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Walter Ansanello Netto, Gisele Garcia Zanca, Michele Forgiarini Saccol, Salomão Chade Assan Zatiti, Stela Márcia Mattiello
OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible alterations on scapular muscle strength in subjects with traumatic anterior glenohumeral instability. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Laboratory setting. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-two subjects of both sexes: 26 healthy and 26 with traumatic anterior glenohumeral instability. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Subjects performed maximal isometric and concentric isokinetic contractions of shoulder protraction and retraction in scapular and sagittal planes, at slow (12...
July 11, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
Jinchuan Xie, Jinlong Wang, Jianfeng Lin, Xiaohua Zhou
The negative effect of carbonate on the rate and extent of bioreduction of aqueous U(VI) has been commonly reported. The solution pH is a key chemical factor controlling U(VI)aq species and the Gibbs free energy of reaction. Therefore, it is interesting to study whether the negative effect can be diminished under specific pH conditions. Experiments were conducted using Shewanella putrefaciens under anaerobic conditions with varying pH values (4-9) and bicarbonate concentrations ( [Formula: see text] , 0-50 mmol/L)...
July 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
E Hartl, T Knoche, H M P Choupina, J Rémi, C Vollmar, J P S Cunha, S Noachtar
PURPOSE: To investigate the frequency, localizing significance, and intensity characteristics of ictal vocalization in different focal epilepsy syndromes. METHODS: Up to four consecutive focal seizures were evaluated in 277 patients with lesional focal epilepsy, excluding isolated auras and subclinical EEG seizure patterns. Vocalization was considered to be present if observed in at least one of the analyzed seizures and not being of speech quality. Intensity features of ictal vocalization were analyzed in a subsample of 17 patients with temporal and 19 with extratemporal epilepsy syndrome...
July 11, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Andrea Picco, Marko Kaksonen
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a process by which eukaryotic cells bend a small region of their plasma membrane to form a transport vesicle that carries specific cargo molecules into the cell. Endocytosis controls the composition of the plasma membrane, imports nutrients and regulates many signalling pathways. The roles of most of the proteins involved in endocytosis have been thoroughly characterised. However, how these proteins cooperate in the cell to drive the endocytic process is not well understood...
July 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Sang-Yoon Kim, Woochang Lim
We consider the Watts-Strogatz small-world network (SWN) consisting of inhibitory fast spiking Izhikevich interneurons. This inhibitory neuronal population has adaptive dynamic synaptic strengths governed by the inhibitory spike-timing-dependent plasticity (iSTDP). In previous works without iSTDP, fast sparsely synchronized rhythms, associated with diverse cognitive functions, were found to appear in a range of large noise intensities for fixed strong synaptic inhibition strengths. Here, we investigate the effect of iSTDP on fast sparse synchronization (FSS) by varying the noise intensity D...
July 2, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Sheng Wang, Heng Wang
Onsite runoff control is considered an important part of sustainable urban drainage schemes, but estimating the maximum runoff flow rate from a catchment with onsite runoff controls remains controversial. Runoff controls complicate the issue by dividing the catchment into several subcatchments that feed into individual runoff controls, which dynamically regulate the catchment imperviousness. Rational Method (RM) is the most-employed technique to determine maximum flow rates for designing urban drainage infrastructures, but it cannot handle such conditions...
July 12, 2018: Water Research
Davide Savy, Vincenza Cozzolino, Marios Drosos, Pierluigi Mazzei, Alessandro Piccolo
Lignosulfonates are important by-products of the paper industry and may be transformed into different commodities. We studied the molecular properties of ammonium (LS-AM) and calcium Lignosulfonates (LS-C) and evaluated their bioactivity towards the early development of maize plantlets. The FT-IR, 13 C NMR and 1 H-13 C-HSQC-NMR spectra showed that the two lignosulfonates varied in hydroxyl, sulfonate and phenolic content, while DOSY-NMR spectroscopy suggested a similar diffusivity. High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) was used to simulate the effects of root-exuded acids and describe the conformational dynamics of both LS substrates in acidic aqueous solutions...
