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Rui Santos, Catarina Costa, Dalila Mil-Homens, Daniela Romão, Carla C C R de Carvalho, Pedro Pais, Nuno P Mira, Arsénio M Fialho, Miguel C Teixeira
The mechanisms of persistence and virulence associated to Candida glabrata infections are poorly understood, limiting the ability to fight this fungal pathogen. In this study, the multidrug resistance transporters CgTpo1_1 and CgTpo1_2 are shown to play a role in C. glabrata virulence. The survival of the infection model Galleria mellonella, infected with C. glabrata, was found to increase upon the deletion of either CgTPO1_1 or CgTPO1_2. The underlying mechanisms were further explored. In the case of CgTpo1_1, this phenotype was found to be consistent with the observation that it confers resistance to antimicrobial peptides (AMP), such as the human AMP histatin-5...
October 25, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Wenying Liao, Duncan N L Menge
Symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation is the major N input to many ecosystems. Although temperate forests are commonly N limited, symbiotic N-fixing trees ("N fixers") are rare and decline in abundance as succession proceeds-a challenging paradox that remains unexplained. Understanding demographic processes that underlie N fixers' rarity and successional decline would provide a proximate answer to the paradox. Do N fixers grow slower, die more frequently, or recruit less in temperate forests? We quantified demographic rates of N-fixing and non-fixing trees across succession using U...
2016: PloS One
Petra D Cravens, Rehana Z Hussain, William A Miller-Little, Li-Hong Ben, Benjamin M Segal, Emily Herndon, Olaf Stüve
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 are heterodimers that share the p40 subunit, and both cytokines are critical in the differentiation of T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, respectively. Th1 and Th17 effector cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), an animal model of the human central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). However, ustekinumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against p40 failed to show efficacy over placebo in a phase II clinical trial in patients with MS...
2016: PloS One
Xiang Li, Handong Wang, Yongyue Gao, Liwen Li, Chao Tang, Guodao Wen, Yuan Zhou, Mengliang Zhou, Lei Mao, Youwu Fan
The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the protective effect of quercetin administration against oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, quercetin has been proved to have a protective effect against mitochondria damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, its precise role and underlying mechanisms in traumatic brain injury are not yet fully understood...
2016: PloS One
Kyle S Beyer, David H Fukuda, Michael J Redd, Jeffrey R Stout, Jay R Hoffman
Beyer, KS, Fukuda, DH, Redd, MJ, Stout, JR, and Hoffman, JR. Player selection bias in National Football League draftees. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 2965-2971, 2016-Relative age effects (RAEs) have been studied as a potential factor associated with player selection bias in numerous sports. However, little research has examined the role of RAEs among National Football League (NFL) draftees. The purpose of the current study was to determine the existence of RAEs in NFL draftees from the last 10 NFL drafts. Draftee birth dates were collected and divided into calendar and scholastic quarters (SQ1-SQ4)...
November 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Wen-Lei Shi, Ting Zhang, Jiang-Rui Zhou, Yong-Hua Huang, Chun-Lei Jiang
Glucocorticoids (GCs) play a vital role in the regulation of blood pressure by their permissive effects in potentiating vasoactive responses to catecholamines through glucocorticoid receptors. GCs achieve this function by controlling vascular smooth muscle tone. Clinically, low to moderate doses of GCs are generally used in the treatment of septic shock in recent years. GCs are now known to have both genomic and non-genomic effects. While genomic effects of GCs were well studied, few non-genomic effects were reported, much less the non-genomic mechanisms...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Essam Hammam, Jalal Basahi, Iqbal Ismail, Ibrahim Hassan, Talal Almeelbi
The excited state hydrogen bonding dynamics of BBVN in hydrogen donating methanol solvent was explored at the TD-BMK/cc-pVDZ level of theory with accounting for the bulk environment effects at the polarizable continuum model (PCM). The heteroatoms of the BBVN laser dye form hydrogen bonds with four methanol molecules. In the formed BBVN-(MeOH)4 complex, the A-type hydrogen bond (N…HO), of an average strength of 25kJmol(-1), is twofold stronger than the B-type (O…HO) one. Upon photon absorption, the total HB binding energy increases from 78...
