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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813019/grafting-modification-of-the-reactive-core-shell-particles-to-enhance-the-toughening-ability-of-polylactide
#1
Zhaokun Li, Shixin Song, Xuanchen Zhao, Xue Lv, Shulin Sun
In order to overcome the brittleness of polylactide (PLA), reactive core-shell particles (RCS) with polybutadiene as core and methyl methacrylate-co-styrene-co-glycidyl methacrylate as shell were prepared to toughen PLA. Tert-dodecyl mercaptan (TDDM) was used as chain transfer agent to modify the grafting properties (such as grafting degree, shell thickness, internal and external grafting) of the core-shell particles. The introduction of TDDM decreased the grafting degree, shell thickness and the Tg of the core phase...
August 16, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813018/biophysical-and-computational-studies-of-the-vcci-vmip-ii-complex
#2
Anna F Nguyen, Nai-Wei Kuo, Laura J Showalter, Ricardo Ramos, Cynthia M Dupureur, Michael E Colvin, Patricia J LiWang
Certain viruses have the ability to subvert the mammalian immune response, including interference in the chemokine system. Poxviruses produce the chemokine binding protein vCCI (viral CC chemokine inhibitor; also called 35K), which tightly binds to CC chemokines. To facilitate the study of vCCI, we first provide a protocol to produce folded vCCI from Escherichia coli (E. coli.) It is shown here that vCCI binds with unusually high affinity to viral Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-II (vMIP-II), a chemokine analog produced by the virus, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813011/insights-into-the-effect-of-the-g245s-single-point-mutation-on-the-structure-of-p53-and-the-binding-of-the-protein-to-dna
#3
Marco Gaetano Lepre, Sara Ibrahim Omar, Gianvito Grasso, Umberto Morbiducci, Marco Agostino Deriu, Jack A Tuszynski
The transcription factor p53 is a potent tumor suppressor dubbed as the "guardian of the genome" because of its ability to orchestrate protective biological outputs in response to a variety of oncogenic stresses. Mutation and thus inactivation of p53 can be found in 50% of human tumors. The majority are missense mutations located in the DNA binding region. Among them, G245S is known to be a structural hotspot mutation. To understand the behaviors and differences between the wild-type and mutant, both a dimer of the wild type p53 (wt-p53) and its G245S mutant (G245S-mp53), complexed with DNA, were simulated using molecular dynamics for more than 1 μs...
August 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813004/lactose-binding-induces-opposing-dynamics-changes-in-human-galectins-revealed-by-nmr-based-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange
#4
Chih-Ta Henry Chien, Meng-Ru Ho, Chung-Hung Lin, Shang-Te Danny Hsu
Galectins are β-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in a myriad of biological functions. Despite their highly conserved carbohydrate binding motifs with essentially identical structures, their affinities for lactose, a common galectin inhibitor, vary significantly. Here, we aimed to examine the molecular basis of differential lactose affinities amongst galectins using solution-based techniques. Consistent dissociation constants of lactose binding were derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry and bio-layer interferometry for human galectin-1 (hGal1), galectin-7 (hGal7), and the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of galectin-8 (hGal8(NTD) and hGal8(CTD), respectively)...
August 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812935/motivations-for-learning-of-family-medicine-residents-trained-in-competency-based-education
#5
Oksana Babenko, Olga Szafran, Sudha Koppula, Lillian Au
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Family physicians regularly encounter clinical uncertainty and ambiguity and thus, are expected to engage in on-going learning to respond to changing needs of family practice. Using Achievement Goal Theory, the objective of this study was to examine motivations for learning of family medicine residents in a competency-based program. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study, employing a survey methodology with family medicine residents at the mid-point of training at a Canadian university...
August 16, 2017: Education for Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812932/celebrating-wobble-decoding-half-a-century-and-still-much-is-new
#6
Paul F Agris, Emily R Eruysal, Amithi Narendran, Ville Y P Väre, Sweta Vangaveti, Srivathsan V Ranganathan
A simple post-transcriptional modification of tRNA, deamination of adenosine to inosine at the first, or wobble, position of the anticodon, inspired Francis Crick's Wobble Hypothesis 50 years ago. Many more naturally-occurring modifications have been elucidated and continue to be discovered. The post-transcriptional modifications of tRNA's anticodon domain are the most diverse and chemically complex of any RNA modifications. Their contribution with regards to chemistry, structure and dynamics reveal individual and combined effects on tRNA function in recognition of cognate and wobble codons...
