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Vaginal microbiome

Yuko M Komesu, Holly E Richter, Darrell L Dinwiddie, Nazema Y Siddiqui, Vivian W Sung, Emily S Lukacz, Beri Ridgeway, Lily A Arya, Halina M Zyczynski, Rebecca G Rogers, Marie Gantz
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We describe the rationale and methods of a study designed to compare vaginal and urinary microbiomes in women with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) and similarly aged, asymptomatic controls. METHODS: This paper delineates the methodology of a supplementary microbiome study nested in an ongoing randomized controlled trial comparing a standardized perioperative behavioral/pelvic floor exercise intervention plus midurethral sling versus midurethral sling alone for MUI...
October 13, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
Inmaculada Moreno, Francisco M Codoñer, Felipe Vilella, Diana Valbuena, Juan F Martinez-Blanch, Jorge Jimenez-Almazán, Roberto Alonso, Pilar Alamá, Jose Remohí, Antonio Pellicer, Daniel Ramon, Carlos Simon
BACKGROUND: Bacterial cells in the human body account for 1-3% of total body weight and are at least equal in number to human cells. Recent research has focused on understanding how the different bacterial communities in the body (eg, gut, respiratory, skin, and vaginal microbiomes) predispose to health and disease. The microbiota of the reproductive tract has been inferred from the vaginal bacterial communities, and the uterus has been classically considered a sterile cavity. However, while the vaginal microbiota has been investigated in depth, there is a paucity of consistent data regarding the existence of an endometrial microbiota and its possible impact in reproductive function...
October 4, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Kenetta L Nunn, Larry J Forney
Four Lactobacillus species, namely L. crispatus , L. iners, L. gasseri, and L. jensenii, commonly dominate the vaginal communities of most reproductive-age women. It is unclear why these particular species, and not others, are so prevalent. Historically, estrogen-induced glycogen production by the vaginal epithelium has been proffered as being key to supporting the proliferation of vaginal lactobacilli. However, the 'fly in the ointment' (that has been largely ignored) is that the species of Lactobacillus commonly found in the human vagina cannot directly metabolize glycogen...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Michael T France, Helena Mendes-Soares, Larry J Forney
: Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus iners are common inhabitants of the healthy human vagina. These two species are closely related and are thought to perform similar ecological functions in the vaginal environment. Temporal data on the vaginal microbiome has shown that non-transient instances of co-occurrence are uncommon while transitions from an L. iners dominated community to one dominated by L. crispatus, and vice versa, occur often. This suggests that there is substantial overlap in the fundamental niche of these species...
September 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Manuel Ferrer, Celia Méndez-García, David Rojo, Coral Barbas, Andrés Moya
Our microbiome should be understood as one of the most complex components of the human body. The use of β-lactam antibiotics is one of the microbiome covariates that influence its composition. The extent to which our microbiota changes after an antibiotic intervention depends not only on the chemical nature of the antibiotic or cocktail of antibiotics used to treat specific infections, but also on the type of administration, duration and dose, as well as the level of resistance that each microbiota develops...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Spyros A Kalams, Lisa M Rogers, Rita M Smith, Louise Barnett, Katie Crumbo, Shonda Sumner, Naomi Prashad, Kyle Rybczyk, Ginger Milne, Scot E Dowd, Erica Chong, Beverly Winikoff, David M Aronoff
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which misoprostol alters mucosal or systemic immune responses following either buccal or vaginal administration. METHODS: This was a prospective, crossover pilot study of 15 healthy, reproductive-age women. Women first received 800 μg misoprostol either via buccal or vaginal administration and were crossed over 1 month later to receive the drug via the other route. Cervicovaginal lavage samples, cervical Cytobrush samples, cervicovaginal swabs, urine and blood were obtained immediately prior to drug administration and the following day...