July 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mahnaz Valipour, Charles T Driscoll, Chris E Johnson, John J Battles, John L Campbell, Timothy J Fahey
Understanding the impacts of clear-cutting is critical to inform sustainable forest management associated with net primary productivity and nutrient availability over the long-term. Few studies have rigorously tested model simulations against field measurements which would provide more confidence in efforts to quantify logging impacts over the long-term. The biogeochemical model, PnET-BGC has been used to simulate forest production and stream chemistry at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA...
July 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Linh Tran, Julia Kaffy, Sandrine Ongeri, Tâp Ha-Duong
We recently reported that a glycopeptidomimetic molecule significantly delays the fibrillization process of Aβ42 peptide involved in Alzheimer's disease. However the binding mode of this compound, named 3β, was not determined at the atomic scale, hindering our understanding of its mechanism of action and impeding structure-based design of new inhibitors. In the present study, we performed molecular docking calculations and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the most probable structures of 3β complexed with Aβ protofibrils...
July 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Christian Ottmann, Sebastian A Andrei, Pim de Vink, Eline Sijbesma, Ling Han, Luc Brunsveld, Nobuo Kato, Yusuke Higuchi
The natural product family of fusicoccanes are stabilizers of 14-3-3 mediated protein-protein interactions (PPIs), some of which possess antitumor activity. In this study, we present the first use of molecular dynamics (MD) to rationally design PPI stabilizers with increased potency. Synthesis of a focused library, followed by characterization by fluorescence polarization, mutational studies and X-ray crystallography confirmed the power of the MD-based design approach, revealing the potential for an additional hydrogen bond with the 14-3-3 protein which significantly increased potency...
July 19, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Shamkumar P Deshmukh, Sajid B Mullani, Valmiki B Koli, Satish M Patil, Promod J Kasabe, Padma B Dandge, Sachin A Pawar, Sagar D Delekar
Supported silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were prepared by chemical reduction method with a sol-gel method. The structural, morphology and interconnectivity of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites (NCs) were analyzed using different instrumental techniques. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the Ag NPs have uniformly distributed and anchored on the surface of TiO2 . The reduction of electron-hole recombination was measured by Photoluminescence measurements lead, to an increased photocatalytic inactivation of bacteria...
July 19, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Naoki Kiyota, Yukihiro Shiga, Kohei Ichinohasama, Masayuki Yasuda, Naoko Aizawa, Kazuko Omodaka, Naoto Honda, Hiroshi Kunikata, Toru Nakazawa
Purpose: To use laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) to assess blood flow (BF) in the optic nerve head (ONH) tissue and choroid during elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods: This prospective study included 20 eyes of 20 healthy volunteers. The testing protocol had a baseline phase, two elevated IOP phases (+10 and +20 mm Hg), and a recovery phase. IOP was elevated by pushing against the eyelid with a novel tubular device attached to the LSFG apparatus. Measurement parameters in each phase included: LSFG-derived mean blur rate (MBR) and flow acceleration index (FAI); systemic parameters, and IOP...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Moritz Claudius Daniel, Adam M Dubis, Ana Quartilho, Huda Al-Hayouti, Sir Peng Tee Khaw, Maria Theodorou, Annegret Dahlmann-Noor
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore changes in Schlemm canal (SC), trabecular meshwork (TM), and iridocorneal angle (ICA) morphology during accommodative effort in children and young adults. Methods: We acquired anterior segment optical coherence tomography images (AS-OCT) of the ICA and ciliary muscle (CM) of both eyes of 50 children age 4 to 16 years with healthy eyes, at two levels of accommodation: 2.5 and 15 diopters (D). Semiautomated nasal ICA measurements were as follows: angle opening distance at 500/750 μm (AOD-500, -750), trabecular iris space area at 500/750 μm (TISA-500, -750), and trabecular iris angle at 500/750 μm (TIA-500, -750)...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Xiao Xia Li, Zheng Zhang, Hui Yang Zeng, Shen Wu, Lu Liu, Jing Xue Zhang, Qian Liu, Di Ya Yang, Ning Li Wang