August 16, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812902/charge-effects-on-the-efflorescence-in-single-levitated-droplets
#7
Gunter Hermann, Yan Zhang, Bernhard Wassermann, Henry Fischer, Marcel Quennet, Eckart Ruehl
The influence of electrical excess charges on the crystallization from supersaturated aqueous sodium chloride solutions is reported. This is accomplished by efflorescence studies on single levitated microdroplets using optical and electrodynamic levitation. Specifically, a strong increase in efflorescence humidity is observed as a function of the droplet's negative excess charge, ranging up to -2.1 pC, with a distinct threshold behavior, increasing the relative efflorescence humidity, at which spontaneous nucleation occurs, from 44% for the neutral microparticle to 60%...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812901/behavior-of-methylammonium-dipoles-in-mapbx3-x-br-and-i
#8
Sharada Govinda, Bhushan P Kore, Menno Bokdam, Pratibha Mahale, Abhinav Kumar, Somnath Pal, Biswajit Bhattacharyya, Jonathan Lahnsteiner, Georg Kresse, Cesare Franchini, Anshu Pandey, D D Sarma
Dielectric constants of MAPbX3 (X = Br, I) in 1 kHz-1 MHz range show strong temperature dependencies near the room temperature in contrast to the nearly temperature independent dielectric constant of CsPbBr3. This strong temperature dependence for MAPbX3 in the tetragonal phase is attributed to the MA(+) dipoles rotating freely within the probing time scale. This interpretation is supported by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations on MAPbI3 that establish these dipoles as randomly oriented with a rotational relaxation time scale of ~7 ps at 300 K...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812895/correlating-free-volume-hole-distribution-to-the-glass-transition-temperature-of-epoxy-polymers
#9
Amin Aramoon, Timothy D Breitzman, Christopher F Woodward, Jaafar A El-Awady
A new algorithm is developed to quantify the free-volume hole distribution and its evolution in coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of polymeric networks. This is achieved by analyzing the geometry of the network rather than a voxelized image of the structure to accurately and efficiently find and quantify free-volume hole distributions within large scale simulations of polymer networks. The free-volume holes are quantified by fitting the largest ellipsoids and spheres in the free-volumes between polymer chains...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812889/influence-of-small-fluorophilic-and-lipophilic-organic-molecules-on-dppc-bilayers
#10
Martin Brehm, Ghulam Saddiq, Tobias Watermann, Daniel Sebastiani
In this study, we investigate the effect of a series of additive molecules with different types of philicities on the structure and dynamics of DPPC bilayers. To this aim, we performed extensive force field molecular dynamics simulations of the systems, using our recently developed perfluoroalkane force field. We found that addition of perfluoro-n-decane and fluorotelomer alcohol at 323 K leads to a phase transition of the membrane from liquid crystalline to gel phase, whereas the addition of n-decane and partially fluorinated n-decane leaves the liquid crystalline phase intact...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812882/aberrantly-large-single-channel-conductance-of-polyhistidine-arm-containing-protein-nanopores
#11
Avinash Kumar Thakur, Motahareh Ghahari Larimi, Kristin Gooden, Liviu Movileanu
There have been only a few studies reporting on the impact of polyhistidine affinity tags on the structure, function, and dynamics of proteins. Because of their relatively short size, they are often assumed to have little or no effect on the conformation and activity of a protein. Here, using membrane protein design and single-molecule electrophysiology, we determined that the presence of a hexahistidine arm at the N-terminus of a truncated FhuA-based protein nanopore, leaving the C-terminus untagged, produces an unusual increase in the unitary conductance up to ~8 nS in 1 M KCl...
August 16, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812844/clinician-perspectives-of-barriers-to-effective-implementation-of-a-rapid-response-system-in-an-academic-health-centre-a-focus-group-study
#12
John Rihari-Thomas, Michelle DiGiacomo, Jane Phillips, Phillip Newton, Patricia M Davidson
BACKGROUND: Systemic and structural issues of rapid response system (RRS) models can hinder implementation. This study sought to understand the ways in which acute care clinicians (physicians and nurses) experience and negotiate care for deteriorating patients within the RRS. METHODS: Physicians and nurses working within an Australian academic health centre within a jurisdictional-based model of clinical governance participated in focus group interviews. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812825/evaluating-global-health-partnerships-a-case-study-of-a-gavi-hpv-vaccine-application-process-in-uganda
#13
Carol Kamya, Jessica Shearer, Gilbert Asiimwe, Emily Carnahan, Nicole Salisbury, Peter Waiswa, Jennifer Brinkerhoff, Dai Hozumi
BACKGROUND: Global health partnerships have grown rapidly in number and scope, yet there has been less emphasis on their evaluation. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, is one such public-private partnership; in Gavi-eligible countries partnerships are dynamic networks of immunization actors who work together to support all stages and aspects of Gavi support. This paper describes a conceptual framework - the partnership framework - and analytic approach for evaluating the perceptions of partnerships' added value as well as the results from an application to one case in Uganda...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812747/identifying-the-charge-generation-dynamics-in-cs-based-triple-cation-mixed-perovskite-solar-cells
#14
Manuel Salado, Ramesh K Kokal, Laura Calio, Samrana Kazim, Melepurath Deepa, Shahzada Ahmad
Triple cation based perovskite solar cells offer enhanced moisture tolerance and stability compared to mixed perovskites. Slight substitution of methyl ammonium or formamidinium cation by cesium (Cs(+)), was also reported to eliminate halide segregation due to its smaller size. To elucidate the device kinetics and understand the role of the Cs, we undertook different modes of scanning probe microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experiments. Kelvin probe force microscopy revealed that the incorporation of the Cs cation increases the contact potential difference (CPD), this CPD further increases when Spiro-OMeTAD is used as a hole transport material...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812721/predicting-evolution
#15
Michael Lässig, Ville Mustonen, Aleksandra M Walczak
The face of evolutionary biology is changing: from reconstructing and analysing the past to predicting future evolutionary processes. Recent developments include prediction of reproducible patterns in parallel evolution experiments, forecasting the future of individual populations using data from their past, and controlled manipulation of evolutionary dynamics. Here we undertake a synthesis of central concepts for evolutionary predictions, based on examples of microbial and viral systems, cancer cell populations, and immune receptor repertoires...
