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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166621/lifestyle-transitions-and-adaptive-pathogenesis-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#1
REVIEW
Martina Valentini, Diego Gonzalez, Despoina Ai Mavridou, Alain Filloux
Pseudomonas aeruginosa acute and chronic infections are of great concern to human health, especially in hospital settings. It is currently assumed that P. aeruginosa has two antagonistic pathogenic strategies that parallel two different lifestyles; free-living cells are predominantly cytotoxic and induce an acute inflammatory reaction, while biofilm-forming communities cause refractory chronic infections. Recent findings suggest that the planktonic-to-sessile transition is a complex, reversible and overall dynamic differentiation process...
November 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166603/caveolin1-is-required-for-th1-cell-infiltration-but-not-tight-junction-remodeling-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-autoimmune-neuroinflammation
#2
Sarah E Lutz, Julian R Smith, Dae Hwan Kim, Carl V L Olson, Kyle Ellefsen, Jennifer M Bates, Sunil P Gandhi, Dritan Agalliu
Lymphocytes cross vascular boundaries via either disrupted tight junctions (TJs) or caveolae to induce tissue inflammation. In the CNS, Th17 lymphocytes cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) before Th1 cells; yet this differential crossing is poorly understood. We have used intravital two-photon imaging of the spinal cord in wild-type and caveolae-deficient mice with fluorescently labeled endothelial tight junctions to determine how tight junction remodeling and caveolae regulate CNS entry of lymphocytes during the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model for multiple sclerosis...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166587/migrating-myeloid-cells-sense-temporal-dynamics-of-chemoattractant-concentrations
#3
Caren E Petrie Aronin, Yun M Zhao, Justine S Yoon, Nicole Y Morgan, Thorsten Prüstel, Ronald N Germain, Martin Meier-Schellersheim
Chemoattractant-mediated recruitment of hematopoietic cells to sites of pathogen growth or tissue damage is critical to host defense and organ homeostasis. Chemotaxis is typically considered to rely on spatial sensing, with cells following concentration gradients as long as these are present. Utilizing a microfluidic approach, we found that stable gradients of intermediate chemokines (CCL19 and CXCL12) failed to promote persistent directional migration of dendritic cells or neutrophils. Instead, rising chemokine concentrations were needed, implying that temporal sensing mechanisms controlled prolonged responses to these ligands...
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166560/analytical-challenges-and-recent-advances-in-mass-spectrometry-based-lipidomics
#4
Yepy Hardi Rustam, Gavin Edmund Reid
Although no internationally accepted consensus definition exists, lipids can be broadly defined as "fatty acids and their derivatives, and substances related biosynthetically or functionally to these compounds". Lipids play critical roles as (i) the major structural components of biological membranes, and as functional and regulatory components of membrane protein signaling, (ii) bioactive intra- and inter-cellular signaling molecules, and (iii) energy storage molecules for the maintenance of energy homeostasis...
November 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166559/dynamic-nature-of-thiolate-monolayer-in-au25-sr-18-nanoclusters
#5
Giovanni Salassa, Annelies Sels, Fabrizio Mancin, Thomas Burgi
Thiolate monolayer, protecting gold nanocluster, is the principal responsible of their chemical behavior and their interaction with the environment. Understanding the parameters that influence the sta-bility and reactivity of the monolayer will enable its precise and controlled functionalization. Here we present a protocol for the investigation of the monolayer reactivity in Au25(SR)18 based on MALDI mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Thiol ex-change reaction between cluster and thiol molecules has been inves-tigated showing how this reaction is affected by the thiol affinity for Au25...
November 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166558/understanding-the-cellular-uptake-of-ph-responsive-zwitterionic-gold-nanoparticles-a-computer-simulation-study
#6
Xuebo Quan, Daohui Zhao, Libo Li, Jian Zhou
Surface functionalization of nanoparticles (NPs) with stealth polymers (e.g., hydrophilic and zwitterionic polymers) has become a common strategy to resist non-specific protein adsorption recently. Understanding the role of surface decoration on NP-biomembrane interactions is of great significance to promote the application of NPs in biomedical fields. Herein, using coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulations, we investigate the interactions between stealth polymer-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and lipid membranes...
