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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913405/what-is-the-role-of-tdp-43-in-c9orf72-related-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-frontemporal-dementia
#1
Jakub Scaber, Kevin Talbot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878525/genetics-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#2
REVIEW
Diana A Olszewska, Roisin Lonergan, Emer M Fallon, Tim Lynch
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common cause of dementia following Alzheimer's disease (AD). Between 20 and 50% of cases are familial. Mutations in MAPT, GRN and C9orf72 are found in 60% of familial FTD cases. C9orf72 mutations are the most common and account for 25%. Rarer mutations (<5%) occur in other genes such as VPC, CHMP2B, TARDP, FUS, ITM2B, TBK1 and TBP. The diagnosis is often challenging due to symptom overlap with AD and other conditions. We review the genetics, clinical presentations, neuroimaging, neuropathology, animal studies and therapeutic trials in FTD...
December 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877110/forward-genetic-screen-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-suggests-f57a10-2-and-acp-4-as-suppressors-of-c9orf72-related-phenotypes
#3
Xin Wang, Limin Hao, Taixiang Saur, Katelyn Joyal, Ying Zhao, Desheng Zhai, Jie Li, Mochtar Pribadi, Giovanni Coppola, Bruce M Cohen, Edgar A Buttner
An abnormally expanded GGGGCC repeat in C9ORF72 is the most frequent causal mutation associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)/frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Both gain-of-function (gf) and loss-of-function (lf) mechanisms have been involved in C9ORF72 related ALS/FTLD. The gf mechanism of C9ORF72 has been studied in various animal models but not in C. elegans. In the present study, we described mutant C9ORF72 modeling in C. elegans and report the finding of two suppressor genes. We made transgenes containing 9 or 29 repeats of GGGGCC in C9ORF72, driven by either the hsp-16 promoters or the unc-119 promoter...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875531/loss-of-c9orf72-enhances-autophagic-activity-via-deregulated-mtor-and-tfeb-signaling
#4
Janet Ugolino, Yon Ju Ji, Karen Conchina, Justin Chu, Raja Sekhar Nirujogi, Akhilesh Pandey, Nathan R Brady, Anne Hamacher-Brady, Jiou Wang
The most common cause of the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia is a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72. Here we report a study of the C9orf72 protein by examining the consequences of loss of C9orf72 functions. Deletion of one or both alleles of the C9orf72 gene in mice causes age-dependent lethality phenotypes. We demonstrate that C9orf72 regulates nutrient sensing as the loss of C9orf72 decreases phosphorylation of the mTOR substrate S6K1. The transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal and autophagy genes, which is negatively regulated by mTOR, is substantially up-regulated in C9orf72 loss-of-function animal and cellular models...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856299/als-and-ftd-linked-ggggcc-repeat-containing-dna-oligonucleotide-folds-into-two-distinct-g-quadruplexes
#5
Jasna Brčić, Janez Plavec
BACKGROUND: The most common genetic cause of neurological disorders ALS and FTD is a largely increased number of GGGGCC repeats in C9orf72 gene. Non-canonical structures including G-quadruplexes adopted by expanded repeats are hypothesized to be crucial in pathogenesis. Recently, we have shown that structural polymorphism of oligonucleotide d(G4C2)3G4 is reduced by dG to 8Br-dG substitution. High-resolution structure of one of the two major G-quadruplexes adopts antiparallel topology comprising of four G-quartets...
November 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844039/increased-prevalence-of-autoimmune-disease-within-c9-and-ftd-mnd-cohorts-completing-the-picture
#6
Zachary A Miller, Virginia E Sturm, Gamze Balci Camsari, Anna Karydas, Jennifer S Yokoyama, Lea T Grinberg, Adam L Boxer, Howard J Rosen, Katherine P Rankin, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Giovanni Coppola, Daniel H Geschwind, Rosa Rademakers, William W Seeley, Neill R Graff-Radford, Bruce L Miller
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of autoimmune disease in symptomatic C9ORF72 (C9) mutation carriers and frontotemporal dementia with motor neuron disease (FTD/MND) cohorts. METHODS: In this case-control study, we reviewed the clinical histories of 66 patients with FTD/MND and 57 symptomatic C9 carriers (24 overlapping cases), a total of 99 charts, for history of autoimmune disease. The prevalence of autoimmune disease in C9 and FTD/MND cohorts was determined by χ(2) and Fisher exact comparisons between the combined C9 and FTD/MND group with normal control, Alzheimer disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy cohorts, as well as comparisons within C9 and FTD/MND cohorts...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819158/diagnostic-and-prognostic-significance-of-neurofilament-light-chain-nf-l-but-not-progranulin-and-s100b-in-the-course-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-data-from-the-german-mnd-net
#7
Petra Steinacker, André Huss, Benjamin Mayer, Torsten Grehl, Julian Grosskreutz, Guntram Borck, Jens Kuhle, Dorothée Lulé, Thomas Meyer, Patrick Oeckl, Susanne Petri, Jochen Weishaupt, Albert C Ludolph, Markus Otto
There is a need for diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring blood biomarkers for ALS. We aimed to analyse and compare proposed candidate markers for disease progression in the course of ALS. Blood samples were taken from 125 ALS patients, including nine patients with C9orf72 or SOD1 mutation, at regular intervals of six months. ALS patients were characterized by the ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R) and the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS). We quantified neurofilament light chain (NF-L), S100B, and progranulin (PGRN) and analysed it in relation to disease progression...
