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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214438/stepwise-dynamics-of-an-anionic-micellar-film-formation-of-crown-lenses
#1
Jongju Lee, Alex Nikolov, Darsh Wasan
We studied the stepwise thinning of a microscopic circular foam film formed from an anionic micellar solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The foam film formed from the SDS micellar solution thins in a stepwise manner by the formation and expansion of a dark spot(s) of one layer less than the film thickness. During the last stages of film thinning (e.g., a film with one micellar layer), the dark spot expansion occurs via two steps. Initially, a small dark circular spot inside a film of several microns in size is formed, which expands at a constant rate...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214390/robust-peptidoglycan-growth-by-dynamic-and-variable-multi-protein-complexes
#2
REVIEW
Manuel Pazos, Katharina Peters, Waldemar Vollmer
In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli the peptidoglycan sacculus resides in the periplasm, a compartment that experiences changes in pH value, osmolality, ion strength and other parameters depending on the cell's environment. Hence, the cell needs robust peptidoglycan growth mechanisms to grow and divide under different conditions. Here we propose a model according to which the cell achieves robust peptidoglycan growth by employing dynamic multi-protein complexes, which assemble with variable composition from freely diffusing sets of peptidoglycan synthases, hydrolases and their regulators, whereby the composition of the active complexes depends on the cell cycle state - cell elongation or division - and the periplasmic growth conditions...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214378/calcium-signaling-through-l-type-calcium-channels-role-in-pathophysiology-of-spinal-nociceptive-transmission
#3
REVIEW
Olivier Roca-Lapirot, Houda Radwani, Franck Aby, Frédéric Nagy, Marc Landry Pascal Fossat
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are ubiquitous channels in the central nervous system. L-type calcium channels (LTCs) are mostly post-synaptic channels regulating neuronal firing and gene expression. They play a role in important physio-pathological processes such as learning and memory, Parkinson's disease, autism and, as recognized more recently, in the pathophysiology of pain processes. Classically, the fundamental role of these channels in cardiovascular functions has limited the use of classical molecules to treat LTC-dependent disorders...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214133/dynamic-hyperinflation-in-patients-with-asthma-and-exercise-induced-bronchoconstriction
#4
Olga Mediano, Raquel Casitas, Carlos Villasante, Elisabet Martínez-Cerón, Raúl Galera, Ester Zamarrón, Francisco García-Río
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the behavior of operative lung volumes during exercise in patients with asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). OBJECTIVES: To compare the presence of dynamic hyperinflation (DH) in patients with mild asthma with and without EIB and in healthy individuals and to relate the changes in end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) with postexercise airflow reduction. METHODS: A total of 122 consecutive stable patients (>12 years of age) with mild asthma and 38 controls were studied...
February 14, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214121/a-molecular-zoom-into-soil-humeome-by-a-direct-sequential-chemical-fractionation-of-soil
#5
Marios Drosos, Antonio Nebbioso, Pierluigi Mazzei, Giovanni Vinci, Riccardo Spaccini, Alessandro Piccolo
A Humeomics sequential chemical fractionation coupled to advanced analytical identification was applied directly to soil for the first time. Humeomics extracted ~235% more soil organic carbon (SOC) than by the total alkaline extraction traditionally employed to solubilise soil humic molecules (soil Humeome). Seven fractions of either hydro- or organo-soluble components and a final unextractable humic residue were separated from soil. These materials enabled an unprecedented structural identification of solubilised heterogeneous humic molecules by combining NMR, GC-MS, and ESI-Orbitrap-MS...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214118/optimizing-peri-urban-ecosystems-pure-to-re-couple-urban-rural-symbiosis
#6
REVIEW
Yong-Guan Zhu, Brian J Reid, Andrew A Meharg, Steve A Banwart, Bo-Jie Fu
Globally, rapid urbanization, along with economic development, is dramatically changing the balance of biogeochemical cycles, impacting upon ecosystem services and impinging on United Nation global sustainability goals (inter alia: sustainable cities and communities; responsible consumption and production; good health and well-being; clean water and sanitation, and; to protect and conserve life on land and below water). A key feature of the urban ecosystems is that nutrient stocks, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), are being enriched...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214111/remediation-of-contaminated-lands-in-the-niger-delta-nigeria-prospects-and-challenges
#7
REVIEW
Nenibarini Zabbey, Kabari Sam, Adaugo Trinitas Onyebuchi
Contamination of the total environment (air, soil, water and biota) by crude oil has become a paramount interest in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Studies have revealed variable impacts of oil toxicity on the environment and exposed populations. The revelation gained much international attention in 2011 with the release of Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland report by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). This has up scaled local and international pressures for urgent clean-up and restoration of degraded bio-resource rich environments of the Niger Delta, starting from Ogoniland...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214099/lymph-node-stroma-dynamics-and-approaches-for-their-visualization
