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Vaginal microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436097/the-vaginal-microbiome-and-gynaecological-cancer-exercise-caution-when-considering-causation
#1
Neal C Ramchander, Emma J Crosbie
Genital infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is extremely common in young, sexually active women, but most infections are transient and clear without ever causing disease. Persistent infection causes premalignant cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), which, if left untreated, can undergo malignant transformation and become invasive cancer. Cervical cancer is thus considered a late, rare consequence of persistent high-risk HPV infection (Crosbie et al. Lancet 2013; 382:889-99). Factors that influence the acquisition of genital HPV and the rate of its natural clearance are therefore important in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer...
April 24, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418713/defence-factors-of-vaginal-lactobacilli
#2
S Kovachev
Accurate knowledge of the composition and ecology of the vaginal microbial environment in healthy women is necessary for understanding lactobacilli-dominated normal microbiota and the mechanisms by which it reduces disease risk. The vagina and its microbiota form a balanced ecosystem; any movement outside the normal range for this ecosystem of obligate and/or facultative microbes, termed dysbacteriosis, can lead to infection and disease. This review summarizes recent research on the vaginal ecosystem, the Lactobacillus species that dominate it, and the means by which they suppress the growth, development, and/or proliferation of pathogenic microbial species...
April 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381231/exposure-to-household-furry-pets-influences-the-gut-microbiota-of-infant-at-3-4%C3%A2-months-following-various-birth-scenarios
#3
Hein M Tun, Theodore Konya, Tim K Takaro, Jeffrey R Brook, Radha Chari, Catherine J Field, David S Guttman, Allan B Becker, Piush J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Padmaja Subbarao, Malcolm R Sears, James A Scott, Anita L Kozyrskyj
BACKGROUND: Early-life exposure to household pets has the capacity to reduce risk for overweight and allergic disease, especially following caesarean delivery. Since there is some evidence that pets also alter the gut microbial composition of infants, changes to the gut microbiome are putative pathways by which pet exposure can reduce these risks to health. To investigate the impact of pre- and postnatal pet exposure on infant gut microbiota following various birth scenarios, this study employed a large subsample of 746 infants from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development Study (CHILD) cohort, whose mothers were enrolled during pregnancy between 2009 and 2012...
April 6, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366838/trichomonas-vaginalis-infection-in-symbiosis-with-trichomonasvirus-and-mycoplasma
#4
Raina Fichorova, Jorge Fraga, Paola Rappelli, Pier Luigi Fiori
Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan with an extracellular obligatory parasitic lifestyle exclusively adapted to the human urogenital tract and responsible for nearly a quarter billion sexually transmitted infections worldwide each year. This review focuses on symbiotic Trichomonasvirus and mycoplasma carried by the protozoan, their molecular features and their role in altering the human vaginal microbiome and the immunopathogenicity of the parasite. Improved diagnostics and larger clinical interventional studies are needed to confirm the causative role of protozoan symbionts in the variable clinical presentation of trichomoniasis and its morbid sequelae, including adverse reproductive outcome, susceptibility to viral infections and cancer...
March 31, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351489/dying-for-love-perimenopausal-degeneration-of-vaginal-microbiome-drives-the-chronic-inflammation-malignant-transformation-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-to-prostatic-adenocarcinoma
#5
Albert Stuart Reece
Prostatic carcinoma is the second commonest cancer in males and is so common as to become almost holoendemic with advancing age. The recent demonstration that far from being benign, "benign" prostatic hypertrophy is a likely a reaction of the prostate to chronic untreated lower genital tract infection, and that this chronic inflammation is likely the usual precursor to the frequent occurrence of prostatic carcinoma has far reaching implications. The obvious source for the chronic inflammatory stimulus in the prostate is the documented dramatically altered lower female genital microbiota associated with the menopause...