November 22, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166480/-impact-of-moderate-intellectual-disability-on-the-dynamics-and-quality-of-family-life-a-qualitative-clinical-study
#7
Rodrigo Victor Viana Tomaz, Vanessa de Arruda Santos, Lucimar Retto da Silva de Avó, Carla Maria Ramos Germano, Débora Gusmão Melo
This qualitative clinical study investigated the impact of moderate intellectual disability on family dynamics and quality of life. The data were collected using individual interviews with 15 mothers of children with intellectual disabilities, as a convenience sample, and examined with categorical thematic content analysis. The results were discussed using a comprehensive and interpretative approach. Analysis of the interviews showed that care for children with intellectual disabilities is centered on the mother, contributing to the change in family relations...
November 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166424/the-future-in-rhinology-from-local-treatment-to-monoclonals-and-influencing-the-microbiome
#8
W J Fokkens
Over the last few decades, rhinology has been one of the most dynamic and progressive areas of ENT. We have not experienced such an intense period of development since the introduction of nasal corticosteroids in the 1970s.
November 22, 2017: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166242/dynamism-of-an-astrocyte-in-vivo-perspectives-on-identity-and-function
#9
Kira E Poskanzer, Anna V Molofsky
Astrocytes are an abundant and evolutionarily conserved central nervous system cell type. Despite decades of evidence that astrocytes are integral to neural circuit function, it seems as though astrocytic and neuronal biology continue to advance in parallel to each other, to the detriment of both. Recent advances in molecular biology and optical imaging are being applied to astrocytes in new and exciting ways but without fully considering their unique biology. From this perspective, we explore the reasons that astrocytes remain enigmatic, arguing that their responses to neuronal and environmental cues shape form and function in dynamic ways...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166227/the-impact-of-attachment-style-on-sexual-satisfaction-and-sexual-desire-in-a-sexually-diverse-sample
#10
Kristen P Mark, Laura M Patrick, Sarah H Murray
Research has indicated that adult romantic attachment is influential and important to sexual and relationship satisfaction. Sexual desire, although not a direct focus of attachment literature, is highly related to sexual and relationship satisfaction, suggesting it may also be impacted by attachment style in romantic couples. However, the research conducted on sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, and attachment has been largely heterocentric, making it difficult to determine whether the findings documented in the literature thus far are relevant in a sexually diverse group of individuals...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166180/measurement-of-orbital-biomechanical-properties-in-patients-with-thyroid-orbitopathy-using-the-dynamic-scheimpflug-analyzer-corvis-st
#11
Anna Leszczynska, Karolin Moehler, Eberhard Spoerl, Lisa Ramm, Robert Herber, Lutz E Pillunat, Naim Terai
PURPOSE: To investigate orbital biomechanical properties in patients with thyroid orbitopathy and in age- and gender-matched healthy subjects using the Corvis-ST (CST, Oculus Wetzlar, Germany). METHODS: The CST allows a non-contact tonometry with an ultra-high-speed Scheimpflug device to record the deformation of the cornea during an air pulse. Biomechanical response parameters (intraocular pressure (IOP), whole eye movement length (WEMl) and time (WEMt), deflection amplitude 2 mm ratio max, deflection amplitude max, stiffness parameter, and biomechanically corrected IOP were measured in 39 patients with thyroid orbitopathy (= group I) and in 33 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (= group II) using the CST...
