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Shuangshuang Ma, Chen Fang, Xiaoxi Sun, Lujia Han, Xueqin He, Guangqun Huang
Bacteria play an important role in organic matter degradation and maturity during aerobic composting. This study analyzed composting with or without a membrane cover in laboratory-scale aerobic composting reactor systems. 16S rRNA gene analysis was used to study the bacterial community succession during composting. The richness of the bacterial community decreased and the diversity increased after covering with a semi-permeable membrane and applying a slight positive pressure. Principal components analysis based on operational taxonomic units could distinguish the main composting phases...
March 14, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Tatiana Robledo-Mahón, Elisabet Aranda, Chiara Pesciaroli, Alfonso Rodríguez-Calvo, Gloria Andrea Silva-Castro, Jesús González-López, Concepción Calvo
Sewage sludge composting is a profitable process economically viable and environmentally friendly. In despite of there are several kind of composting types, the use of combined system of semipermeable cover film and aeration air-floor is widely developed at industrial scale. However, the knowledge of the linkages between microbial communities structure, enzyme activities and physico-chemical factors under these conditions it has been poorly explored. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial dynamic and community structure using next generation sequencing coupled to analyses of microbial enzymatic activity and culturable dependent techniques in a full-scale real composting plant...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Tomasz Tański, Wiktor Matysiak
The purpose of this paper was to produce SiO₂ and TiO₂ nanowires via the electrospinning process from a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)/Titanium (IV) butoxide (TNBT)/dimethylformamide (DMF) and ethanol (EtOH) solution. The as-obtained nanofibers were calcined at temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 600 °C in order to remove the organic phase. The one-dimensional ceramic nanostructures were studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) to analyze the influence of the used temperature on the morphology and structures of the obtained ceramic nanomaterials...
March 20, 2018: Nanomaterials
Antonio Lopalco, Annalisa Cutrignelli, Nunzio Denora, Angela Lopedota, Massimo Franco, Valentino Laquintana
The transport of dopamine across the blood brain barrier represents a challenge for the management of Parkinson's disease. The employment of central nervous system targeted ligands functionalized nanocarriers could be a valid tactic to overcome this obstacle and avoid undesirable side effects. In this work, transferrin functionalized dopamine-loaded liposomes were made by a modified dehydration-rehydration technique from hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcoline, cholesterol and 1,2-stearoyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine- N -[carboxy(poly(ethylene glycol)-2000)]...
March 20, 2018: Nanomaterials
Shufeng Huang, Zhenping Wan, Shuiping Zou
A novel sintered cutting stainless steel fiber felt with internal channels (SCSSFFC) composed of a stainless-steel fiber skeleton, three-dimensional interconnected porous structure and multiple circular microchannels is developed. SCSSFFC has a jagged and rough surface morphology and possesses a high specific surface area, which is approximately 2.4 times larger than that of the sintered bundle-drawing stainless steel fiber felt with internal channels (SBDSSFFC) and is expected to enhance adhesive strength...
March 20, 2018: Materials
Jing Li, Shuwen Xue, Chunqiu He, Huixia Qi, Fulin Chen, Yanling Ma
Pseudomonas aeruginosa DN1 strain and Bacillus subtilis QHQ110 strain were chosen as rhamnolipid and lipopeptide producer respectively, to evaluate the efficiency of exogenous inoculants on enhancing oil recovery (EOR) and to explore the relationship between injected bacteria and indigenous bacterial community dynamics in long-term filed pilot of Hujianshan low permeability water-flooded reservoir for 26 months. Core-flooding tests showed that the oil displacement efficiency increased by 18.46% with addition of exogenous consortia...
March 20, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Rosa I Sanchez, Kerry L Fillgrove, Ka Lai Yee, Yuexia Liang, Bing Lu, Aditya Tatavarti, Rachael Liu, Matt S Anderson, Martin O Behm, Li Fan, Yun Li, Joan R Butterton, Marian Iwamoto, Sauzanne G Khalilieh
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of doravirine (MK-1439), a novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, were investigated. Two clinical trials were conducted in healthy subjects: an oral single dose [14 C]doravirine (350 mg, ∼200 µCi) trial (N = 6) and an intravenous (IV) single-dose doravirine (100 µg) trial (N = 12). In vitro metabolism, protein binding, apparent permeability and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport studies were conducted to complement the clinical trials...
