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Kate Basley, Dave Goulson
Arable field margins are often sown with wildflowers to encourage pollinators and other beneficial or desirable insects such as bees and butterflies. Concern has been raised that these margins may be contaminated with systemic pesticides such as neonicotinoids used on the adjacent crop, and that this may negatively impact beneficial insects. The use of neonicotinoids has been linked to butterfly declines, and species such as the common blue butterfly ( Polyommatus icarus) that feed upon legumes commonly sown in arable field margins, may be exposed to such toxins...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Mandy Berndt-Paetz, Luise Herbst, Annett Weimann, Andreas Gonsior, Jens-Uwe Stolzenburg, Jochen Neuhaus
PURPOSE: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) regulate a number of important physiological functions. Alteration of mAChR expression or function has been associated in the etiology of several pathologies including functional bladder disorders (e.g bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis - BPS/IC). In a previous study we found specific mAChR expression patterns associated with BPS/IC, while correlation between protein and gene expression was lacking. Posttranslational regulatory mechanisms, e...
March 15, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Dandan Han, Lanying Wang, Yanping Luo
Actinomycetes are an important group of gram-positive bacteria that play an essential role in the rhizosphere ecosystem. The confrontation culture and Oxford cup method were used to evaluate the antagonistic activities of strains, which were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Mikania micrantha. The two isolates were identified using morphological and physiological tests combined with 16S rRNA-based molecular analysis, respectively. The type I polyketone synthase (PKS-I) was amplified. The constituents of fermentation metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry...
March 2018: Microbiological Research
Melanie Uhde, Alyssa C Indart, Xuechen B Yu, Sophie S Jang, Roberto De Giorgio, Peter H R Green, Umberto Volta, Suzanne D Vernon, Armin Alaedini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2018: Gut
Audrey M Neyrinck, Sophie Hiel, Caroline Bouzin, Vicenta Garcia Campayo, Patrice D Cani, Laure B Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne
BACKGROUND: Non-digestible carbohydrates present in cereals such as fructans and arabinoxylans represent promising prebiotic nutrients to prevent the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN:  The aim of this study was to determine the corrective effects of wheat bran-derived arabinoxylan oligosaccharides in obese mice fed a western diet (WD). WD was given for 4 weeks before wheat bran extract (WBE) supplementation (5%) for an additional 4 weeks, whereas a control group received the standard diet...
March 7, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
R Armellini, I Peinado, P Pittia, M Scampicchio, A Heredia, A Andres
Saffron, used in cookery as a flavouring and colouring agent, is well-known for its antioxidant and beneficial health properties. In the present work, the effect of saffron addition (0-control, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4%, w/w) in the formulation of fresh pasta was evaluated on textural, physical-chemical, and sensory properties of the cooked product. Content and retention of the bioactive molecules of saffron (crocins) were evaluated by HPLC along with the corresponding antioxidant activity of enriched pasta. The presence of saffron significantly influenced textural and physical-chemical properties of pasta...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Haili Li, Keren Byrne, Renata Galiamov, Omar Mendoza-Porras, Utpal Bose, Crispin A Howitt, Michelle L Colgrave
A strict, lifelong gluten-free (GF) diet is currently the only treatment for coeliac disease (CD). Vinegar and soy sauce are fermented condiments that often include wheat and/or barley. During fermentation cereal proteins are partially degraded by enzymes to yield peptide fragments and amino acids. Whether these fermented products contain intact or degraded gluten proteins and if they are safe for people with CD remains in question. LC-MS offers the benefit of being able to detect hydrolysed gluten that might be present in commercial vinegar and soy sauce products...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
El-Sayed M Abdel-Aal, Pierre Hucl, Iwona Rabalski