April 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346936/differential-establishment-of-bifidobacteria-in-the-breastfed-infant-gut
#6
Zachery T Lewis, David A Mills
The composition of an infant's gut microbiome can impact their immediate and long-term health. Bifdobacteria play a major role in structuring the gut microbiome of breastfed infants due to their ability to consume oligosaccharides found in human milk. However, recent studies have revealed that bifidobacteria are often absent in the gut microbiome of breastfed infants in some locations. This lack of colonization may be due either to differences in the environmental conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of uncolonized infants which prohibit the growth of bifidobacteria or a dearth of sources from which infants may acquire these specialized bacterial species...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346935/dysbiosis-in-the-neonatal-period-role-of-cesarean-section
#7
Josef Neu
From epidemiological studies and studies done evaluating microbiomes in infants, there is a strong signal that the infants born by elective cesarean section (C-section) develop microbiota that differs from those babies born by vaginal delivery. Epidemiological studies show increased odds ratios for the development of immunological disorders such as type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, asthma, allergic diseases as well as metabolic diseases such as obesity in babies born by C-section. These are interesting associations, and if supported by additional studies that rigorously control for confounding factors, they will have major public health implications...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326541/manipulating-the-baby-biome-what-are-the-issues
#8
Lai-Yang Lee, Suzanne M Garland, Michelle L Giles, Andrew J Daley
Establishing a baby biome through the controversial practice of 'vaginal seeding' has generated interest among the general public and healthcare providers alike. We discuss the potential risks of this practice and offer a harm minimisation approach to managing women requesting vaginal microbiome transfer after delivery by caesarean section.
March 22, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326084/hiv-infection-and-compromised-mucosal-immunity-oral-manifestations-and-systemic-inflammation
#9
REVIEW
Samantha E Heron, Shokrollah Elahi
Mucosal surfaces account for the vast majority of HIV transmission. In adults, HIV transmission occurs mainly by vaginal and rectal routes but rarely via oral route. By contrast, pediatric HIV infections could be as the result of oral route by breastfeeding. As such mucosal surfaces play a crucial role in HIV acquisition, and spread of the virus depends on its ability to cross a mucosal barrier. HIV selectively infects, depletes, and/or dysregulates multiple arms of the human immune system particularly at the mucosal sites and causes substantial irreversible damage to the mucosal barriers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322134/reproductive-microbiomes
#10
Michael L Power, Caroline Quaglieri, Jay Schulkin
Almost every part of our body has a coevolved microbial community. The expressed microbial genes comprise the various microbiomes that play important roles in normal physiology and development. The various microbiomes are separate, yet often connected, with the species composition of one affecting others. The female reproductive system microbiomes (eg, vaginal, placental, and mammary/milk) remain less well explored than the gut microbiome although they comprise a large proportion of the female microbial network...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315860/determinants-and-duration-of-impact-of-early-gut-bacterial-colonization
#11
Christine Ann Edwards
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies show low diversity of the gut microbiome in those with chronic diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. Manipulation of the microbiota may promote health. However, the adult microbiota is stable and may be difficult to change. Understanding the fixed and modifiable factors, which determine colonization in early life, may provide strategies for acquisition of a health-promoting microbiome. SUMMARY: Not enough is known about the long-term effects of established determinants of gut colonization, including delivery mode, perinatal antibiotics, and infant diet...
March 18, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301987/properties-of-epithelial-cells-and-vaginal-secretions-in-pregnant-women-when-lactobacillus-crispatus-or-lactobacillus-iners-dominate-the-vaginal-microbiome
#12
Julie Leizer, Dimitrios Nasioudis, Larry J Forney, G Maria Schneider, Karol Gliniewicz, Allison Boester, Steven S Witkin
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine differences in properties of vaginal epithelial cells and the composition of vaginal secretions when Lactobacillus crispatus or Lactobacillus iners are numerically dominant in the vaginal microenvironment of pregnant women. METHODS: The vaginal microbiomes of 157 first-trimester pregnant women were identified by classifying partial 16S gene sequences amplified from the V1 to V3 region of bacterial ribosomal 16S RNA genes...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285169/microbial-profiling-of-cpn60-universal-target-sequences-in-artificial-mixtures-of-vaginal-bacteria-sampled-by-nylon-swabs-or-self-sampling-devices-under-different-storage-conditions
#13
John J Schellenberg, Angela Yena Oh, Janet E Hill
The vaginal microbiome is increasingly characterized by deep sequencing of universal genes. However, there are relatively few studies of how different specimen collection and sample storage and processing influence these molecular profiles. Here, we evaluate molecular microbial community profiles of samples collected using the HerSwab™ self-sampling device, compared to nylon swabs and under different storage conditions. In order to minimize technical variation, mixtures of 11 common vaginal bacteria in simulated vaginal fluid medium were sampled and DNA extracts prepared for massively parallel sequencing of the cpn60 universal target (UT)...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278350/the-role-of-the-vaginal-microbiome-in-gynecological-cancer-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Miriam Champer, Alexandra M Wong, Jackson Champer, Ilana L Brito, Philipp W Messer, June Y Hou, Jason D Wright
Human microbiome research has shown commensal bacteria to be a major factor in both wellness and disease pathogenesis. Interest in the microbiome has recently expanded beyond the gut to include a multitude of other organ systems for which the microbiome may have health implications. Here, we review the role of the vaginal microbiome in health and disease, with a particular focus on gynecologic malignancies. Further, we suggest that it may be possible to expand the use of probiotics in the treatment of gynecologic cancers...
