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Sarah King, Daniel Tancredi, Irene Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Kelsie Gould, Hailey Vann, Grant Connors, Mary Ellen Sanders, Jeffrey A Linder, Andi L Shane, Dan Merenstein
Background: Overall reduction of antibiotic use is a widely adopted public health goal. Given evidence that consuming probiotics reduce the incidence, duration and/or severity of certain types of common acute infections, we hypothesized that probiotics are associated with reduced antibiotic use. This systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessed the impact of probiotic supplementation (any strain, dose or duration), compared to placebo, on antibiotic utilization for common, acute infections in otherwise healthy people of all ages...
September 14, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Nicolas Louarn, Quentin Alias, Laurène Aupin, Nicolas Benoist, Marine Desroches, Alain Luciani, Damien Bresson, Jérôme Hodel, Emmanuel Itti
The figure in the original published version of this article was omitted.
September 14, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Maurice Selby, Sigrid Wolfram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2018: American Family Physician
Caitlin M Kennedy, Audrey Flak Pennington, Lyndsey A Darrow, Mitchel Klein, Xinxin Zhai, Josephine T Bates, Armistead G Russell, Craig Hansen, Paige E Tolbert, Matthew J Strickland
Background: Exposure to pollution from motor vehicles in early life may increase susceptibility to common pediatric infections. Methods: We estimated associations between residential exposure to primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ), nitrogen oxides (NOx ), and carbon monoxide (CO) from traffic during the first year of life and incident pneumonia, bronchiolitis, and otitis media events by age two years in 22,441 children from the Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study, a retrospective birth cohort of children born during 2000-2010 and insured by Kaiser Permanente Georgia...
March 2018: Environmental epidemiology
Respati W Ranakusuma, Amanda R McCullough, Eka D Safitri, Yupitri Pitoyo, Widyaningsih, Christopher B Del Mar, Elaine M Beller
Background: Acute otitis media (AOM) is an acute inflammation of the middle ear commonly found in children, for which antibiotics are frequently prescribed. However, antibiotics are beneficial for only one third of AOM cases, and then, with only modest benefit. Since antibiotic use leads to risk of side effects and resistance, effective alternative treatments are required. Corticosteroids are a candidate because of their anti-inflammatory effects, although evidence of their efficacy and harms is insufficient...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
James Johnston, Holly McLaren, Murali Mahadevan, Richard G Douglas
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the incidence and outcomes of Maori and non-Maori children with otitis media with effusion who underwent myringotomy plus ventilation tube insertion (MVTI). METHODS: De-identified extraction of Auckland District Health Board (ADHB) morbidity records belonging to all children who underwent an MVTI procedure between January 1996 and June 2016 at Starship Children's Hospital was performed. Demographic, procedural and outcome data were analysed...
September 13, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Bimal Koirala, Jingjun Lin, Gee W Lau, Yftah Tal-Gan
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a prevalent human pathogen responsible for a variety of diseases, including pneumonia, bacteremia, sepsis, meningitis and otitis media, with a death toll of >22,000 a year in the United States alone. Pneumococcus utilizes the competence regulon and its associated signaling peptide, the competence stimulating peptide (CSP), to initiate its attack on the host and establish an infection. In this work, we set to: 1) develop a pan-group QS inhibitor that can effectively interact with both the pneumococcus ComD1 and ComD2 receptors; and 2) evaluate the utility of dominant-negative CSPs (dnCSPs) in attenuating pneumococcus infectivity...
September 13, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Aparaajita Upadhyay, R K Mundra
Elderly population is frequently affected by vertigo which affects their mobility and makes them vulnerable to fall and other morbidities. Often these patient visit neurologist and are often subjected to CT scan, MRI brain etc. to rule out a central cause of vertigo; whereas majority of these patients suffer from vestibular cause of vertigo. A schematic approach by detailed history, simple tests for vestibular functions like Dix Hallpike, supine roll and head impulse test give important clue to diagnosis. Often the diagnosis is benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) which is treated by repositioning maneuver...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Nitin V Deosthale, Sonali P Khadakkar, Priyanka D Kumar, Vivek V Harkare, Priti Dhoke, Kanchan Dhote, Madhurima Banerjee, Vikrant Dagar, Rahul Varma
The aims and objectives of the study were to compare the rate of graft uptake after type 1 tympanoplasty in wet and dry ears and also to compare the postoperative hearing improvement in wet and dry ears. It was a Non Randomized Experimental Study. This study was done in ENT OPD at Tertiary Health Care Institute of Central India. It was conducted from November 2012 to October 2014 on 86 patients having Safe Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media. The patients were divided into two groups as Dry ear group and Wet ear group...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Rachael L Hardison, Derek R Heimlich, Alistair Harrison, Wandy L Beatty, Sarah Rains, M Arthur Moseley, J Will Thompson, Sheryl S Justice, Kevin M Mason
Nutrient limitation restricts bacterial growth in privileged sites such as the middle ear. Transient heme-iron restriction of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI), the major causative agent of chronic and recurrent otitis media (OM), promotes new and diverse phenotypes that can influence planktonic, biofilm, and intracellular lifestyles of NTHI. However, the bacterial responses to nutrient restriction that impact intracellular fate and survival of NTHI are unknown. In this work, we provide evidence for the role of transient heme-iron restriction in promoting the formation of intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs) of NTHI both in vitro and in vivo in a preclinical model of OM...
