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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914175/dynamic-changes-in-liver-stiffness-measured-by-transient-elastography-predict-clinical-outcomes-among-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#1
Jianyong Zeng, Shaohang Cai, Jiajun Liu, Xiulan Xue, Xiaolu Wu, Caixia Zheng
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the validity of transient elastography in monitoring the antiviral outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: This study included 108 patients treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues and 67 patients treated with interferon (IFN). Liver biopsies were evaluated by the METAVIR score. Transient elastography was performed initially at baseline, 48 weeks, and 96 weeks. Liver tissue was obtained before and after 96 weeks of treatment...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914088/murine-mycobacterium-marinum-infection-as-a-model-for-tuberculosis
#2
Julia Lienard, Fredric Carlsson
Mycobacteria are a major human health problem globally. Regarding tuberculosis the situation is worsened by the poor efficacy of current vaccine regimens and by emergence of drug-resistant strains (Manjelievskaia J et al, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 110: 110, 2016; Pereira et al., Lancet Infect Dis 12:300-306, 2012; http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/) undermining both disease-prevention and available treatments. Thus, increased basic understanding of mycobacterial-and particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis-virulence strategies and pathogenesis is of great importance...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914080/immobilization-techniques-of-bacteria-for-live-super-resolution-imaging-using-structured-illumination-microscopy
#3
Amy L Bottomley, Lynne Turnbull, Cynthia B Whitchurch, Elizabeth J Harry
Advancements in optical microscopy technology have allowed huge progression in the ability to understand protein structure and dynamics in live bacterial cells using fluorescence microscopy. Paramount to high-quality microscopy is good sample preparation to avoid bacterial cell movement that can result in motion blur during image acquisition. Here, we describe two techniques of sample preparation that reduce unwanted cell movement and are suitable for application to a number of bacterial species and imaging methods...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914070/analysis-of-bacterial-surface-interactions-with-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics
#4
Christofer Karlsson, Johan Teleman, Johan Malmström
Host-pathogen protein-protein interaction networks are highly complex and dynamic. In this experimental protocol we describe a method to isolate host proteins attached to the bacterial surface followed by quantitative mass spectrometry based proteomics analysis. This technique provides an overview of the host-pathogen interaction network, which can be used to guide directed perturbations of the system, and to select target of specific interest for further studies.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914065/computational-design-of-membrane-curvature-sensing-peptides
#5
Armando Jerome de Jesus, Hang Yin
Computer simulations have become an indispensable tool in studying molecular biological systems. The unmatched spatial and temporal resolution that it offers enables for microscopic-level views into the dynamics and mechanics of biological systems. Recent advances in hardware resources have also opened up to computer simulations the investigation of longer timescale biological processes and larger systems. The study of membrane proteins or peptides especially benefits from simulations due to difficulties related to crystallization of such proteins in a membrane environment...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914052/applications-of-normal-mode-analysis-methods-in-computational-protein-design
#6
Vincent Frappier, Matthieu Chartier, Rafael Najmanovich
Recent advances in coarse-grained normal mode analysis methods make possible the large-scale prediction of the effect of mutations on protein stability and dynamics as well as the generation of biologically relevant conformational ensembles. Given the interplay between flexibility and enzymatic activity, the combined analysis of stability and dynamics using the Elastic Network Contact Model (ENCoM) method has ample applications in protein engineering in industrial and medical applications such as in computational antibody design...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914051/integration-of-molecular-dynamics-based-predictions-into-the-optimization-of-de-novo-protein-designs-limitations-and-benefits
#7
Henrique F Carvalho, Arménio J M Barbosa, Ana C A Roque, Olga Iranzo, Ricardo J F Branco
Recent advances in de novo protein design have gained considerable insight from the intrinsic dynamics of proteins, based on the integration of molecular dynamics simulations protocols on the state-of-the-art de novo protein design protocols used nowadays. With this protocol we illustrate how to set up and run a molecular dynamics simulation followed by a functional protein dynamics analysis. New users will be introduced to some useful open-source computational tools, including the GROMACS molecular dynamics simulation software package and ProDy for protein structural dynamics analysis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914045/achievements-and-challenges-in-computational-protein-design
#8
Ilan Samish
Computational protein design (CPD), a yet evolving field, includes computer-aided engineering for partial or full de novo designs of proteins of interest. Designs are defined by a requested structure, function, or working environment. This chapter describes the birth and maturation of the field by presenting 101 CPD examples in a chronological order emphasizing achievements and pending challenges. Integrating these aspects presents the plethora of CPD approaches with the hope of providing a "CPD 101". These reflect on the broader structural bioinformatics and computational biophysics field and include: (1) integration of knowledge-based and energy-based methods, (2) hierarchical designated approach towards local, regional, and global motifs and the integration of high- and low-resolution design schemes that fit each such region, (3) systematic differential approaches towards different protein regions, (4) identification of key hot-spot residues and the relative effect of remote regions, (5) assessment of shape-complementarity, electrostatics and solvation effects, (6) integration of thermal plasticity and functional dynamics, (7) negative design, (8) systematic integration of experimental approaches, (9) objective cross-assessment of methods, and (10) successful ranking of potential designs...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914041/paliperidone-loaded-nanolipomer-system-for-sustained-delivery-and-enhanced-intestinal-permeation-superiority-to-polymeric-and-solid-lipid-nanoparticles
#9
Hala Mahmoud Helal, Sana Mohamed Mortada, Marwa Ahmed Sallam
Paliperidone (PPD) is the most recent second-generation atypical antipsychotic approved for the treatment of schizophrenia. An immediate release dose causes extrapyramidal side effects. In this work, a novel nanolipomer carrier system for PPD with enhanced intestinal permeability and sustained release properties has been developed and optimized. PPD was successfully encapsulated into a lipomer consisting of a specific combination of biocompatible materials including poly-ε-caprolactone as a polymeric core, Lipoid S75, and Gelucire® 50/13 as a lipid shell and polyvinyl alcohol as a stabilizing agent...