September 16, 2016: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Lindsay M Kindinger, David A MacIntyre, Yun S Lee, Julian R Marchesi, Ann Smith, Julie A K McDonald, Vasso Terzidou, Joanna R Cook, Christoph Lees, Fidan Israfil-Bayli, Yazmin Faiza, Philip Toozs-Hobson, Mark Slack, Stefano Cacciatore, Elaine Holmes, Jeremy K Nicholson, T G Teoh, Phillip R Bennett
Preterm birth, the leading cause of death in children under 5 years, may be caused by inflammation triggered by ascending vaginal infection. About 2 million cervical cerclages are performed annually to prevent preterm birth. The procedure is thought to provide structural support and maintain the endocervical mucus plug as a barrier to ascending infection. Two types of suture material are used for cerclage: monofilament or multifilament braided. Braided sutures are most frequently used, although no evidence exists to favor them over monofilament sutures...
August 3, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
Maria Kyrgiou, Anita Mitra, Anna-Barbara Moscicki
Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary but not sufficient for the development of cervical cancer. The factors promoting persistence as well those triggering carcinogenetic pathways are incompletely understood. Rapidly evolving evidence indicates that the vaginal microbiome (VM) may play a functional role (both protective and harmful) in the acquisition and persistence of HPV, and subsequent development of cervical cancer. The first studies examining the VM and the presence of an HPV infection using next-generation sequencing techniques identified higher microbial diversity in HPV-positive as opposed to HPV-negative women...
July 15, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Erigene Rutayisire, Kun Huang, Yehao Liu, Fangbiao Tao
BACKGROUND: The human gut is the habitat for diverse and dynamic microbial ecosystem. The human microbiota plays a critical role in functions that sustain health and is a positive asset in host defenses. Establishment of the human intestinal microbiota during infancy may be influenced by multiple factors including delivery mode. Present review compiles existing evidences on the effect of delivery mode on the diversity and colonization pattern of infants gut microbiota. METHODS: Two investigators searched for relevant scientific publications from four databases (Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science)...
2016: BMC Gastroenterology
M R Millar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 27, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Jon Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 22, 2016: Science
Alicia L Muhleisen, Melissa M Herbst-Kralovetz
For over a century it has been well documented that bacteria in the vagina maintain vaginal homeostasis, and that an imbalance or dysbiosis may be associated with poor reproductive and gynecologic health outcomes. Vaginal microbiota are of particular significance to postmenopausal women and may have a profound effect on vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal dryness, sexual health and overall quality of life. As molecular-based techniques have evolved, our understanding of the diversity and complexity of this bacterial community has expanded...
September 2016: Maturitas
David H Martin, Jeanne M Marrazzo
This article summarizes the highlights of the expert technical consultation on bacterial vaginosis (BV), sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease and held in Washington, DC, on 8-9 April 2015. Many issues touched on in this article are discussed in much greater detail in the 6 preceding articles in this supplement to The Journal of Infectious Diseases There was a consensus among the meeting attendees concerning the most important research issues in the field: the pathogenesis of the syndrome, way to optimize treatment, and the relative roles of sexual transmission and endogenous infection in BV epidemiology...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Candelaria Gonzalez Moreno, Cecilia Fontana, Pier Sandro Cocconcelli, María Luisa Callegari, María Claudia Otero
AIM: To evaluate changes in the resident microbial population in the cranial vaginal mucosa induced by a a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID) compared to the vaginal microbiota of cows with reproductive disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vaginal discharge was evaluated by clinical examination and a Vaginitis Diagnosis Score was performed by exfoliative cytology. All samples classified as positive and some classified as negative by clinical evaluation were later diagnosed as positive for vaginitis by cytological analysis...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Akila Subramaniam, Travis Ptacek, Elena Lobashevsky, Suzanne Cliver, Elliot J Lefkowitz, Casey D Morrow, Joseph R Biggio, Rodney K Edwards
Objective This study aims to evaluate differences in the midtrimester cervicovaginal microbiota between women who developed puerperal infections at term and those who did not, and whether obesity modulates this relationship. Methods Previously, cervicovaginal swabs were collected at 21 to 25 weeks gestation (stored at -80°C). Samples were identified from Black women with normal vaginal flora (Nugent score: 0-2) delivering term singletons. Patients were in one of four equally sized groups (total n = 120) characterized by absence or presence of puerperal infection and maternal obesity...
