mora-Lagos, Gustavo Rivera-Alvarez, Carmen Ili-Gangas, Priscilla Brebi-Mieville, William Westra, Wayne Koch, Hyunseok Kang, Luigi Marchionni, Young Kim, David Sidransky
Microbiome studies show altered microbiota in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), both in terms of taxonomic composition and metabolic capacity. These studies utilized a traditional bioinformatics methodology, which allows for accurate taxonomic assignment down to the genus level, but cannot accurately resolve species level membership. We applied Resphera Insight, a high-resolution methodology for 16S rRNA taxonomic assignment that is able to provide species-level context in its assignments of 16S rRNA next generation sequencing (NGS) data...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
Aline C Freitas, Janet E Hill
We report here the draft genome sequences of Bifidobacterium strains N4G05 and N5G01, isolated from the human vaginal microbiome. Genome sequences were obtained by de novo assembly from high-quality reads. Both strains were closely related to Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense based on barcode marker sequences and average nucleotide identity analysis.
January 11, 2018: Genome Announcements
María Alejandra Moreno, Susana Córdoba, Iris Catiana Zampini, María Rosa Alberto, M E Fatima Nader-Macias, Jorge Sayago, Alberto Burgos-Edwards, Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann, María Inés Isla
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Argentinean medicinal plant Tetraglochin cristatum (Britton) Rothm is used in traditional medicine by inhabitants from Argentinean northwestern highlands (Puna) to treat candidiasis and as anti-inflammatory. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the potential of the crude drug as an anti-Candida agent with anti-inflammatory properties. The bioactivity and phytochemical composition of a dry extract of the plant was investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A hydroalcoholic dry extract from T...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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