October 17, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Courtney A Pinard, Hollyanne E Fricke, Teresa M Smith, Leah R Carpenter, Amy L Yaroch
OBJECTIVES: Rural communities face unique challenges to and opportunities for offering more healthful foods and are often understudied in comparison to their urban counterparts. The purpose of this study was to conduct a qualitative assessment of rural storeowners' perceptions of their communities, their business practices, and factors that influences their viability, sustainability, and ability to support healthy food choices. METHODS: We conducted interviews with storeowners (N = 15) in small stores in rural Nebraska and explored perceptions of business practices, role in the community, and consumer demand for more healthful foods...
November 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
Raphael Kaplan, Daniel Bush, James A Bisby, Aidan J Horner, Sofie S Meyer, Neil Burgess
Hippocampal-medial prefrontal interactions are thought to play a crucial role in mental simulation. Notably, the frontal midline/medial pFC (mPFC) theta rhythm in humans has been linked to introspective thought and working memory. In parallel, theta rhythms have been proposed to coordinate processing in the medial temporal cortex, retrosplenial cortex (RSc), and parietal cortex during the movement of viewpoint in imagery, extending their association with physical movement in rodent models. Here, we used noninvasive whole-head MEG to investigate theta oscillatory power and phase-locking during the 18-sec postencoding delay period of a spatial working memory task, in which participants imagined previously learned object sequences either on a blank background (object maintenance), from a first-person viewpoint in a scene (static imagery), or moving along a path past the objects (dynamic imagery)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Stephen Y Kang, Sagar S Deshpande, Alexander R Zheutlin, Alexis Donneys, Jose J Rodriguez, Noah S Nelson, Peter A Felice, Douglas B Chepeha, Steven R Buchman
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to measure the histologic and histomorphometric effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment on irradiated bone undergoing distraction osteogenesis (DO). METHODS: Thirty-four rats were divided into 3 groups. The control group underwent DO and the radiation control group underwent radiotherapy (RT) before DO. The PTH group underwent RT and received PTH during DO. Quantitative histology and histomorphometry were performed...
October 25, 2016: Head & Neck
Ryan A Devenyi, Francis A Ortega, Willemijn Groenendaal, Trine Krogh-Madsen, David J Christini, Eric A Sobie
Imbalances of ionic currents can destabilize the cardiac action potential and potentially trigger lethal cardiac arrhythmias. Here we combined mathematical modeling with information-rich dynamic-clamp experiments to elucidate regulation of action potential morphology in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Parameter sensitivity analysis was used to predict how changes in ionic currents alter action potential duration, and these were tested experimentally using dynamic clamp, a technique that allows for multiple perturbations to be tested in each cell...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physiology
S M Shah, J P Crawshaw, E S Boek
In the last decade, imaging techniques capable of reconstructing three-dimensional (3-D) pore-scale model have played a pivotal role in the study of fluid flow through complex porous media. In this study, we present advances in the application of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to image, reconstruct and characterize complex porous geological materials with hydrocarbon reservoir and CO2 storage potential. CLSM has a unique capability of producing 3-D thin optical sections of a material, with a wide field of view and submicron resolution in the lateral and axial planes...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
Weizhong Sheng, Yusheng Chen, Yuda Gong, Tiangeng Dong, Bo Zhang, Weidong Gao
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is aggressive and lethal with extrathyroidal invasion, distant metastasis, and resistance to conventional therapies. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are proposed to be responsible for high recurrence rate in ATC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been found as an important class of cellular regulators of ATC carcinogenesis. Identification of CSC-related miRNAs and targets is therefore a priority for the development of new therapeutic paradigms. Patient-derived ATC cells were cultured in conditional media on poly-hema-treated dish...
October 25, 2016: Oncology Reports
Hong-Xia Cui, Honglan Wang, Yuchun Wang, Juan Song, Hua Tian, Chunhui Xia, Yetong Shen
Changes in the carbohydrate structure on the surface of tumor cells is an important feature of cancer metastasis. The specific role of sialic acids in the glycoconjugate terminal has not yet been clearly elucidated in these processes. Previously, we reported that α2,3-sialic acid residues in breast cancer are associated with metastatic potential. The α2,3-sialyltransferase ST3Gal III, which adds α2,3-sialic acids to glycoproteins, is overexpressed in various tumors, and enzyme activity is correlated with tumor metastasis, yet its mechanistic role has not been fully evaluated...