September 12, 2018: MSphere
O McLaren, E C Toll, R Easto, E Willis, S Harris, J Rainsbury
BACKGROUND: Grommet insertion is a common surgical procedure in children. Long waiting times for grommet insertion are not unusual. This project aimed to streamline the process by introducing a pathway for audiologists to directly schedule children meeting National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Clinical Guideline 60 ('CG60') for grommet insertion.Method and resultsA period from June to November 2014 was retrospectively audited. Mean duration between the first audiology appointment and grommet insertion was 294...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Eva Heinz
Haemophilus influenzae, originally named Pfeiffer's bacillus after its discoverer Richard Pfeiffer in 1892, was a major risk for global health at the beginning of the 20th century, causing childhood pneumonia and invasive disease as well as otitis media and other upper respiratory tract infections. The implementation of the Hib vaccine, targeting the major capsule type of H. influenzae, almost eradicated the disease in countries that adapted the vaccination scheme. However, a rising number of infections are caused by non-typeable H...
September 12, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Katarzyna Woicka-Kolejwa, Henryk Mazurek, Iwona Stelmach
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. While the majority of infants display only mild upper respiratory tract infection or occasionally otitis media, around one-third will develop an infection of the lower respiratory tract, usually bronchiolitis. There is now convincing evidence from a number of cohorts that respiratory syncytial virus is a significant, independent risk factor for later wheezing, at least within the first decade of life...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
İsa Kaya, Baha Sezgin, Sevinç Eraslan, Kerem Öztürk, Sercan Göde, Cem Bilgen, Tayfun Kirazlı
Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze previous treatments and outcomes in patients with malignant otitis externa (MOE) retrospectively. The efficacy of medical and surgical treatments was also evaluated. Methods: This study included 25 patients diagnosed with MOE and treated at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ege University School of Medicine between 2006 and 2017. The duration of hospitalization, Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of the patients, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), source of the infection, complications, and previous medical and surgical treatments were also retrospectively assessed...
June 2018: Turkish Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Hacı Kaplankıran, Mehmet Emrah Ceylan, Gökçe Aksoy Yıldırım, Gözde Ceylan, Abdullah Dalğıç, Levent Olgun
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate functional results of total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP) shaft stabilization with a cartilage shoe in chronic otitis media patients with cholesteatoma who had undergone canal wall down tympanomastoidectomy (CWDT). In addition, it was determined whether the presence of granular and edematous mucosa in middle ear altered functional outcomes. Methods: Sixty patients, who had undergone CWDT with the use of TORP for the reconstruction of ossicular chain, were divided into two groups...
June 2018: Turkish Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
Müzeyyen Yıldırım Baylan, Ümit Yılmaz, Zeki Akkuş, İsmail Topçu
Objective: This study aimed to analyze the bone conduction thresholds before and after surgery in chronic otitis media patients with cholesteatoma who had labyrinthine fistula and whose cholesteatoma matrix had been completely cleaned. Methods: The study was performed between 2013 to 2017 with 23 chronic otitis media patients who had labyrinthine fistula with cholesteatoma and who were operated at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of Dicle University School of Medicine...
June 2018: Turkish Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
G Lahlou, G Sonji, D De Seta, I Mosnier, F Y Russo, O Sterkers, D Bernardeschi
Titanium ossicular chain replacement prosthesis is often used for rehabilitation of the columellar effect in otologic surgeries. This retrospective study aims to analyse the anatomical and functional results of surgeries in which a titanium prosthesis was used. Two hundred and eighty procedures in 256 patients operated on in a tertiary referral center were analysed. Aetiologies, preoperative audiograms, peroperative data and postoperative outcomes at 2 and 12 months postoperatively were reviewed. Chronic suppurative otitis media with or without cholesteatoma was the main aetiology (89%)...
August 2018: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
Holly M Frost, Huong Q McLean, Brian D W Chow
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate variation in antibiotic prescribing between pediatric and nonpediatric providers for common upper respiratory illnesses. STUDY DESIGN: Patient encounters for children aged <18 years from a regional health care system were identified. Electronic medical records from 2011 to 2016 were extracted for diagnoses of upper respiratory infection, pharyngitis, acute otitis media, and sinusitis. Encounters with competing medical diagnoses, recent hospitalization, and antibiotic prescriptions within 30 days were excluded...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Francisco Polanski Cordeiro, Rafael da Costa Monsanto, Ana Luiza Papi Kasemodel, Luiza de Almeida Gondra, Norma de Oliveira Penido
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Otitis media has been associated with several auditory and developmental sequelae. Here, the results of auditory tests were evaluated in patients who had a first episode of unilateral otitis media and compared with the contralateral healthy ear. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: This study was undertaken from 2015 to 2016, with a follow-up period of 6 months. RESULTS: A total of 41 patients who had been diagnosed with unilateral acute otitis media were selected...
September 7, 2018: Laryngoscope
Yi-Ho Young
This article reviews the literature on otological complications in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) survivals after irradiation during the past three decades. Symptoms of the irradiated ears were assessed from the external ear canal, through the middle ear cavity including the Eustachian tube, and to the inner ear compartments. The development of radioimaging diagnostic techniques, the introduction from adjuvant chemotherapy to concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and the invention of radiotherapeutic equipment to intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) have increased the survival rate of NPC patients during the past 30 years...
September 8, 2018: Laryngoscope
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