#8
REVIEW
Rebecca Gentek, Marc Bajénoff
Lymphoid stromal cells are best known as the architectural cells of lymphoid organs. For decades, they have been considered as inert elements of the immune system but this view has changed dramatically in recent years, when it was discovered that they are endowed with critical immunoregulatory functions. It is now accepted that without them, the adaptive immune response would be compromised, if not abrogated entirely. Here, we review the function of the major lymphoid stromal cell types; the way they remodel upon inflammation; discuss the available tools to track their behavior; and introduce several methodological approaches that we believe will help improving our knowledge of these pivotal cell types...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213985/capillary-dynamics-driven-by-molecular-self-layering
#9
Pingkeng Wu, Alex Nikolov, Darsh Wasan
Capillary dynamics is a ubiquitous everyday phenomenon. It has practical applications in diverse fields, including ink-jet printing, lab-on-a-chip, biotechnology, and coating. Understanding capillary dynamics requires essential knowledge on the molecular level of how fluid molecules interact with a solid substrate (the wall). Recent studies conducted with the surface force apparatus (SFA), atomic force microscope (AFM), and statistical mechanics simulation revealed that molecules/nanoparticles confined into the film/wall surfaces tend to self-layer into 2D layer/s and even 2D in-layer with increased confinement and fluid volume fraction...
February 10, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213982/can-fractional-order-coexisting-attractors-undergo-a-rotational-phenomenon
#10
Manashita Borah, Binoy Krishna Roy
This paper presents an interesting phenomenon unobserved so far in literature to the best of the authors' knowledge in fractional-order chaotic systems (FOCSs). It is the rotational phenomenon of fractional-order coexisting attractors. Another significant feature of the newly proposed FOCS is that two 2-wing chaotic attractors coexist in its fractional-order dynamics i.e. α<1. But once the system attains integer-order, the two attractors merge and evolve into a single 4-wing attractor. Furthermore, the authors have drawn its comparison with various well-known FOCSs to prove its superior features...
February 15, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213971/mass-turnover-and-recovery-dynamics-of-a-diverse-australian-continental-radiation
#11
Ian G Brennan, Paul M Oliver
Trends in global and local climate history have been linked to observed macroevolutionary patterns across a variety of organisms. These climatic pressures may unilaterally or asymmetrically influence the evolutionary trajectory of clades. To test and compare signatures of changing global (Eocene-Oligocene boundary cooling) and continental (Miocene aridification) environments on a continental fauna, we investigated the macroevolutionary dynamics of one of Australia's most diverse endemic radiations, pygopodoid geckos...
February 18, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213950/benchmark-performance-of-global-switching-versus-local-switching-for-trajectory-surface-hopping-molecular-dynamic-simulation-cis-trans-azobenzene-photoisomerization
#12
Ling Yue, Le Yu, Chao Xu, Yibo Lei, Yajun Liu, Chaoyuan Zhu
Newly developed global switching algorithm that does not require calculation of nonadiabatic coupling vector reduces computational cost significantly. However, there is a lack of extensive checking its accuracy for this simplest nonadiabatic molecular dynamic method in comparison with conventional Tully's fewest switches. It is very necessary to demonstrate how accurate global switching algorithm is. Extensive comparison between local and global switching on-the-fly trajectory surface hopping molecular dynamics is performed for cis-to-trans (800 sampling trajectories) and trans-to-cis (600 sampling trajectories) azobenzene photoisomerization at the OM2/MRCI level...
February 18, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213928/problem-solving-phase-transitions-during-team-collaboration
#13
Travis J Wiltshire, Jonathan E Butner, Stephen M Fiore
Multiple theories of problem-solving hypothesize that there are distinct qualitative phases exhibited during effective problem-solving. However, limited research has attempted to identify when transitions between phases occur. We integrate theory on collaborative problem-solving (CPS) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem-solving processes...
February 18, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213832/dynamic-fluorescence-microscopy-of-cellular-uptake-of-intercalating-model-drugs-by-ultrasound-activated-microbubbles
#14
B H A Lammertink, R Deckers, M Derieppe, I De Cock, I Lentacker, G Storm, C T W Moonen, C Bos
PURPOSE: The combination of ultrasound and microbubbles can facilitate cellular uptake of (model) drugs via transient permeabilization of the cell membrane. By using fluorescent molecules, this process can be studied conveniently with confocal fluorescence microscopy. This study aimed to investigate the relation between cellular uptake and fluorescence intensity increase of intercalating model drugs. PROCEDURES: SYTOX Green, an intercalating fluorescent dye that displays >500-fold fluorescence enhancement upon binding to nucleic acids, was used as a model drug for ultrasound-induced cellular uptake...
