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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775863/superoxide-o-2-accumulation-contributes-to-symptomless-type-i-nonhost-resistance-of-plants-to-biotrophic-pathogens
#1
András Künstler, Renáta Bacsó, Réka Albert, Balázs Barna, Zoltán Király, Yaser Mohamed Hafez, József Fodor, Ildikó Schwarczinger, Lóránt Király
Nonhost resistance is the most common form of disease resistance exhibited by plants against most pathogenic microorganisms. Type I nonhost resistance is symptomless (i.e. no macroscopically visible cell/tissue death), implying an early halt of pathogen growth. The timing/speed of defences is much more rapid during type I nonhost resistance than during type II nonhost and host ("gene-for-gene") resistance associated with a hypersensitive response (localized necrosis, HR). However, the mechanism(s) underlying symptomless (type I) nonhost resistance is not entirely understood...
May 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775096/silicon-alleviates-arsenic-induced-toxicity-in-wheat-through-vacuolar-sequestration-and-ros-scavenging
#2
Md Monayem Hossain, Most Amena Khatun, Md Najmul Haque, Md Azizul Bari, Md Firoz Alam, Abul Mandal, Ahmad Humayan Kabir
Arsenic (As) is a phytotoxic element causing health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) alleviates As toxicity in wheat. The addition of Si under As-stress significantly improved morphophysiological characteristics, total protein, and membrane stability compared to As-stressed plants, suggesting that Si does have critical roles in As detoxification in wheat. Analysis of arsenate reductase activity and phytosiderophore (PS) release reveals their no involvement in the Si-mediated alleviation of As in wheat...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774050/one-step-process-of-hydrothermal-and-alkaline-treatment-of-wheat-straw-for-improving-the-enzymatic-saccharification
#3
Shaolong Sun, Lidan Zhang, Fang Liu, Xiaolin Fan, Run-Cang Sun
Background: To increase the production of bioethanol, a two-step process based on hydrothermal and dilute alkaline treatment was applied to reduce the natural resistance of biomass. However, the process required a large amount of water and a long operation time due to the solid/liquid separation before the alkaline treatment, which led to decrease the pure economic profit for production of bioethanol. Therefore, four one-step processes based on order of hydrothermal and alkaline treatment have been developed to enhance concentration of glucose of wheat straw by enzymatic saccharification...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773612/improved-draft-genome-sequence-of-a-monoteliosporic-culture-of-the-karnal-bunt-tilletia-indica-pathogen-of-wheat
#4
Anil Kumar, Pallavi Mishra, Ranjeet Maurya, A K Mishra, Vijai K Gupta, Pramod W Ramteke, Soma S Marla
Karnal bunt of wheat is an internationally quarantined fungal pathogen disease caused by Tilletia indica and affects the international commercial seed trade of wheat. We announce here the first improved draft genome assembly of a monoteliosporic culture of the Tilletia indica fungus, consisting of 787 scaffolds with an approximate total genome size of 31.83 Mbp, which is more accurate and near to complete than the previous version.
May 17, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773477/selenium-bioaccumulation-and-associated-nutraceutical-properties-in-calocybe-indica-mushroom-cultivated-on-se-enriched-wheat-straw
#5
Himanshi Rathore, Abhishek Sharma, Shalinee Prasad, Satyawati Sharma
Calocybe indica was cultivated on wheat straw enriched with various concentrations of sodium selenite (Na2 SeO3 ), (2.5-40 μg/ml). The content of selenium (Se) in fruit bodies increased linearly by increasing the amount of Na2 SeO3 , although the biomass yield inhibited above 5 μg/ml. The fruit bodies accumulated inorganic Se into organic forms by integrating the Se into proteins (56%-68%), polysaccharides (22%-29%), and nucleic acids (1.4%-2.7%). Maximum protein content (25.31 g/100 g) was observed in fruit bodies harvested from the substrate enriched with 10 μg/ml Se...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773378/nanostructured-starch-combined-with-hydroxytyrosol-in-poly-vinyl-alcohol-based-ternary-films-as-active-packaging-system
#6
Francesca Luzi, Elena Fortunati, Alessandro Di Michele, Elisa Pannucci, Ermelinda Botticella, Luca Santi, José Maria Kenny, Luigi Torre, Roberta Bernini
Novel ternary films have been realized by using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as polymeric matrix, nanostructured starch as reinforcement phase and hydroxytyrosol (HTyr), a low-molecular phenolic compound present in olive oil, as antioxidant agent. Nanostructured starch, in the form of starch nanocrystals (NC) and nanoparticles (NP) obtained by acid hydrolysis and ultrasound irradiation of starch derived from the bread wheat variety Cadenza (WT, amylose content 33%) and a derived-high amylose line (HA, amylose content 75%), was considered...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773007/cell-proliferation-and-dna-repair-ability-of-ganoderma-neo-japonicum-agaricomycetes-an-indigenous-medicinal-mushroom-from-malaysia
#7
Wee Cheat Tan, Umah Rani Kuppusamy, Chia Wei Phan, Vikineswary Sabaratnam
Ganoderma neo-japonicum is an annual polypore that grows on decaying bamboo in the forests of Malaysia. The indigenous Temuan tribe uses this species as a medicinal mushroom to cure fever and epilepsy and to improve body strength. The potential use of G. neo-japonicum in genoprotection and DNA repair was established using a single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. The effects of the ethanol and hot aqueous extracts from wild and cultivated basidiocarps, solid substrate-fermented (SSF) wheat grains, and mycelia via submerged culture on H2O2-damaged murine RAW264...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772906/visualization-and-semi-quantity-study-of-the-distribution-of-ma-jor-components-in-wheat-straw-in-mesoscopic-scale-using-ftir-microspectroscopic-imaging
#8
Zengling Yang, Jiaqi Mei, Zhiqiang Liu, Guangqun Huang, Guan Huang, Lujia Han
Understanding the biochemical heterogeneity of plant tissue linked to crop straw anatomy is attractive to plant researchers and researchers in the field of biomass-refinery. This study provides an in-situ analysis and semi-quantitative, visualization distributions of major composition distribution in internodal transverse sections of wheat straw based on FTIR microspec-troscopic imaging, with a fast Non-Negativity-Constrained Least Squares (fast NNLS) fitting. The paper investigates changes in biochemical components of tissue during stages of elongation, booting, heading, flowering, grain-filling, milk-ripening, dough, and full-ripening...