March 20, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Monika Lakk, Felix Vazquez-Chona, Oleg Yarishkin, David Križaj
Unesterified cholesterol controls the fluidity, permeability and electrical properties of eukaryotic cell membranes. Consequently, cholesterol levels in the retina and the brain are tightly regulated whereas depletion or oversupply caused by diet or heredity contribute to neurodegenerative diseases and vision loss. Astroglia play a central role in the biosynthesis, uptake and transport of cholesterol and also drive inflammatory signaling under hypercholesterolemic conditions associated with high-fat diet (diabetes) and neurodegenerative disease...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Haoshi Gao, Yue Wei, Long Xi, Yuanyuan Sun, Tianhong Zhang
Bergenin (BN) is a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class IV (BCS IV) drug with poor hydrophilicity and lipophilicity and is potentially eliminated by the efflux function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). These factors may explain its low oral bioavailability. In the present study, a BN-phospholipid complex solid dispersion (BNPC-SD) was prepared by solvent evaporation and characterized based on differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, infrared diffraction, solubility, octanol-water partition coefficient, and in vitro dissolution...
March 19, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Cheong-Yong Yun, Seon Mi Ko, Yong Pyo Choi, Beom Joon Kim, Jungno Lee, Jae Mun Kim, Ju Yeon Kim, Jin Yong Song, Song-Hee Kim, Bang Yeon Hwang, Jin Tae Hong, Sang-Bae Han, Youngsoo Kim
Rationale: cAMP up-regulates microphthalmia-associated transcription factor subtype M (MITF-M) and tyrosinase (Tyro) in the generation of heavily pigmented melanosomes. Here, we communicate a therapeutic mechanism of hyperpigmented disorder by α-viniferin, an active constituent of Caragana sinica . Methods: We used cAMP-elevated melanocyte cultures or facial hyperpigmented patches for pigmentation assays, and applied immunoprecipitation, immunobloting, RT-PCR or reporter gene for elucidation of the antimelanogenic mechanism...
2018: Theranostics
Lizhou Lin, Yu Fan, Feng Gao, Lifang Jin, Dan Li, Wenjie Sun, Fan Li, Peng Qin, Qiusheng Shi, Xiangyang Shi, Lianfang Du
Conventional chemotherapy of pancreatic cancer (PaCa) suffers the problems of low drug permeability and inherent or acquired drug resistance. Development of new strategies for enhanced therapy still remains a great challenge. Herein, we report a new ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD)-promoted delivery system based on dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles (Au DENPs) for co-delivery of gemcitabine (Gem) and miR-21 inhibitor (miR-21i). Methods: In this study, Gem-Au DENPs/miR-21i was designed and synthesized...
2018: Theranostics
Jeffrey R Ashton, Katherine D Castle, Yi Qi, David G Kirsch, Jennifer L West, Cristian T Badea
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are emerging as promising agents for both cancer therapy and computed tomography (CT) imaging. AuNPs absorb x-rays and subsequently release low-energy, short-range photoelectrons during external beam radiation therapy (RT), increasing the local radiation dose. When AuNPs are near tumor vasculature, the additional radiation dose can lead to increased vascular permeability. This work focuses on understanding how tumor vascular permeability is influenced by AuNP-augmented RT, and how this effect can be used to improve the delivery of nanoparticle chemotherapeutics...
2018: Theranostics
Xiaowei Dong
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been a great hurdle for brain drug delivery. The BBB in healthy brain is a diffusion barrier essential for protecting normal brain function by impeding most compounds from transiting from the blood to the brain; only small molecules can cross the BBB. Under certain pathological conditions of diseases such as stroke, diabetes, seizures, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer disease, the BBB is disrupted. The objective of this review is to provide a broad overview on current strategies for brain drug delivery and related subjects from the past five years...