Demands for anthocyanin-rich ingredients are steadily growing due to their positive functions in human health and food coloration. Commercially available purple wheat was evaluated as a source of functional ingredients based on anthocyanin composition and antioxidant properties. Anthocyanins were concentrated in the bran fraction by about 2-fold and then the bran was further processed into anthocyanin-rich powder using ethanol extraction and column purification. Batch studies showed that anthocyanin concentration factor increased by about 81- to 135-fold in the powder depending on batch size...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Kristina Mastanjević, Bojan Šarkanj, Rudolf Krska, Michael Sulyok, Benedikt Warth, Krešimir Mastanjević, Božidar Šantek, Vinko Krstanović
The aim was to determine the mycotoxin transfer rate into beer during a semi-industrial production process and the effect of fungicide treatment in the field on mycotoxins concentrations in beer. To ensure the usual practical agronomical conditions, sample A was treated with fungicide Prosaro® 250, and sample B was infected with Fusarium culmorum spores, in order to obtain infected malt. Malt was produced using standard procedure and beer was produced in a semi-industrial unit. During fermentation measurement of sugars (maltotriose and maltose), glycerol and ethanol content was performed on a daily basis...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Daniel M P Ardisson-Araújo, Ana Maria Rodrigues da Silva, Fernando L Melo, Ethiane Rozo Dos Santos, Daniel R Sosa-Gómez, Bergmann M Ribeiro
In this report, we described the genome of a novel baculovirus isolated from the monocot insect pest Mocis latipes , the striped grass looper. The genome has 134,272 bp in length with a G + C content of 38.3%. Based on the concatenated sequence of the 38 baculovirus core genes, we found that the virus is a betabaculovirus closely related to the noctuid-infecting betabaculoviruses including Pseudaletia unipuncta granulovirus (PsunGV), Trichoplusia ni granulovirus (TnGV), Helicoverpa armigera granulovirus (HearGV), and Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus (XecnGV)...
March 16, 2018: Viruses
Peter Clifton, Jennifer Keogh
The meta-analysis of plant sterol supplement studies suggests an 8% lowering of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol for 2 to 2.5 g/day of plant sterols. Cereal foods have been rarely tested, and one study showed a lower LDL lowering of 5.4% with 1.6 g of plant sterol in breakfast cereal. We aimed to test a breakfast wheat biscuit with 2 g of plant sterols in a single serve of two wholegrain wheat breakfast cereal biscuits. Fifty volunteers with a total cholesterol of >5.5 mmol/L were recruited for a randomised crossover study with two 4-week periods with no washout, of which 45 successfully completed the study...
March 16, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Huaxing Wu, Nor Adila Mhd Omar, Niclas Håkansson, Alicja Wolk, Karl Michaëlsson, Rikard Landberg
OBJECTIVE: Wheat and rye, the most consumed whole grains (WG) in the Nordic countries, contain alkylresorcinols (AR) in their bran. AR concentrations in human adipose tissue might reflect long-term WG rye and wheat intake. We aimed to evaluate AR concentrations in adipose tissue biopsies as a long-term biomarker of WG wheat and rye intake in free-living Swedish men and women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. AR concentrations in adipose tissue biopsies were analysed and compared with long-term WG intake assessed by three FFQ (repeated over a period of 14 years in men, 17 years in women) and with plasma AR concentrations...
March 16, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Qian Zhang, Shengli Wang, Zhongren Nan, Yepu Li, Fei Zang
Wastewater irrigation can increase metal concentrations in soil and wheat, thereby posing metal-associated health risk via food ingestion. We investigated levels of mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) in roots, husks, stems, leaves, and grains of wheat and their fractionations in farmland soil from Baiyin City, an industrial and mining city, northwest China. Results show that the mean concentrations of Hg in soils from Dongdagou and Xidagou stream in Baiyin were 8.5 times and three times higher than local soil background values, respectively...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Aylin W Sahin, Claudia Axel, Emanuele Zannini, Elke K Arendt
Burger buns are a source of added sugar, containing 7-12%, in order to ensure their unique texture and taste. Hence, suitable sugar substitutes for burger buns are urgently needed. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of three different polyols on dough and product quality of burger buns. Xylitol, mannitol and maltitol were incorporated individually in a burger bun system, by replacing added sucrose by 30%, 50% and 100%. Wheat starch was used to compare the impact of polyols with another non-sweet bulking agent...
