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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793143/oxidation-at-c-16-enhances-butyrylcholinesterase-inhibition-in-lupane-triterpenoids
#1
María Julia Castro, Victoria Richmond, María Belén Faraoni, Ana Paula Murray
A set of triterpenoids with different grades of oxidation in the lupane skeleton were prepared and evaluated as cholinesterase inhibitors. Allylic oxidation with selenium oxide and Jones's oxidation were employed to obtain mono-, di- and tri-oxolupanes, starting from calenduladiol (1) and lupeol (3). All the derivatives showed a selective inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase over acetylcholinesterase (BChE vs. AChE). A kinetic study proved that compounds 2 and 9, the more potent inhibitors of the series, act as competitive inhibitors...
May 17, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793095/sex-hormones-affect-acute-and-chronic-stress-responses-in-sexually-dimorphic-patterns-consequences-for-depression-models
#2
Lei Guo, Yi-Xi Chen, Yu-Ting Hu, Xue-Yan Wu, Yang He, Juan-Li Wu, Man-Li Huang, Matthew Mason, Ai-Min Bao
BACKGROUND: Alterations in peripheral sex hormones may play an important role in sex differences in terms of stress responses and mood disorders. It is not yet known whether and how stress-related brain systems and brain sex steroid levels fluctuate in relation to changes in peripheral sex hormone levels, or whether the different sexes show different patterns. We aimed to investigate systematically, in male and female rats, the effect of decreased circulating sex hormone levels following gonadectomy on acute and chronic stress responses, manifested as changes in plasma and hypothalamic sex steroids and hypothalamic stress-related molecules...
May 21, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793068/prenatal-phthalate-exposure-birth-outcomes-and-dna-methylation-of-alu-and-line-1-repetitive-elements-a-pilot-study-in-china
#3
Li-Li Huang, Bin Zhou, Song-Hua Ai, Pan Yang, Ying-Jun Chen, Chong Liu, Yan-Ling Deng, Qing Lu, Xiao-Ping Miao, Wen-Qing Lu, Yi-Xin Wang, Qiang Zeng
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic mechanisms, such as altered DNA methylation, may participate in the relationship between prenatal phthalate exposure and adverse birth outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To explore the mediation effect of DNA methylation in the associations of phthalate exposure before delivery with birth outcomes in a Chinese cohort. METHODS: Eight phthalate metabolites in maternal urine before delivery and DNA methylation of Alu and long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) in cord blood were determined among 106 mother-infant pairs...
May 7, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793042/aminergic-neuromodulation-of-associative-visual-learning-in-harnessed-honey-bees
#4
Nino Mancini, Martin Giurfa, Jean-Christophe Sandoz, Aurore Avarguès-Weber
The honey bee Apis mellifera is a major insect model for studying visual cognition. Free-flying honey bees learn to associate different visual cues with a sucrose reward and may deploy sophisticated cognitive strategies to this end. Yet, the neural bases of these capacities cannot be studied in flying insects. Conversely, immobilized bees are accessible to neurobiological investigation but training them to respond appetitively to visual stimuli paired with sucrose reward is difficult. Here we succeeded in coupling visual conditioning in harnessed bees with pharmacological analyses on the role of octopamine (OA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in visual learning...
May 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793041/-selenoproteins-in-colon-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Kristin M Peters, Bradley A Carlson, Vadim N Gladyshev, Petra A Tsuji
Selenocysteine-containing proteins (selenoproteins) have been implicated in the regulation of various cell signaling pathways, many of which are linked to colorectal malignancies. In this in-depth excurse into the selenoprotein literature, we review possible roles for human selenoproteins in colorectal cancer, focusing on the typical hallmarks of cancer cells and their tumor-enabling characteristics. Human genome studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms in various genes coding for selenoproteins have revealed potential involvement of glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductases, and other proteins...
May 21, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793021/phosphoinositide-3-kinase-p110%C3%AE-negatively-regulates-thrombopoietin-mediated-platelet-activation-and-thrombus-formation
#6
T A Blair, S F Moore, T G Walsh, J L Hutchinson, T N Durrant, K E Anderson, A W Poole, I Hers
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) plays an important role in platelet function and contributes to platelet hyperreactivity induced by elevated levels of circulating peptide hormones, including thrombopoietin (TPO). Previous work established an important role for the PI3K isoform; p110β in platelet function, however the role of p110α is still largely unexplored. Here we sought to investigate the role of p110α in TPO-mediated hyperactivity by using a conditional p110α knockout (KO) murine model in conjunction with platelet functional assays...
May 21, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792955/fisetin-alleviates-oxidative-stress-after-traumatic-brain-injury-via-the-nrf2-are-pathway
#7
Li Zhang, Handong Wang, Yali Zhou, Yihao Zhu, Maoxin Fei
Fisetin, a natural flavonoid, has neuroprotection properties in many brain injury models. However, its role in traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been fully explained. In the present study, we aimed to explore the neuroprotective effects of fisetin in a mouse model of TBI. We found that fisetin improved neurological function, reduced cerebral edema, attenuated brain lesion and ameliorated blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after TBI. Moreover, the up-regulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were reversed by fisetin treatment...