March 9, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277350/vaginal-microbiome-and-its-relationship-to-behavior-sexual-health-and-sexually-transmitted-diseases
#15
Felicia M T Lewis, Kyle T Bernstein, Sevgi O Aral
The vaginal microbiota has great significance in maintaining vaginal health and protecting the host from disease. Recent advances in molecular techniques and informatics allow researchers to explore microbial composition in detail and to compare the structure of vaginal microbial communities with behavior and health outcomes, particularly acquisition and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and poor birth outcomes. Vaginal flora have been found to cluster into a limited number of communities, although community structure is dynamic...
April 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266933/endometrial-microbiome
#16
Jason M Franasiak, Richard T Scott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There have been great improvements in assisted reproduction in the recent decade; however, there are still a significant number of chromosomally normal blastocysts that fail to produce live births. The human microbiome is the totality of the microbes and their genomes that exist in and on the host. The understanding of its impact on health and human disease, particularly in human reproduction, is evolving. RECENT FINDINGS: New technologies have empowered metagenomic sample analysis that allows for more fully characterizing the reproductive tract microbiome...
March 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266645/stress-during-pregnancy-alters-temporal-and-spatial-dynamics-of-the-maternal-and-offspring-microbiome-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#17
Eldin Jašarević, Christopher D Howard, Ana M Misic, Daniel P Beiting, Tracy L Bale
The microbiome is a regulator of host immunity, metabolism, neurodevelopment, and behavior. During early life, bacterial communities within maternal gut and vaginal compartments can have an impact on directing these processes. Maternal stress experience during pregnancy may impact offspring development by altering the temporal and spatial dynamics of the maternal microbiome during pregnancy. To examine the hypothesis that maternal stress disrupts gut and vaginal microbial dynamics during critical prenatal and postnatal windows, we used high-resolution 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing to examine outcomes in our mouse model of early prenatal stress...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263902/mollicutes-in-vaginal-microbiology-mycoplasma-hominis-ureaplasma-urealyticum-ureaplasma-parvum-and-mycoplasma-genitalium
#18
David Taylor-Robinson
Mycoplasma hominis was isolated in 1937 from the human genital tract, followed 17 years later by Ureaplasma urealyticum and 27 years after that by Mycoplasma genitalium. The first two proved relatively easy to culture but the latter required a polymerase chain reaction assay for further studies. In sexually mature women, M. hominis may be found in the vagina/cervix of about 20-50%, ureaplasmas in 40-80% and M. genitalium in 0-5%. Some heterogeneity has been found among strains of all these species, sufficient to divide ureaplasmas into two species, namely U...
March 2, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257809/the-global-health-impact-of-vaginal-dysbiosis
#19
Janneke H H M van de Wijgert, Vicky Jespers
The most common dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiome (defined here as a vaginal microbiome not dominated by lactobacilli) is bacterial vaginosis, an anaerobic polybacterial dysbiosis. Other dysbiotic states of importance to global health are vaginal microbiota with a high abundance of streptococci, staphylococci or Enterobacteriaceae, vaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Knowledge about the different types of dysbiosis and their relationship to urogenital and reproductive disease burden has increased in recent years by applying non-culture-based techniques, but is far from complete...
March 1, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252577/maternal-child-microbiome-specimen-collection-storage-and-implications-for-research-and-practice
#20
Sheila Jordan, Brenda Baker, Alexis Dunn, Sara Edwards, Erin Ferranti, Abby D Mutic, Irene Yang, Jeannie Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: The maternal microbiome is a key contributor to the development and outcomes of pregnancy and the health status of both mother and infant. Significant advances are occurring in the science of the maternal and child microbiome and hold promise in improving outcomes related to pregnancy complications, child development, and chronic health conditions of mother and child. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to review site-specific considerations in the collection and storage of maternal and child microbiome samples and its implications for nursing research and practice...
March 2017: Nursing Research
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