February 21, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812707/the-rise-and-fall-of-malaria-under-land-use-change-in-frontier-regions
#16
Andres Baeza, Mauricio Santos-Vega, Andrew P Dobson, Mercedes Pascual
Land-use change is the main force behind ecological and social change in many countries around the globe; it is primarily driven by resource needs and external economic incentives. Concomitantly, transformations of the land are the main drivers for the emergence and re-emergence of malaria. An understanding of malaria population dynamics in transforming landscapes is lacking, despite its relevance for developmental and public health policies. We develop a mathematical model that couples malaria epidemiology with the socio-economic and demographic processes that occur in a landscape undergoing land-use change...
March 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812692/gene-flow-from-domesticated-escapes-alters-the-life-history-of-wild-atlantic-salmon
#17
Geir H Bolstad, Kjetil Hindar, Grethe Robertsen, Bror Jonsson, Harald Sægrov, Ola H Diserud, Peder Fiske, Arne J Jensen, Kurt Urdal, Tor F Næsje, Bjørn T Barlaup, Bjørn Florø-Larsen, Håvard Lo, Eero Niemelä, Sten Karlsson
Interbreeding between domesticated and wild animals occurs in several species. This gene flow has long been anticipated to induce genetic changes in life-history traits of wild populations, thereby influencing population dynamics and viability. Here, we show that individuals with high levels of introgression (domesticated ancestry) have altered age and size at maturation in 62 wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar populations, including seven ancestral populations to breeding lines of the domesticated salmon. This study documents widespread changes to life-history traits in wild animal populations following gene flow from selectively bred, domesticated conspecifics...
April 10, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812691/a-macroecological-theory-of-microbial-biodiversity
#18
William R Shoemaker, Kenneth J Locey, Jay T Lennon
Microorganisms are the most abundant, diverse and functionally important organisms on Earth. Over the past decade, microbial ecologists have produced the largest ever community datasets. However, these data are rarely used to uncover law-like patterns of commonness and rarity, test theories of biodiversity, or explore unifying explanations for the structure of microbial communities. Using a global scale compilation of >20,000 samples from environmental, engineered and host-related ecosystems, we test the power of competing theories to predict distributions of microbial abundance and diversity-abundance scaling laws...
April 3, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812686/interactions-of-microplastic-debris-throughout-the-marine-ecosystem
#19
REVIEW
Tamara S Galloway, Matthew Cole, Ceri Lewis
Marine microscopic plastic (microplastic) debris is a modern societal issue, illustrating the challenge of balancing the convenience of plastic in daily life with the prospect of causing ecological harm by careless disposal. Here we develop the concept of microplastic as a complex, dynamic mixture of polymers and additives, to which organic material and contaminants can successively bind to form an 'ecocorona', increasing the density and surface charge of particles and changing their bioavailability and toxicity...
April 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812678/the-multilayer-nature-of-ecological-networks
#20
Shai Pilosof, Mason A Porter, Mercedes Pascual, Sonia Kéfi
Although networks provide a powerful approach to study a large variety of ecological systems, their formulation does not typically account for multiple interaction types, interactions that vary in space and time, and interconnected systems such as networks of networks. The emergent field of 'multilayer networks' provides a natural framework for extending analyses of ecological systems to include such multiple layers of complexity, as it specifically allows one to differentiate and model 'intralayer' and 'interlayer' connectivity...
March 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
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