May 21, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792905/together-means-more-happiness-relationship-status-moderates-the-association-between-brain-structure-and-life-satisfaction
#8
Xingxing Zhu, Kangcheng Wang, Li Chen, Aihua Cao, Qunlin Chen, Junchao Li, Jiang Qiu
Life satisfaction reflects an individual's general evaluation of their overall quality of life. It has been hypothesized that relationship status (i.e. state of intimate relationship such as marriage, unmarried cohabiting, dating with others, single or divorce) may influence individual life satisfaction. However, there is little accessible empirical evidence that allows us to explore this proposition. Using a large sample of young adults (n = 1031) from the Human Connectome Project (HCP), we showed that compared to other relationship statuses (e...
May 21, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792879/astragaloside-suppresses-apoptosis-of-the-podocytes-in-rats-with-diabetic-nephropathy-via-mir-378-traf5-signaling-pathway
#9
Xiao Lei, Bo-da Zhang, Ji-Gang Ren, Fang-Li Luo
AIMS: Apoptosis of podocytes plays a crucial role in diabetic nephropathy (DN) development, and astragaloside (AS-IV) has a significant impact on podocyte apoptosis. This study aims to explore the effect of AS-IV on diabetic nephropathy progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The diabetic nephropathy model was established in rats with streptozotocin (STZ) injection. The albuminuria was examined by using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of miR-378, tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 5 (TRAF5) mRNA and protein was analyzed by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively...
May 21, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792865/aspirin-restores-abt-737-mediated-apoptosis-in-human-renal-carcinoma-cells
#10
Yen-Chuan Ou, Jian-Ri Li, Jiaan-Der Wang, Wen-Ying Chen, Yu-Hsiang Kuan, Ching-Ping Yang, Su-Lan Liao, Hsi-Chi Lu, Chun-Jung Chen
Aspirin is a novel chemopreventive agent against malignancy. However, outcomes of aspirin monotherapy of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are inconsistent across studies. ABT-737, an BH3 mimetic inhibitor, is also a promising antitumor drug. Cancer cells including those from RCC, that have high levels of Mcl-1, are refractory to ABT-737-induced apoptosis. We here investigated how aspirin treatment modulates the ABT-737-induced apoptosis. Using the in vitro model of human 786-O cells, we showed that aspirin had sensitized cells to ABT-737 induced apoptosis...
May 21, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792851/collagen-induced-arthritis-in-dark-agouti-rats-as-a-model-for-study-of-immunological-sexual-dimorphisms-in-the-human-disease
#11
Mirjana Dimitrijević, Nevena Arsenović-Ranin, Biljana Bufan, Mirjana Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana Lazarević Macanović, Petar Milovanović, Marija Đurić, Jelena Sopta, Gordana Leposavić
Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a frequently used animal model of rheumatoid arthritis, human autoimmune disease that exhibits clear sex bias in incidence and clinical course. Female Dark Agouti rats immunized for CIA showed also greater incidence and higher arthritic score than their male counterparts. The study investigated sex differences in mechanisms controlling the primary immune responses in draining lymph nodes (dLNs), as a factor contributing to this dimorphism. The higher frequencies of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3- cells, presumably activated effector T (Teff) cells, and IL-17+, IFN-γ + and IL-17 + IFN-γ + T cells were found in female comapared with male rat dLNs...
May 21, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792847/the-polymorphisms-of-atoh-7-et-1-and-ace-in-non-arteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#12
Ting Chen, Jin Ma, Guangliang Shan, Yong Zhong
Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is a common cause of acute optic neuropathy in the elderly. The role of the genetic polymorphisms of Atonal Homolog 7 (ATOH7), Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) in NAION and the combined effects of the gene-gene and gene-medical comorbidities on NAION were not clear. We conducted a perspective, case-control study. 71 NAION patients and 142 age and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of ATOH7 (rs1900004), ET-1 (rs5370) and ACE (rs1799752) were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and all PCR products were screened with Sanger sequencing...
May 21, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792846/adenosine-receptor-distribution-in-rhesus-monkey-ocular-tissue
#13
Krista M Beach, Li-Fang Hung, Baskar Arumugam, Earl L Smith, Lisa A Ostrin
Adenosine receptor (ADOR) antagonists, such as 7-methylxanthine (7-MX), have been shown to slow myopia progression in humans and animal models. Adenosine receptors are found throughout the body, and regulate the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and glutamate. However, the role of adenosine in eye growth is unclear. Evidence suggests that 7-MX increases scleral collagen fibril diameter, hence preventing axial elongation. This study used immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to examine the distribution of the four ADORs in the normal monkey eye to help elucidate potential mechanisms of action...
