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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936518/computational-investigation-of-proton-transfer-pka-shifts-and-ph-optimum-of-protein-dna-and-protein-rna-complexes
#1
Yunhui Peng, Emil Alexov
Protein-nucleic acid interactions play a crucial role in many biological processes. This work investigates the changes of pKa values and protonation states of ionizable groups (including nucleic acid bases) that may occur at protein-nucleic acid binding. Taking advantage of the recently developed pKa calculation tool DelphiPka, we utilize the large protein-nucleic acid interaction database (NPIDB database) to model pKa shifts caused by binding. It has been found that the protein's interfacial basic residues experience favorable electrostatic interactions while the protein acidic residues undergo proton uptake to reduce the energy cost upon the binding...
December 9, 2016: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936499/the-anatomy-of-mammalian-sweet-taste-receptors
#2
Jean-Baptiste Chéron, Jérôme Golebiowski, Serge Antonczak, Sébastien Fiorucci
All sweet-tasting compounds are detected by a single G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), the heterodimer T1R2-T1R3, for which no experimental structure is available. The sweet taste receptor is a class C GPCR, and the recently published crystallographic structures of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1 and 5 provide a significant step forward for understanding structure-function relationships within this family. In this article, we recapitulate more than six hundred single point site-directed mutations and available structural data to obtain a critical alignment of the sweet taste receptor sequences with respect to other class C GPCRs...
December 9, 2016: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936438/stressful-life-transitions-and-wellbeing-a-comparison-of-the-stress-buffering-hypothesis-and-the-social-identity-model-of-identity-change
#3
Nurul F Praharso, Morgan J Tear, Tegan Cruwys
The relationship between stressful life transitions and wellbeing is well established, however, the protective role of social connectedness has received mixed support. We test two theoretical models, the Stress Buffering Hypothesis and the Social Identity Model of Identity Change, to determine which best explains the relationship between social connectedness, stress, and wellbeing. Study 1 (N=165) was an experiment in which participants considered the impact of moving cities versus receiving a serious health diagnosis...
November 29, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936429/investigation-of-biomechanical-response-of-hoffa-s-fat-pad-and-comparative-characterization
#4
Chiara Giulia Fontanella, Emanuele Luigi Carniel, Alessandro Frigo, Veronica Macchi, Andrea Porzionato, Gloria Sarasin, Marco Rossato, Raffaele De Caro, Arturo N Natali
The infrapatellar adipose body (Hoffa's fat pad, IFP) is situated between the patellar tendon, the femoral condyle and the tibial plateau. The IFP consists of lobules of white adipose tissue delimited by thin connective septa. The actual structural functionality of the IFP is debated and should pertain to a cushioning role in the knee joint, providing to distribute and to damp mechanical stresses during articular activity. The present study is aimed to analyze the correlation between histological configuration and mechanical properties of the IFP, compared to other adipose tissues, partially differentiated by composition and conformation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936410/body-image-and-emotional-distress-in-newly-diagnosed-cancer-patients-the-mediating-role-of-dysfunctional-attitudes-and-rumination
#5
Jianlin Liu, Chao Xu Peh, Rathi Mahendran
Body image concerns (BIC) has been reported to be associated with emotional distress for cancers across various sites. This study sought to examine two cognitive vulnerability mechanisms: dysfunctional attitudes and rumination, and their combined effects on the relationship between BIC and emotional distress in newly diagnosed Asian cancer patients. Participants were 221 newly diagnosed adult cancer patients who were assessed on BIC, rumination, dysfunctional attitudes, and emotional distress. Path analysis was used to examine the hypothesized mediation model...
December 6, 2016: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936371/testing-cross-sectional-and-prospective-mediators-of-internalized-heterosexism-on-heavy-drinking-alcohol-problems-and-psychological-distress-among-heavy-drinking-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#6
Alexis Kuerbis, Ethan H Mereish, Marie Hayes, Christine M Davis, Sijing Shao, Jon Morgenstern
OBJECTIVE: Minority stress theory is one of the primary theories used to understand substance use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations. This study tested whether drinking to cope with stress (DTC), loneliness, and gay community participation (GCP) mediated the relationship between one type of minority stress (i.e., internalized heterosexism) and behavioral health outcomes. METHOD: Using secondary data analysis and the PROCESS procedure, relationships between internalized heterosexism, the mediators (DTC, loneliness, and GCP), and outcomes (heavy drinking, alcohol problems, and psychological distress) were explored, both cross-sectionally and in a lagged manner, among both treatment-seeking and non-treatment-seeking problem drinking men who have sex with men...