December 2, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914017/mothers-fathers-and-parental-systems-a-conceptual-model-of-parental-engagement-in-programmes-for-child-mental-health-connect-attend-participate-enact-cape
#10
Patrycja J Piotrowska, L A Tully, R Lenroot, E Kimonis, D Hawes, C Moul, P J Frick, V Anderson, M R Dadds
Parenting programmes are one of the best researched and most effective interventions for reducing child mental health problems. The success of such programmes, however, is largely dependent on their reach and parental engagement. Rates of parental enrolment and attendance are highly variable, and in many cases very low; this is especially true of father involvement in parenting programmes. This paper proposes a conceptual model of parental engagement in parenting programmes-the CAPE model (Connect, Attend, Participate, Enact) that builds on recent models by elaborating on the interdependent stages of engagement, and its interparental or systemic context...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913993/antifreeze-glycopeptides-from-structure-and-activity-studies-to-current-approaches-in-chemical-synthesis
#11
REVIEW
Małgorzata Urbańczyk, Jerzy Góra, Rafał Latajka, Norbert Sewald
Antifreeze glycopeptides (AFGPs) are a class of biological antifreeze agents found predominantly in Arctic and Antarctic species of fish. They possess the ability to regulate ice nucleation and ice crystal growth, thus creating viable life conditions at temperatures below the freezing point of body fluids. AFGPs usually consist of 4-55 repetitions of the tripeptide unit Ala-Ala-Thr that is O-glycosylated at the threonine side chains with β-D-galactosyl-(1 → 3)-α-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. Due to their interesting properties and high antifreeze activity, they have many potential applications, e...
December 2, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913979/genetic-diversity-of-the-genotype-vii-newcastle-disease-virus-identification-of-a-novel-viij-sub-genotype
#12
Cong Xue, Yanlong Cong, Renfu Yin, Yixue Sun, Chan Ding, Shengqing Yu, Xiufan Liu, Shunlin Hu, Jing Qian, Qianliang Yuan, Mingxi Yang, Chunfeng Wang, Zhuang Ding
Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease of poultry caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Multiple genotypes of NDV have been circulating worldwide and NDV is continuously evolving, resulting into more diversity. Of multiple viral genotypes, VII is particularly important given that it had been associated with most recent ND outbreaks worldwide. In this study, an epidemiological investigation performed in northeastern China during 2014-2015 showed that 11 genotype VII isolates amounted to 55 percent in a total number of NDV isolates...
December 2, 2016: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913913/improved-image-quality-in-abdominal-ct-in-patients-who-underwent-treatment-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-small-metal-implants-using-a-raw-data-based-metal-artifact-reduction-algorithm
#13
Keitaro Sofue, Takeshi Yoshikawa, Yoshiharu Ohno, Noriyuki Negi, Hiroyasu Inokawa, Naoki Sugihara, Kazuro Sugimura
OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of a raw data-based metal artifact reduction (SEMAR) algorithm for image quality improvement in abdominal CT for patients with small metal implants. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with small metal implants (3-15 mm in size) who underwent treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma were imaged with CT. CT data were reconstructed by filtered back projection with and without SEMAR algorithm in axial and coronal planes. To evaluate metal artefact reduction, mean CT number (HU and SD) and artefact index (AI) values within the liver were calculated...
December 2, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913906/synergistic-mitotoxicity-of-chloromethanes-and-fullerene-c60-nanoaggregates-in-daphnia-magna-midgut-epithelial-cells
#14
Mariana Seke, Milica Markelic, Arian Morina, Danica Jovic, Aleksandra Korac, Dragana Milicic, Aleksandar Djordjevic
Adsorption of non-polar compounds by suspended fullerene nanoaggregates (nC60) may enhance their toxicity and affect the fate, transformation, and transport of non-polar compounds in the environment. The potential of stable fullerene nanoaggregates as contaminant carriers in aqueous systems and the influence of chloromethanes (trichloromethane and dichloromethane) were studied on the midgut epithelial cells of Daphnia magna by light and electron microscopy. The size and shape of fullerene nanoaggregates were observed and measured using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and low vacuum scanning electron microscopy...