November 5, 2016: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815321/prognostic-factors-in-c9orf72-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#8
EDITORIAL
José Manuel Matamala, Thanuja Dharmadasa, Matthew C Kiernan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814735/gene-expression-profiles-and-protein-protein-interaction-networks-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-with-c9orf72-mutation
#9
Meena Kumari Kotni, Mingzhu Zhao, Dong-Qing Wei
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that involves the death of neurons. ALS is associated with many gene mutations as previously studied. In order to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying ALS with C9orf72 mutation, gene expression profiles of ALS fibroblasts and control fibroblasts were subjected to bioinformatics analysis. Genes with critical functional roles can be detected by a measure of node centrality in biological networks. In gene co-expression networks, highly connected genes called as candidate hubs have been associated with key disease-related pathways...
November 5, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798094/modelling-c9orf72-dipeptide-repeat-proteins-of-a-physiologically-relevant-size
#10
Janis Bennion Callister, Sarah Ryan, Joan Sim, Sara Rollinson, Stuart M Pickering-Brown
C9orf72 expansions are the most common genetic cause of FTLD and MND identified to date. Although being intronic, the expansion is translated into five different dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) that accumulate within patients' neurons. Attempts have been made to model DPRs in cell and animals. However, the majority of these use DPRs repeat numbers much shorter than those observed in patients. To address this we have generated a selection of DPR expression constructs with repeat numbers in excess of 1000 repeats, matching what is seen in patients...
October 23, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797809/timing-and-significance-of-pathological-features-in-c9orf72-expansion-associated-frontotemporal-dementia
#11
Sarat C Vatsavayai, Soo Jin Yoon, Raquel C Gardner, Tania F Gendron, Jose Norberto S Vargas, Andrew Trujillo, Mochtar Pribadi, Joanna J Phillips, Stephanie E Gaus, John D Hixson, Paul A Garcia, Gil D Rabinovici, Giovanni Coppola, Daniel H Geschwind, Leonard Petrucelli, Bruce L Miller, William W Seeley
SEE SCABER AND TALBOT DOI101093/AWW264 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: A GGGGCC repeat expansion in C9orf72 leads to frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Diverse pathological features have been identified, and their disease relevance remains much debated. Here, we describe two illuminating patients with frontotemporal dementia due to the C9orf72 repeat expansion. Case 1 was a 65-year-old female with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia accompanied by focal degeneration in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, and medial pulvinar thalamus...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796305/monitoring-peripheral-nerve-degeneration-in-als-by-label-free-stimulated-raman-scattering-imaging
#12
Feng Tian, Wenlong Yang, Daniel A Mordes, Jin-Yuan Wang, Johnny S Salameh, Joanie Mok, Jeannie Chew, Aarti Sharma, Ester Leno-Duran, Satomi Suzuki-Uematsu, Naoki Suzuki, Steve S Han, Fa-Ke Lu, Minbiao Ji, Rosanna Zhang, Yue Liu, Jack Strominger, Neil A Shneider, Leonard Petrucelli, X Sunney Xie, Kevin Eggan
The study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and potential interventions would be facilitated if motor axon degeneration could be more readily visualized. Here we demonstrate that stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy could be used to sensitively monitor peripheral nerve degeneration in ALS mouse models and ALS autopsy materials. Three-dimensional imaging of pre-symptomatic SOD1 mouse models and data processing by a correlation-based algorithm revealed that significant degeneration of peripheral nerves could be detected coincidentally with the earliest detectable signs of muscle denervation and preceded physiologically measurable motor function decline...