January 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936239/a-broad-spectrum-chemokine-binding-protein-of-bovine-papular-stomatitis-virus-inhibits-neutrophil-and-monocyte-infiltration-in-inflammatory-and-wound-models-of-mouse-skin
#7
Saeed Sharif, Yoshio Nakatani, Lyn Wise, Michael Corbett, Nicola C Real, Gabriella S Stuart, Zabeen Lateef, Kurt Krause, Andrew A Mercer, Stephen B Fleming
Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) is a Parapoxvirus that induces acute pustular skin lesions in cattle and is transmissible to humans. Previous studies have shown that BPSV encodes a distinctive chemokine-binding protein (CBP). Chemokines are critically involved in the trafficking of immune cells to sites of inflammation and infected tissue, suggesting that the CBP plays a role in immune evasion by preventing immune cells reaching sites of infection. We hypothesised that the BPSV-CBP binds a wide range of inflammatory chemokines particularly those involved in BPSV skin infection, and inhibits the recruitment of immune cells from the blood into inflamed skin...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936197/vascular-tone-regulation-induced-by-c-type-natriuretic-peptide-differences-in-endothelium-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms-involved-in-normotensive-and-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#8
Carolina Caniffi, Flavia M Cerniello, María N Gobetto, María L Sueiro, María A Costa, Cristina Arranz
Given that the role of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) in the regulation of vascular tone in hypertensive states is unclear, we hypothesized that impaired response of the nitric oxide system to CNP in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) could affect vascular relaxation induced by the peptide in this model of hypertension, and that other endothelial systems or potassium channels opening could also be involved. We examined the effect of CNP on isolated SHR aortas, and the hindlimb vascular resistance (HVR) in response to CNP administration compared to normotensive rats...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936185/hedgehog-signaling-overcomes-an-ezh2-dependent-epigenetic-barrier-to-promote-cholangiocyte-expansion
#9
Nidhi Jalan-Sakrikar, Thiago M De Assuncao, Jie Lu, Luciana L Almada, Gwen Lomberk, Martin E Fernandez-Zapico, Raul Urrutia, Robert C Huebert
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Developmental morphogens play an important role in coordinating the ductular reaction and portal fibrosis occurring in the setting of cholangiopathies. However, little is known about how membrane signaling events in ductular reactive cells (DRCs) are transduced into nuclear transcriptional changes to drive cholangiocyte maturation and matrix deposition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate potential mechanistic links between cell signaling events and epigenetic regulators in DRCs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936184/freshwater-detention-by-oyster-reefs-quantifying-a-keystone-ecosystem-service
#10
David A Kaplan, Maitane Olabarrieta, Peter Frederick, Arnoldo Valle-Levinson
Oyster reefs provide myriad ecosystem services, including water quality improvement, fisheries and other faunal support, shoreline protection from erosion and storm surge, and economic productivity. However, their role in directing flow during non-storm conditions has been largely neglected. In regions where oyster reefs form near the mouth of estuarine rivers, they likely alter ocean-estuary exchange by acting as fresh water "dams". We hypothesize that these reefs have the potential to detain fresh water and influence salinity over extensive areas, thus providing a "keystone" ecosystem service by supporting estuarine functions that rely on the maintenance of estuarine (i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936166/increased-age-but-not-parity-predisposes-to-higher-bacteriuria-burdens-due-to-streptococcus-urinary-tract-infection-and-influences-bladder-cytokine-responses-which-develop-independent-of-tissue-bacterial-loads
#11
Matthew J Sullivan, Alison J Carey, Sophie Y Leclercq, Chee K Tan, Glen C Ulett
Streptococcus agalactiae causes urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant adults, non-pregnant adults, immune-compromised individuals and the elderly. The pathogenesis of S. agalactiae UTI in distinct patient populations is poorly understood. In this study, we used murine models of UTI incorporating young mice, aged and dam mice to show that uropathogenic S. agalactiae causes bacteriuria at significantly higher levels in aged mice compared to young mice and this occurs coincident with equivalent levels of bladder tissue colonisation at 24 h post-infection (p...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936095/dual-specificity-phosphatase-5-is-essential-for-t-cell-survival
#12
Raman G Kutty, Gang Xin, David M Schauder, Stephanie M Cossette, Michelle Bordas, Weiguo Cui, Ramani Ramchandran
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway regulates many key cellular processes such as differentiation, apoptosis, and survival. The final proteins in this pathway, ERK1/2, are regulated by dual specificity phosphatase 5 (DUSP5). DUSP5 is a nuclear, inducible phosphatase with high affinity and fidelity for ERK1/2. By regulating the final step in the MAPK signaling cascade, DUSP5 exerts strong regulatory control over a central cellular pathway. Like other DUSPs, DUSP5 plays an important role in immune function...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936094/lutein-attenuates-both-apoptosis-and-autophagy-upon-cobalt-ii-chloride-induced-hypoxia-in-rat-m%C3%A5-ller-cells
#13
Frederic K C Fung, Betty Y K Law, Amy C Y Lo
Retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury is a common feature of various retinal diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Lutein, a potent anti-oxidant, is used to improve visual function in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Lutein attenuates apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation in animal models of acute retinal ischemia/hypoxia. Here, we further show that lutein improved Műller cell viability and enhanced cell survival upon hypoxia-induced cell death through regulation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936066/the-influence-of-articular-cartilage-thickness-reduction-on-meniscus-biomechanics