December 3, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913905/proteins-immunologically-related-to-map65-1-accumulate-and-localize-differentially-during-bud-development-in-vitis-vinifera-l
#15
Luigi Parrotta, Claudia Faleri, Mauro Cresti, Giampiero Cai
Various arrays of microtubules are present throughout the plant cell cycle and are involved in distinct functions. Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) regulate microtubule dynamics by acting as stabilizers, destabilizers, and promoters of microtubule dynamics. The MAP65 family is a specific group of cross-linkers required for structural maintenance of microtubules. In plants, different isoforms of MAP65 are differentially expressed according to their developmental program. In this work, we analyzed the differential distribution of proteins immunologically related to MAP65-1 during bud development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L...
December 2, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913887/transcriptomics-analysis-of-hulless-barley-during-grain-development-with-a-focus-on-starch-biosynthesis
#16
Yawei Tang, Xingquan Zeng, Yulin Wang, Lijun Bai, Qijun Xu, Zexiu Wei, Hongjun Yuan, Tashi Nyima
Hulless barley, with its unique nutritional value and potential health benefits, has increasingly attracted attentions in recent years. However, the transcription dynamics during hulless barley grain development is not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the transcriptome changes during barley grain development using Illumina paired-end RNA-sequencing. Two datasets of the developing grain transcriptomes from two barley landraces with the differential seed starch synthesis traits were generated, and comparative transcriptome approach in both genotypes was performed...
December 2, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913865/nitrogen-dynamics-in-subtropical-fringe-and-basin-mangrove-forests-inferred-from-stable-isotopes
#17
Carla Roberta Gonçalves Reis, Gabriela Bielefeld Nardoto, André Luis Casarin Rochelle, Simone Aparecida Vieira, Rafael Silva Oliveira
Mangroves exhibit low species richness compared to other tropical forests, but great structural and functional diversity. Aiming to contribute to a better understanding of the functioning of mangrove forests, we investigated nitrogen (N) dynamics in two physiographic types of mangroves (fringe and basin forests) in southeastern Brazil. Because fringe forests are under great influence of tidal flushing we hypothesized that these forests would exhibit higher N cycling rates in sediment and higher N losses to the atmosphere compared to basin forests...
December 2, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913851/impact-of-oxygenation-on-the-performance-of-three-non-saccharomyces-yeasts-in-co-fermentation-with-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#18
Kirti Shekhawat, Florian F Bauer, Mathabatha E Setati
The sequential or co-inoculation of grape must with non-Saccharomyces yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains has recently become a common practice in winemaking. The procedure intends to enhance unique aroma and flavor profiles of wine. The extent of the impact of non-Saccharomyces strains depends on their ability to produce biomass and to remain metabolically active for a sufficiently long period. However, mixed-culture wine fermentations tend to become rapidly dominated by S. cerevisiae, reducing or eliminating the non-Saccharomyces yeast contribution...
December 2, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913827/intra-lesional-spatial-correlation-of-static-and-dynamic-fet-pet-parameters-with-mri-based-cerebral-blood-volume-in-patients-with-untreated-glioma
#19
Jens Göttler, Mathias Lukas, Anne Kluge, Stephan Kaczmarz, Jens Gempt, Florian Ringel, Mona Mustafa, Bernhard Meyer, Claus Zimmer, Markus Schwaiger, Stefan Förster, Christine Preibisch, Thomas Pyka
PURPOSE: (18)F-fluorethyltyrosine-(FET)-PET and MRI-based relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) have both been used to characterize gliomas. Recently, inter-individual correlations between peak static FET-uptake and rCBV have been reported. Herein, we assess the local intra-lesional relation between FET-PET parameters and rCBV. METHODS: Thirty untreated glioma patients (27 high-grade) underwent simultaneous PET/MRI on a 3 T hybrid scanner obtaining structural and dynamic susceptibility contrast sequences...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913774/gravity-flow-in-proposed-enteral-tube-small-bore-connectors
#20
Ryan T Hurt, Lisa M Epp, Adele K Pattinson, Wanda M Duellman, Stephen M Corner, Manpreet S Mundi
BACKGROUND: Enteral nutrition (EN) misconnections have been identified as a serious and potential deadly problem. An international effort led by EN industry leaders has developed a small-bore enteral connector (ENFit) that in theory will reduce the frequency of misconnections. Despite the potential benefit of preventing misconnections, the full impact of adoption of the ENFit connector is unknown. To assess the impact of transitioning to ENFit on our home EN (HEN) patients, the current study evaluated gravity feeding comparing 2 proposed small-bore connectors to the legacy (current connector) using various commercial formulas...
December 2, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
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