February 17, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213831/a-phenomenological-cohesive-model-for-the-macroscopic-simulation-of-cell-matrix-adhesions
#15
M Cóndor, J M García-Aznar
Cell adhesion is crucial for cells to not only physically interact with each other but also sense their microenvironment and respond accordingly. In fact, adherent cells can generate physical forces that are transmitted to the surrounding matrix, regulating the formation of cell-matrix adhesions. The main purpose of this work is to develop a computational model to simulate the dynamics of cell-matrix adhesions through a cohesive formulation within the framework of the finite element method and based on the principles of continuum damage mechanics...
February 17, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213824/an-approach-to-the-research-on-ion-and-water-properties-in-the-interphase-between-the-plasma-membrane-and-bulk-extracellular-solution
#16
REVIEW
Hiroshi Hibino, Madoka Takai, Hidenori Noguchi, Seishiro Sawamura, Yasufumi Takahashi, Hideki Sakai, Hitoshi Shiku
In vivo, cells are immersed in an extracellular solution that contains a variety of bioactive substances including ions and water. Classical electrophysiological analyses of epithelial cells in the stomach and small intestine have revealed that within a distance of several hundred micrometers above their apical plasma membrane, lies an extracellular layer that shows ion concentration gradients undetectable in the bulk phase. This "unstirred layer", which contains stagnant solutes, may also exist between the bulk extracellular solution and membranes of other cells in an organism and may show different properties...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213759/convection-of-a-colloidal-suspension-in-a-hele-shaw-cell
#17
B L Smorodin, I N Cherepanov, S N Ishutov, B I Myznikova
The results of a theoretical study are presented dealing with convective heat and mass transfer in a colloidal suspension through a Hele-Shaw cell heated from below. The numerical analysis, based on a multi-component model, reveals that for a certain range of parameter values the dynamical regimes of travelling waves as well as oscillatory fingering formation are stable. The bifurcation phenomena and nonlinear evolution of spatiotemporal patterns that develop in the colloid suspension are modeled and discussed, paying special attention to the combined effects of gravity sedimentation, thermal diffusion with positive separation ratio and convection...
February 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213682/mathematical-modelling-of-cytokines-mmps-and-fibronectin-fragments-in-osteoarthritic-cartilage
#18
Michelle Baker, Bindi S Brook, Markus R Owen
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease which causes pain and stiffness in joints. OA progresses through excessive degradation of joint cartilage, eventually leading to significant joint degeneration and loss of function. Cytokines, a group of cell signalling proteins, present in raised concentrations in OA joints, can be classified into pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory groups. They mediate cartilage degradation through several mechanisms, primarily the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a group of collagen-degrading enzymes...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213470/higher-mini-bal-total-protein-concentration-in-early-ards-predicts-faster-resolution-of-lung-injury-measured-by-more-ventilator-free-days
#19
Carolyn M Hendrickson, Jason Abbott, Hanjing Zhuo, Kathleen D Liu, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay
The protein concentration of alveolar edema fluid in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is dynamic. It reflects alveolar flooding during acute injury as well as fluid and protein clearance over time. We hypothesized that among ARDS patients treated with low tidal volume ventilation, higher concentrations of protein in mini-bronchoalveolar lavage (mBAL) samples would predict slower resolution of lung injury and worse clinical outcomes. Total protein and IgM concentrations in Day 0 mBAL samples from 79 subjects enrolled in the aerosolized albuterol (ALTA) ARDS Network Albuterol trial were measured by colorimetric assay and ELISA respectively...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213446/acetylcholine-release-in-prefrontal-cortex-promotes-gamma-oscillations-and-theta-gamma-coupling-during-cue-detection
#20
W M Howe, H J Gritton, N Lusk, Erik A Roberts, Vaughn L Hetrick, Joshua D Berke, Martin Sarter
The capacity for using external cues to guide behavior ("cue detection") constitutes an essential aspect of attention and goal-directed behavior. The cortical cholinergic input system, via phasic increases in prefrontal acetylcholine release, plays an essential role in attention by mediating such cue detection. However, the relationship between cholinergic signaling during cue detection and neural activity dynamics in prefrontal networks remains unclear. Here we combined sub-second measures of cholinergic signaling, neurophysiological recordings, and cholinergic receptor blockade to delineate the cholinergic contributions to prefrontal oscillations during cue detection in rats...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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