November 22, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166162/stochastic-evolutionary-demography-under-a-fluctuating-optimum-phenotype
#12
Luis-Miguel Chevin, Olivier Cotto, Jaime Ashander
Many natural populations exhibit temporal fluctuations in abundance that are consistent with external forcing by a randomly changing environment. As fitness emerges from an interaction between the phenotype and the environment, such demographic fluctuations probably include a substantial contribution from fluctuating phenotypic selection. We study the stochastic population dynamics of a population exposed to random (plus possibly directional) changes in the optimum phenotype for a quantitative trait that evolves in response to this moving optimum...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166155/drivers-of-diversification-in-individual-life-courses
#13
Raisa Hernández-Pacheco, Ulrich K Steiner
Heterogeneity in life courses among individuals of a population influences the speed of adaptive evolutionary processes, but it is less clear how biotic and abiotic environmental fluctuations influence such heterogeneity. We investigate principal drivers of variability in sequence of stages during an individual's life in a stage-structured population. We quantify heterogeneity by measuring population entropy of a Markov chain, which computes the rate of diversification of individual life courses. Using individual data of a primate population, we show that density regulates the stage composition of the population but that its entropy and the generating moments of heterogeneity are independent of density...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166124/some-connections-between-importance-sampling-and-enhanced-sampling-methods-in-molecular-dynamics
#14
H C Lie, J Quer
In molecular dynamics, enhanced sampling methods enable the collection of better statistics of rare events from a reference or target distribution. We show that a large class of these methods is based on the idea of importance sampling from mathematical statistics. We illustrate this connection by comparing the Hartmann-Schütte method for rare event simulation (J. Stat. Mech. Theor. Exp. 2012, P11004) and the Valsson-Parrinello method of variationally enhanced sampling [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 090601 (2014)]...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166122/bulk-and-interfacial-structures-of-reline-deep-eutectic-solvent-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#15
Supreet Kaur, Shobha Sharma, Hemant K Kashyap
We apply all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to describe the bulk morphology and interfacial structure of reline, a deep eutectic solvent comprising choline chloride and urea in 1:2 molar ratio, near neutral and charged graphene electrodes. For the bulk phase structural investigation, we analyze the simulated real-space radial distribution functions, X-ray/neutron scattering structure functions, and their partial components. Our study shows that both hydrogen-bonding and long-range correlations between different constituents of reline play a crucial role to lay out the bulk structure of reline...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166120/mechanical-response-of-transient-telechelic-networks-with-many-part-stickers
#16
Michelle K Sing, Jorge Ramírez, Bradley D Olsen
A central question in soft matter is understanding how several individual, weak bonds act together to produce collective interactions. Here, gel-forming telechelic polymers with multiple stickers at each chain end are studied through Brownian dynamics simulations to understand how collective interaction of the bonds affects mechanical response of the gels. These polymers are modeled as finitely extensible dumbbells using an explicit tau-leap algorithm and the binding energy of these associations was kept constant regardless of the number of stickers...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166119/two-phase-thermodynamic-model-for-computing-entropies-of-liquids-reanalyzed
#17
Tao Sun, Jiawei Xian, Huai Zhang, Zhigang Zhang, Yigang Zhang
The two-phase thermodynamic (2PT) model [S.-T. Lin et al., J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11792-11805 (2003)] provides a promising paradigm to efficiently determine the ionic entropies of liquids from molecular dynamics. In this model, the vibrational density of states (VDoS) of a liquid is decomposed into a diffusive gas-like component and a vibrational solid-like component. By treating the diffusive component as hard sphere (HS) gas and the vibrational component as harmonic oscillators, the ionic entropy of the liquid is determined...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166117/adsorption-and-conformations-of-lysozyme-and-%C3%AE-lactalbumin-at-a-water-octane-interface
#18
David L Cheung
As proteins contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids, they will readily adsorb onto interfaces between water and hydrophobic fluids such as oil. This adsorption normally causes changes in the protein structure, which can result in loss of protein function and irreversible adsorption, leading to the formation of protein interfacial films. While this can be advantageous in some applications (e.g., food technology), in most cases it limits our ability to exploit protein functionality at interfaces...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166116/theoretical-study-of-photodetachment-spectroscopy-of-hydrogenated-boron-cluster-anion-h2b7-and-its-deuterated-isotopomer
#19
Rudraditya Sarkar, S Mahapatra
Photodetachment spectroscopy of H2B7(-) and its deuterated isotopomer probing the energetically low-lying electronic states of the respective neutral cluster is theoretically investigated in this paper. The theoretical methodology is based on detailed quantum chemistry calculations of electronic state energies, construction of a vibronic coupling model in the diabatic electronic basis, and nuclear dynamics calculations from first principles using time-dependent and time-independent quantum mechanical methods...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166111/effective-interactions-between-inclusions-in-an-active-bath
#20
Mahdi Zaeifi Yamchi, Ali Naji
We study effective two- and three-body interactions between non-active colloidal inclusions in an active bath of chiral or non-chiral particles, using Brownian dynamics simulations within a standard, two-dimensional model of disk-shaped inclusions and active particles. In a non-chiral active bath, we first corroborate previous findings on effective two-body repulsion mediated between the inclusions by elucidating the detailed non-monotonic features of the two-body force profiles, including a primary maximum and a secondary hump at larger separations that was not previously reported...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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