#14
Piotr Łuczkiewicz, Karol Daszkiewicz, Jacek Chróścielewski, Wojciech Witkowski, Pawel J Winklewski
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the biomechanical interaction between meniscus and cartilage in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: The finite element method was used to simulate knee joint contact mechanics. Three knee models were created on the basis of knee geometry from the Open Knee project. We reduced the thickness of medial cartilages in the intact knee model by approximately 50% to obtain a medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) model. Two variants of medial knee OA model with congruent and incongruent contact surfaces were analysed to investigate the influence of congruency...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936061/in-vivo-measurements-of-t2-relaxation-time-of-mouse-lungs-during-inspiration-and-expiration
#15
Lars E Olsson, Paul D Hockings
PURPOSE: The interest in measurements of magnetic resonance imaging relaxation times, T1, T2, T2*, with intention to characterize healthy and diseased lungs has increased recently. Animal studies play an important role in this context providing models for understanding and linking the measured relaxation time changes to the underlying physiology or disease. The aim of this work was to study how the measured transversal relaxation time (T2) in healthy lungs is affected by normal respiration in mouse...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936058/modeling-the-role-of-lanthionine-synthetase-c-like-2-lancl2-in-the-modulation-of-immune-responses-to-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#16
Andrew Leber, Josep Bassaganya-Riera, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Monica Viladomiu, Vida Abedi, Pinyi Lu, Raquel Hontecillas
Immune responses to Helicobacter pylori are orchestrated through complex balances of host-bacterial interactions, including inflammatory and regulatory immune responses across scales that can lead to the development of the gastric disease or the promotion of beneficial systemic effects. While inflammation in response to the bacterium has been reasonably characterized, the regulatory pathways that contribute to preventing inflammatory events during H. pylori infection are incompletely understood. To aid in this effort, we have generated a computational model incorporating recent developments in the understanding of H...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936022/cognitive-costs-of-reappraisal-depend-on-both-emotional-stimulus-intensity-and-individual-differences-in-habitual-reappraisal
#17
Catherine Nicole Marie Ortner, Mark Ste Marie, Daniela Corno
Recent models of emotion regulation suggest that the cognitive costs of reappraisal depend on stimulus intensity and habitual reappraisal. In the current experiment, we tested these hypotheses by manipulating the intensity of unpleasant and pleasant images, which participants reappraised, viewed, or suppressed their emotions to. To assess cognitive costs, we measured participants' performance on a concurrent simple reaction time task. Participants also reported on their everyday use of reappraisal and suppression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936014/inhibition-of-interleukin-6-receptor-in-a-murine-model-of-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion
#18
Minke H T Hartman, Inge Vreeswijk-Baudoin, Hilde E Groot, Kees W A van de Kolk, Rudolf A de Boer, Irene Mateo Leach, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, Herman H W Sillje, Pim van der Harst
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels are upregulated in myocardial infarction. Recent data suggest a causal role of the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) in coronary heart disease. We evaluated if IL-6R blockade by a monoclonal antibody (MR16-1) prevents the heart from adverse left ventricular remodeling in a mouse model of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). METHODS: CJ57/BL6 mice underwent I/R injury (left coronary artery ligation for 45 minutes) or sham surgery, and thereafter received MR16-1 (2mg/mouse) 5 minutes before reperfusion and 0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935998/pro-resolving-effects-of-resolvin-d2-in-ltd4-and-tnf-%C3%AE-pre-treated-human-bronchi
#19
Rayan Khaddaj-Mallat, Chantal Sirois, Marco Sirois, Edmond Rizcallah, Sofia Marouan, Caroline Morin, Éric Rousseau
Inflammation is a major burden in respiratory diseases, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness. Our hypothesis is that resolution of inflammation may represent a long-term solution in preventing human bronchial dysfunctions. The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of RvD2, a member of the D-series resolving family, with concomitant effects on ASM mechanical reactivity. The role and mode of action of RvD2 were assessed in an in vitro model of human bronchi under pro-inflammatory conditions, induced either by 1 μM LTD4 or 10 ng/ml TNF-α pre-treatment for 48h...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935990/hyperalgesia-and-persistent-pain-after-breast-cancer-surgery-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial-with-perioperative-cox-2-inhibition
#20
Noud van Helmond, Monique A Steegers, Gertie P Filippini-de Moor, Kris C Vissers, Oliver H Wilder-Smith
BACKGROUND: Persistent pain is a challenging clinical problem after breast cancer treatment. After surgery, inflammatory pain and nociceptive input from nerve injury induce central sensitization which may play a role in the genesis of persistent pain. Using quantitative sensory testing, we tested the hypothesis that adding COX-2 inhibition to standard treatment reduces hyperalgesia after breast cancer surgery. A secondary hypothesis was that patients developing persistent pain would exhibit more postoperative hyperalgesia...
2016: PloS One
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