March 16, 2018: Food & Function
Xiulin Wang, Xiaxiang Zhang, Jing Chen, Xiao Wang, Jian Cai, Qin Zhou, Tingbo Dai, Weixing Cao, Dong Jiang
Drought is the major abiotic stress that decreases plant water status, inhibits photosynthesis, induces oxidative stress, restricts growth and finally lead to the reduction of wheat yield. It has been proven that drought priming during vegetative growth stage could enhance tolerance to drought stress at grain filling in wheat. However, whether drought priming imposed at grain filling in parental plants could induce drought tolerance in the offspring is not known. In this study, drought priming was successively applied in the first, the second and the third generation of wheat to obtain the plants of T1 (primed for one generation), T2 (primed for two generations), T3 (primed for three generations)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Heinz-Josef Koch, Kerrin Trimpler, Anna Jacobs, Nicol Stockfisch
In Europe, the framework for sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.) production was subject to considerable changes and for the future it is expected that sugar beet cultivation might concentrate around the sugar factories for economic reasons. Based on data from a national sugar beet farmers' survey and multi-year crop rotation trials, the effects of cropping interval (number of years in between two subsequent sugar beet crops) and of preceding crops on sugar yield were elucidated under current Central European management conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Muhammad Abid, Shafaqat Ali, Lei Kang Qi, Rizwan Zahoor, Zhongwei Tian, Dong Jiang, John L Snider, Tingbo Dai
Defining the metabolic strategies used by wheat to tolerate and recover from drought events will be important for ensuring yield stability in the future, but studies addressing this critical research topic are limited. To this end, the current study quantified the physiological, biochemical, and agronomic responses of a drought tolerant and drought sensitive cultivar to periods of water deficit and recovery. Drought stress caused a reversible decline in leaf water relations, membrane stability, and photosynthetic activity, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation and membrane injury...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jialiang Xu, Huijun Wu, Zhiwei Wang, Fuping Zheng, Xin Lu, Zhenpeng Li, Qing Ren
Chinese rice wine (CRW) is the oldest kind of wine in China and is mainly fermented by wheat Qu and yeast with rice, millet, etc. This gives CRW a unique quality, but the flavor components are complex. Its formation is related to microorganisms, but the link between CRW and microorganisms is poorly understood. Here, we used two kinds of sorghum (JZ22 and JB3, of which JZ22 has a higher tannin content) as the raw materials to brew and determined the structural and functional dynamics of the microbiota by metagenomics and flavor analyses...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Brett Ford, Eloise Foo, Robert E Sharwood, Miroslava Karafiatova, Jan Vrána, Colleen MacMillan, David S Nichols, Burkhard Steuernagel, Cristobal Uauy, Jaroslav Doležel, Peter Chandler, Wolfgang Spielmeyer
Semi-dwarfing genes have contributed to major yield increases in crop species by reducing height, improving lodging resistance, and partitioning more assimilates to grain growth. In wheat, the Rht18 semi-dwarfing gene was identified and deployed in durum wheat before it was transferred into bread wheat where it was shown to have agronomic potential. Rht18, a dominant and gibberellin (GA) responsive mutant, is genetically and functionally distinct from the widely used GA insensitive semi-dwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b...
March 15, 2018: Plant Physiology
Haibin Zhou, Haibo Meng, Lixin Zhao, Yujun Shen, Yueqing Hou, Hongsheng Cheng, Liqiu Song
In this study, two different biochars (sawdust charcoal (SDC) and wheat straw charcoal (WSC)) and biological humic acid (BHA) were used with different addition rates in pig manure composting to illustrate the effect on heavy metals passivation. And the composts were applied to rape (Brassica campestris L.) growth to illustrate the stability of the passivation. Results showed the concentration of Cu, Cd, and Pb increased after composting, whereas the passivation rates of Cu, Pb, and Cd reached a maximum of 94...
February 23, 2018: Bioresource Technology
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