May 21, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792732/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-isoforms-play-key-roles-in-metastasis-of-prostate-cancer-du145-cells
#14
Zhe Zhang, Jie Liu, Yingying Wang, Xiao Tan, Wennan Zhao, Xiaoxue Xing, Yuling Qiu, Ran Wang, Meihua Jin, Guanwei Fan, Ping Zhang, Yuxu Zhong, Dexin Kong
Metastasis is the main cause of the lethality of prostate cancer. Class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks), which contain 4 isoforms, α, β, δ, and γ, are known to play important roles in cell growth, migration, invasion, and so on. However, the respective role of each PI3K isoform in cancer cell migration and invasion remains unknown. In a study that aimed to elucidate the respective role of the 4 PI3K isoforms, we investigated the change in migratory and invasive ability of DU145 cells after treatment with each PI3K isoform-specific inhibitor...
May 24, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792691/the-role-of-small-nanoparticles-on-the-formation-of-hot-spots-under-microwave-assisted-hydrothermal-heating
#15
Gema Cabello, Rogério A Davoglio, Luis G Cuadrado
Herein, we report a detailed study of microwave-matter interaction focused on the role of small nanoparticles and the effects on microwave thermal heating. We have used a model reaction (degradation of methylene blue) to study the influence of temperature, size, and catalytic properties of the nanoparticles in the potential formation of hot spots. Total mineralization was achieved after 3 h microwave heating at 200 °C in the presence of 2 nm TiO2 nanoparticles (92% calculated TOC decay), but the reaction resulted in a mixture of intermediates (52% TOC decay) in the absence of TiO2 ...
May 24, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792541/interaction-of-low-frequency-external-electric-fields-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-a-mathematical-modeling-approach-to-identify-the-influence-of-excitation-parameters
#16
Sajjad Farashi, Pezhman Sasanpour, Hashem Rafii-Tabar
Purpose-Although the effect of electromagnetic fields on biological systems has attracted attraction in recent years, there has not been any conclusive result concerning the effects of interaction and the underlying mechanisms involved. Besides the complexity of biological systems, the parameters of the applied electromagnetic field have not been estimated in most of the experiments. Material and Method-In this study, we have used computational approach in order to find the excitation parameters of an external electric field which produces sensible effects in the function of insulin secretory machinery, whose failure triggers the diabetes disease...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792529/mir-155-accelerates-proliferation-of-mouse-hepatocytes-during-liver-regeneration-by-directly-targeting-socs1
#17
Xia Lin, Li Chen, Haiyan Li, Yu Liu, Yanhong Guan, Xiaoyan Li, Zhenchang Jia, Xiaolin Lin, Junshuang Jia, Yan Sun, Dong Xiao
Liver regeneration after 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PH) is a clinically significant repair process to restore proper liver architecture. Although microRNA-155 (miR-155) has been found to serve as a crucial microRNA (miRNA) regulator controlling liver cells functions and proliferation, little is known about its specific role in the regenerating liver. Using a mouse model with miR-155 overexpression or miR-155 knockout, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of miR-155 in liver regeneration. A marked induction of miR-155 was evident in C57BL/6 mice after PH...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792496/the-big-two-personality-traits-and-adolescents-complete-mental-health-the-mediation-role-of-perceived-school-stress
#18
Lili Tian, Siyi Jiang, E Scott Huebner
Based on Greenspoon and Saklofske's (2001) dual-factor model of mental health, we defined adolescents' mental health as comprised of two distinguishable factors: positive and negative mental health. We tested the direct relations between the Eysenck's (1967) Big Two personality traits (Extraversion and Neuroticism) and positive and negative mental health, and explored the mediation effects of perceived school stress in accounting for the relations. Direct and indirect relations were estimated by using structural equation modeling with data from 1,009 Chinese adolescents in a 3-wave study...
May 24, 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792480/the-impact-of-familial-expressed-emotion-on-clinical-and-personal-recovery-among-patients-with-psychiatric-disorders-the-mediating-roles-of-self-stigma-content-and-process
#19
Kevin Ka Shing Chan, Chun Bun Lam
The present study examined the associations of familial expressed emotion (EE) with clinical and personal recovery among patients with psychiatric disorders, as well as the potential mechanisms underlying these associations. Guided by the content-process theory of self-stigma, we hypothesized that EE would be negatively associated with clinical and personal recovery and that these associations would be mediated by self-stigma content and process. A total of 311 patients with psychiatric disorders completed questionnaires on their perceptions of EE, self-stigma, and recovery...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792460/the-complexity-diversity-and-science-of-primary-care-teams
#20
Kevin Fiscella, Susan H McDaniel
This article examines the past, present and future of primary care and teamwork. It begins with a definition and description of primary care-its uniqueness, diversity and complexity, including the historical role of teams within primary care. The article then reviews the emergence of innovative primary care teams, including those grounded in new processes such as the Patient-Centered Medical Home and interprofessional teams that include new types of health professionals, particularly psychologists and other integrated behavioral health clinicians...
May 2018: American Psychologist
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