Purpose: To examine the early glial reactivity and neuron damage in response to short-term cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp) reduction, as compared with intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. Methods: The experiment included 54 male Sprague-Dawley rats with elevated translaminar cribrosa pressure difference (TLPD), defined as IOP minus CSFp. These rats underwent either continuous CSF drainage for 6 hours (n = 18), or unilateral IOP elevation to 40 mm Hg for 6 hours (n = 18)...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Elias Mendes Costa, Wagner de Souza Tassinari, Helena Saraiva Koenow Pinheiro, Sidinei Julio Beutler, Lucia Helena Cunha Dos Anjos
The soil organic matter (SOM) content and dynamic are related to vegetation cover, climate, relief, and geology; these factors have strong variation in space in the southeastern of Brazil. The objective of the study was to compare and evaluate performance of classical multiple linear regressions (MLR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models to predict soil organic carbon (SOC) and chemical fractions of organic matter in the Brazilian southeastern mountainous region. The regression models were fitted based on SOC and chemical fractions of SOM...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
K Christy Tanner, Lisamarie Windham-Myers, Mark Marvin-DiPasquale, Jacob A Fleck, Kenneth W Tate, Bruce A Linquist
Few studies have considered how methylmercury (MeHg, a toxic form of Hg produced in anaerobic soils) production in rice ( L.) fields can affect water quality, and little is known about MeHg dynamics in rice fields. Surface water MeHg and total Hg (THg) imports, exports, and storage were studied in two commercial rice fields in the Sacramento Valley, California, where soil THg was low (25 and 57 ng g). The median concentration of MeHg in drainage water exiting the fields was 0.17 ng g (range: <0.007-2.1 ng g)...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Andy D Robertson, Yao Zhang, Lucretia A Sherrod, Steven T Rosenzweig, Liwang Ma, Lajpat Ahuja, Meagan E Schipanski
Dryland agroecosystems could be a sizable sink for atmospheric carbon (C) due to their spatial extent and level of degradation, providing climate change mitigation. We examined productivity and soil C dynamics under two climate change scenarios (moderate warming, representative concentration pathway [RCP] 4.5; and high warming, RCP 8.5), using long-term experimental data and the DayCent process-based model for three sites with varying climates and soil conditions in the US High Plains. Each site included a no-till cropping intensity gradient introduced in 1985, with treatments ranging from wheat-fallow ( L...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
P R Nash, H T Gollany, U M Sainju
Traditional dryland crop management includes fallow and intensive tillage, which have reduced soil organic carbon (SOC) over the past century, raising concerns regarding soil health and sustainability. The objectives of this study were: (i) to use CQESTR, a process-based C model, to simulate SOC dynamics from 2006 to 2011 and to predict relative SOC trends in cropping sequences that included barley ( L.), pea ( L.), and fallow under conventional tillage or no-till, and N fertilization rates through 2045; and (ii) to identify best dryland cropping systems to increase SOC and reduce CO emissions under projected climate change in eastern Montana...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Camilla A Gardiner, Timothy J Clough, Keith C Cameron, Hong J Di, Grant R Edwards, Cecile A M de Klein
Urea, the dominant form of N in ruminant urine, degrades in soil to produce NO emissions. However, the fate of non-urea urine N compounds (NUNCs) in soil and their contribution to urine patch NO emissions remain unclear. This study evaluated five NUNCs: allantoin (10%), creatinine (3%), creatine (3%), uric acid (1%), and (hypo)xanthine (0.6%), where numbers in parentheses represent the average percentage of total urine N. The fates of NUNCs in a pasture soil were determined using N-labeled NUNCs in a laboratory trial...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Ruben Sakrabani, John Hollis
Soil organic C (SOC) dynamics are complex, and models have been developed for predicting future changes, validated using only individual site data. In this study, we used the CENTURY model to predict changes in SOC between 1978 and 2000 using input weather data for 1978 to 2000 from the UK Meteorological Office and soil property input data derived from the National Soil Inventory (NSI). The predicted changes in SOC from the model simulation were validated using the resampled NSI data for the period 1994 to 2000...
July 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
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