October 18, 2016: Oncology Reports
Xi Chen, Qi Li, Xiao-Xi Kan, Ya-Jie Wang, Yu-Jie Li, Qing Yang, Hong-Bin Xiao, Ying Chen, Xiao-Gang Weng, Wei-Yan Cai, Xiao-Xin Zhu
Metastasis of breast cancer is the vital step for malignant progression. During such a process, hematogenous metastasis is an indispensable approach for the dissemination of cancer cells. A platelet, contributes to hypercoagulable state, and is also identified the crucial factor in the coagulation system for supporting metastasis. Therefore, the relationship of a platelet and a tumor cell plays a critical role in tumor cell metastasis. Consequently, inhibiting tumor cell‑induced platelet aggregation (TCIPA) is recongnized as a crucial target on suppression of tumor metastasis such as aspirin (ASA)...
October 19, 2016: Oncology Reports
Jiumao Lin, Jianyu Feng, Yiyi Jin, Zhaokun Yan, Zijun Lai, Jun Peng
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. The majority of patients are not suitable for surgery due to the presence of metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, which has led to a high mortality rate for patients with CRC. Lymphangiogenesis, formation of new lymphatic vessels, plays an critical role in cancer progression particularly in cancer metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) has been previously demonstrated to play a pivotal role in cancer metastasis and therefore has become an attractive target for anticancer treatments...
October 20, 2016: Oncology Reports
Congcong Li, Manling Liu, Liyan Bo, Wei Liu, Qingqing Liu, Xiangjun Chen, Dunquan Xu, Zhichao Li, Faguang Jin
Nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) is a transcription factor that can be activated by extracellular tonicity. It has been reported that NFAT5 may increase the transcription of certain osmoprotective genes in the renal system, and the aim of the current study was to explore the role of NFAT5 in seawater inhalation‑induced acute lung injury. Though establishing the model of seawater inhalation‑induced acute lung injury, it was demonstrated that seawater inhalation enhanced the transcription and protein expression of NFAT5 (evaluated by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry stain and western blotting) and activation of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB (evaluated by western blotting and mRNA expression levels of three NF‑κB‑dependent genes) both in lung tissue and rat alveolar macrophage cells (NR8383 cells)...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Xiuli Zhang, Dan Liang, Xu Lian, Zhi-Hong Chi, Xuemei Wang, Yue Zhao, Zhang Ping
There is emerging evidence that tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the final common pathway of the majority of chronic progressive renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy (DN). Zinc, an essential dietary element, has been suggested to be important for a number of protein functions during fibrosis in vivo and in vitro. However, the effect of zinc deficiency (ZnD) on renal interstitial fibrosis in DN remains unclear. The present study investigated the effect and the underlying mechanisms of ZnD on renal interstitial fibrosis during DN using an streptozotocin‑induced model of diabetes with immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Xiang-Yang Fang, Zhe Chen, Guo-Bin Miao, Lin Zhang
β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) and anti-β1-AR autoantibodies play important roles in heart failure. This study was designed to investigate the expression of β1- and β2-ARs in the lungs, and their relevance to the corresponding autoantibodies in an aged rat model of heart failure. In addition, we investigated the association between anti-β-AR autoantibody and soluble Fas (sFas) and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL). Aged male Wistar rats were divided into the sham-operated control group and the heart failure group...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Hangfei Gao, Jiancao Gui, Liming Wang, Yan Xu, Yiqiu Jiang, Mingyue Xiong, Yongguang Cui
Aquaporins (AQPs) have been found to be associated with a number of diseases. However, the role of AQP‑1 in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis remains unclear. We previously found that AQP‑1 expression was upregulated in osteoarthritic cartilage and strongly correlated with caspase‑3 expression and activity. The aim of this study was to further investigate the association of AQP‑1 expression with chondrocyte apoptosis in a rat model of osteoarthritis, using RNA interference to knock down AQP‑1. For this purspose, 72 male Sprague‑Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups as follows: the control group not treated surgically (n=24), the sham‑operated group (n=24), and the osteoarthritis group (n=24)...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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