2018: Theranostics
Kirsten F Smit, Moritz Konkel, Raphaela Kerindongo, Maximilian A Landau, Coert J Zuurbier, Markus W Hollmann, Benedikt Preckel, Rienk Nieuwland, Martin Albrecht, Nina C Weber
Caveolins are involved in anaesthetic-induced cardioprotection. Actin filaments are located in close connection to Caveolins in the plasma membrane. We hypothesised that helium might affect the cytoskeleton and induce secretion of Caveolin. HCAEC, HUVEC and Cav-1 siRNA transfected HUVEC were exposed for 20 minutes to either helium (5% CO2 , 25% O2 , 70% He) or control gas (5% CO2 , 25% O2 , 70% N2 ). Cells and supernatants were collected for infrared Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence staining, nanoparticle tracking analysis and permeability measurements...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sang In Lee, In Ho Kim
Most alterations during weaning involve physiological changes in intestinal structure and function. Here, we evaluated the molecular mechanisms regulating the effects of nucleotides on weaning. Nucleotide treatment induced Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) expression and IPEC-J2 cell growth and reduced wound width. Treatment with nucleosides and TFF3 in lipopolysaccharide-challenged IPEC-J2 cells increased intestinal transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased intestinal permeability. Additionally, nucleosides improved intestinal barrier function through induction of TFF3-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38, and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathways...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hee Kyoung Chung, Shelley R Wang, Lan Xiao, Navneeta Rathor, Douglas J Turner, Peixin Yang, Myriam Gorospe, Jaladanki N Rao, Jian-Ying Wang
The mammalian intestinal epithelium is a rapidly self-renewing tissue in the body and its homeostasis depends on a dynamic balance among proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The PP2A-associated protein α4 controls the activity and specificity of serine/threonine phosphatases and is thus implicated in many cellular processes. Here we investigated the mechanisms whereby α4 controls the homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium using a genetic approach...
March 19, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Alexandre Luscher, Lucile Moynié, Pamela Saint Auguste, Dirk Bumann, Lena Mazza, Daniel Pletzer, James H Naismith, Thilo Köhler
The conjugation of siderophores to antimicrobial molecules is an attractive strategy to overcome the low outer membrane permeability of Gram-negative bacteria. In this Trojan horse approach the transport of drug conjugates is redirected via TonB-dependent receptors (TBDR), involved in the uptake of essential nutrients including iron. Previous reports have demonstrated the involvement of the TBDRs PiuA and PirA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their orthologues in Acinetobacter baumannii in the uptake of siderophore-beta-lactam drug conjugates...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Sara Esteghlal, Mehrdad Niakousari, Seyed Mohammad Hashem Hosseini
The objective of current study was to examine the electrostatic interactions between gelatin and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a function of pH and mixing ratio (MR) and to observe how the physical and mechanical properties of gelatin-CMC composite films are affected by these interactions. The interaction between biopolymers was studied using turbidometric analysis at different gelatin: CMC MRs and pH values. A reduction in pH and MR enhanced the electrostatic interactions; while, decreased the relative viscosity of mixed system...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Tianfu Wei, Zhengyi Chen, Gongke Li, Zhuomin Zhang
Aflatoxins are highly toxic mycotoxin contamination, which pose serious food safety incidents. It is very important to precisely and rapidly determine trace aflatoxins in food. In this study, we designed porous monolithic column based on covalent cross-linked polymer gels for online extraction and analysis of trace aflatoxins in food samples with complicated matrices coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV). The prepared monolithic column showed excellent enrichment performance due to its good permeability, good reproducibility and long life span...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Zhang-Na Qin, Qiong-Wei Yu, Ren-Qi Wang, Yu-Qi Feng
A mixed-mode polymer monolithic column functionalized by arsonic acid groups was prepared by single-step in situ copolymerization of monomers p-methacryloylaminophenylarsonic acid (p-MAPHA) and pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA). The prepared poly(p-MAPHA-co-PETA) monolithic column has a homogeneous monolithic structure with good permeability and mechanical stability. Zeta potential measurements reveal that the monolithic stationary phase holds a negative surface charge when the mobile phase resides in the pH range of 3...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
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