October 31, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790088/rare-variants-in-neurodegeneration-associated-genes-revealed-by-targeted-panel-sequencing-in-a-german-als-cohort
#13
Stefanie Krüger, Florian Battke, Andrea Sprecher, Marita Munz, Matthis Synofzik, Ludger Schöls, Thomas Gasser, Torsten Grehl, Johannes Prudlo, Saskia Biskup
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive fatal multisystemic neurodegenerative disorder caused by preferential degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. To further delineate the genetic architecture of the disease, we used comprehensive panel sequencing in a cohort of 80 German ALS patients. The panel covered 39 confirmed ALS genes and candidate genes, as well as 238 genes associated with other entities of the neurodegenerative disease spectrum. In addition, we performed repeat length analysis for C9orf72...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776165/distinct-c9orf72-associated-dipeptide-repeat-structures-correlate-with-neuronal-toxicity
#14
Brittany N Flores, Mark E Dulchavsky, Amy Krans, Michael R Sawaya, Henry L Paulson, Peter K Todd, Sami J Barmada, Magdalena I Ivanova
Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9orf72 are the most common inherited cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The expansions elicit toxicity in part through repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation of the intronic (GGGGCC)n sequence into dipeptide repeat-containing proteins (DPRs). Little is known, however, about the structural characteristics and aggregation propensities of the dipeptide units comprising DPRs. To address this question, we synthesized dipeptide units corresponding to the three sense-strand RAN translation products, analyzed their structures by circular dichroism, electron microscopy and dye binding assays, and assessed their relative toxicity when applied to primary cortical neurons...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774051/c9orf72-s-interaction-with-rab-gtpases-modulation-of-membrane-traffic-and-autophagy
#15
Bor L Tang
Hexanucleotide repeat expansion in an intron of Chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) is the most common genetic cause of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD). While functional haploinsufficiency of C9orf72 resulting from the mutation may play a role in ALS/FTD, the actual cellular role of the protein has been unclear. Recent findings have now shown that C9orf72 physically and functionally interacts with multiple members of the Rab small GTPases family, consequently exerting important influences on cellular membrane traffic and the process of autophagy...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773700/marked-differences-in-c9orf72-methylation-status-and-isoform-expression-between-c9-als-human-embryonic-and-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
Yaara Cohen-Hadad, Gheona Altarescu, Talia Eldar-Geva, Ephrat Levi-Lahad, Ming Zhang, Ekaterina Rogaeva, Marc Gotkine, Osnat Bartok, Reut Ashwal-Fluss, Sebastian Kadener, Silvina Epsztejn-Litman, Rachel Eiges
We established two human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines with a GGGGCC expansion in the C9orf72 gene (C9), and compared them with haploidentical and unrelated C9 induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We found a marked difference in C9 methylation between the cells. hESCs and parental fibroblasts are entirely unmethylated while the iPSCs are hypermethylated. In addition, we show that the expansion alters promoter usage and interferes with the proper splicing of intron 1, eventually leading to the accumulation of repeat-containing mRNA following neural differentiation...
November 8, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772665/-reconciliating-neurology-and-psychiatry-the-prototypical-case-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#17
J Lagarde, M Sarazin
Frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) in its behavioral variant (bvFTD) is probably one of the conditions that best illustrates the links between psychiatry and neurology. It is indeed admitted that between a third and half of patients with this condition, especially in early-onset forms, receive an initial diagnosis of psychiatric disorder (depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) and are then referred to a psychiatric ward. BvFTD can thus be considered a neurological disorder with a psychiatric presentation...
October 20, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768897/toxic-pr-poly-dipeptides-encoded-by-the-c9orf72-repeat-expansion-target-lc-domain-polymers
#18
Yi Lin, Eiichiro Mori, Masato Kato, Siheng Xiang, Leeju Wu, Ilmin Kwon, Steven L McKnight
Two complementary approaches were used in search of the intracellular targets of the toxic PR poly-dipeptide encoded by the repeat sequences expanded in the C9orf72 form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The top categories of PRn-bound proteins include constituents of non-membrane invested cellular organelles and intermediate filaments. PRn targets are enriched for the inclusion of low complexity (LC) sequences. Evidence is presented indicating that LC sequences represent the direct target of PRn binding and that interaction between the PRn poly-dipeptide and LC domains is polymer-dependent...
October 20, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768896/c9orf72-dipeptide-repeats-impair-the-assembly-dynamics-and-function-of-membrane-less-organelles
#19
Kyung-Ha Lee, Peipei Zhang, Hong Joo Kim, Diana M Mitrea, Mohona Sarkar, Brian D Freibaum, Jaclyn Cika, Maura Coughlin, James Messing, Amandine Molliex, Brian A Maxwell, Nam Chul Kim, Jamshid Temirov, Jennifer Moore, Regina-Maria Kolaitis, Timothy I Shaw, Bing Bai, Junmin Peng, Richard W Kriwacki, J Paul Taylor
Expansion of a hexanucleotide repeat GGGGCC (G4C2) in C9ORF72 is the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Transcripts carrying (G4C2) expansions undergo unconventional, non-ATG-dependent translation, generating toxic dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins thought to contribute to disease. Here, we identify the interactome of all DPRs and find that arginine-containing DPRs, polyGly-Arg (GR) and polyPro-Arg (PR), interact with RNA-binding proteins and proteins with low complexity sequence domains (LCDs) that often mediate the assembly of membrane-less organelles...
October 20, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768524/c9orf72-plays-a-central-role-in-rab-gtpase-dependent-regulation-of-autophagy
#20
Christopher P Webster, Emma F Smith, Andrew J Grierson, Kurt J De Vos
A GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the first intron of the C9orf72 gene is the most common genetic defect associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) (C9ALS/FTD). Haploinsufficiency and a resulting loss of C9orf72 protein function has been suggested as a possible pathogenic mechanism in C9ALS/FTD. C9ALS/FTD patients exhibit specific ubiquitin and p62/sequestosome-1 positive but TDP-43 negative inclusions in the cerebellum and hippocampus, indicating possible autophagy deficits in these patients...
October 21, 2016: Small GTPases
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