October 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Ki Ho Hong, Sung Kuk Hong, Sung Im Cho, Eunkyung Ra, Kyung Hee Han, Soon Beom Kang, Eui Chong Kim, Sung Sup Park, Moon Woo Seong
BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can detect many more microorganisms of a microbiome than traditional methods. This study aimed to analyze the vaginal microbiomes of Korean women by using NGS that included bacteria and other microorganisms. The NGS results were compared with the results of other assays, and NGS was evaluated for its feasibility for predicting vaginitis. METHODS: In total, 89 vaginal swab specimens were collected. Microscopic examinations of Gram staining and microbiological cultures were conducted on 67 specimens...
September 2016: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Paola Nardini, Rogers Alberto Ñahui Palomino, Carola Parolin, Luca Laghi, Claudio Foschi, Roberto Cevenini, Beatrice Vitali, Antonella Marangoni
Lactobacillus species dominate the vaginal microbiota of healthy reproductive-age women and protect the genitourinary tract from the attack of several infectious agents. Chlamydia trachomatis, a leading cause of sexually transmitted disease worldwide, can induce severe sequelae, i.e. pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. In the present study we investigated the interference of Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri and L. vaginalis, known to be dominant species in the vaginal microbiome, with the infection process of C...
2016: Scientific Reports
Abigail P Lauder, Aoife M Roche, Scott Sherrill-Mix, Aubrey Bailey, Alice L Laughlin, Kyle Bittinger, Rita Leite, Michal A Elovitz, Samuel Parry, Frederic D Bushman
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that bacteria associated with the placenta-a "placental microbiome"-may be important in reproductive health and disease. However, a challenge in working with specimens with low bacterial biomass, such as placental samples, is that some or all of the bacterial DNA may derive from contamination in dust or commercial reagents. To investigate this, we compared placental samples from healthy deliveries to a matched set of contamination controls, as well as to oral and vaginal samples from the same women...
2016: Microbiome
Moran Yassour, Tommi Vatanen, Heli Siljander, Anu-Maaria Hämäläinen, Taina Härkönen, Samppa J Ryhänen, Eric A Franzosa, Hera Vlamakis, Curtis Huttenhower, Dirk Gevers, Eric S Lander, Mikael Knip, Ramnik J Xavier
The gut microbial community is dynamic during the first 3 years of life, before stabilizing to an adult-like state. However, little is known about the impact of environmental factors on the developing human gut microbiome. We report a longitudinal study of the gut microbiome based on DNA sequence analysis of monthly stool samples and clinical information from 39 children, about half of whom received multiple courses of antibiotics during the first 3 years of life. Whereas the gut microbiome of most children born by vaginal delivery was dominated by Bacteroides species, the four children born by cesarean section and about 20% of vaginally born children lacked Bacteroides in the first 6 to 18 months of life...
June 15, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
Cecilia Noecker, Alexander Eng, Sujatha Srinivasan, Casey M Theriot, Vincent B Young, Janet K Jansson, David N Fredricks, Elhanan Borenstein
: Multiple molecular assays now enable high-throughput profiling of the ecology, metabolic capacity, and activity of the human microbiome. However, to date, analyses of such multi-omic data typically focus on statistical associations, often ignoring extensive prior knowledge of the mechanisms linking these various facets of the microbiome. Here, we introduce a comprehensive framework to systematically link variation in metabolomic data with community composition by utilizing taxonomic, genomic, and metabolic information...
January 2016: MSystems
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