May 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772734/high-pressure-treatment-of-non-hydrated-flour-affects-structural-characteristics-and-hydration
#9
Sabina Jakobi, Mario Jekle, Thomas Becker
In recent years, high-pressure treatment (HPT) has become an established process concerning the preservation of food. However, studies dealing with the structural, and consequently functional modification of non-hydrated starchy matrices (moisture content ≤ 15%) by HPT are missing. To close this knowledge gap, pressure (0⁻600 MPa, 10 min) and pressurization time depending (0⁻20 min, 450 MPa) alterations of wheat flour were investigated. Pressure rise from 0 to 600 MPa or pressurization time rise from 0 to 20 min resulted in a decline of amylopectin content from 68...
May 16, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772465/effect-of-temperature-on-production-of-oligosaccharides-and-dextran-by-weissella-cibaria-10-m
#10
Ying Hu, Michael G Gänzle
The formation of HoPS and oligosaccharides in sourdough fermentation improves bread quality but is dependent on the expression of glycansucrases by lactic acid bacteria. Data on the expression of dextransucrases by Weissella spp., however, are limited. This study therefore aimed to assess dextansucrase expression in W. cibaria 10 M, focusing on the effect of temperature. The effect of temperature on growth, oligosaccharide and dextran synthesis by W. cibaria 10 M was determined and the expression and activity of cell-associated dextransucrase from W...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772422/effects-of-chemical-oxidation-on-surface-oxygen-containing-functional-groups-and-adsorption-behavior-of-biochar
#11
Qinya Fan, Jianxiong Sun, Lei Chu, Liqiang Cui, Guixiang Quan, Jinlong Yan, Qaiser Hussain, Muhammad Iqbal
Biochar is a beneficial soil amendment but the changes in its surface properties during the aging process, especially the oxygen-containing functional groups and the associated adsorption behaviors, are not well documented. In this paper, the aged wheat straw biochar was simulated by chemical oxidation with HNO3 -H2 SO4 and NaOH-H2 O2 systems. Characterization results showed that carbon loss and oxygen incorporation ran throughout the aging process. Surface oxygen-containing functional groups were found to be increased in all treated biochars, especially for carboxyl...
May 9, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772287/probiotics-and-nutraceuticals-as-a-new-frontier-in-obesity-prevention-and-management
#12
N Kobyliak, T Falalyeyeva, N Boyko, O Tsyryuk, T Beregova, L Ostapchenko
INTRODUCTION: The beneficial interaction between the microbiota and humans is how bacteria contained within the gut 'talk' to the immune system and in this landscape, probiotics and nutraceuticals play a major role. The study aims to determine whether probiotics plus nutraceuticals such as smectite or omega-3 are superior to probiotic alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced obesity model in rats. METHODS: Totally, 75 rats divided into five groups were included (n=15, in each)...
May 14, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772089/microevolutionary-selection-dynamics-acting-on-immune-genes-of-the-green-veined-white-butterfly-pieris-napi
#13
Naomi L P Keehnen, Jason Hill, Sören Nylin, Christopher W Wheat
Insects rely on their innate immune system to successfully mediate complex interactions with their microbiota, as well as the microbes present in the environment. Previous work has shown that components of the canonical immune gene repertoire evolve rapidly and have evolutionary characteristics originating from interactions with fast-evolving microorganisms. Although these interactions are likely to vary among populations, there is a poor understanding of the microevolutionary dynamics of immune genes, especially in non-Dipteran insects...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771995/correction-investigation-of-the-fungal-community-structures-of-imported-wheat-using-high-throughput-sequencing-technology
#14
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171894.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771370/starch-digestibility-and-apparent-metabolizable-energy-of-western-canadian-wheat-market-classes-in-broiler-chickens
#15
N D Karunaratne, D A Abbott, P J Hucl, R N Chibbar, C J Pozniak, H L Classen
Wheat is the primary grain fed to poultry in western Canada, but its nutritional quality, including the nature of its starch digestibility, may be affected by wheat market class. The objectives of this study were to determine the rate and extent of starch digestibility of wheat market classes in broiler chickens, and to determine the relationship between starch digestibility and wheat apparent metabolizable energy (AME). In vitro starch digestion was assessed using gastric and small intestinal phases mimicking the chicken digestive tract, while in vivo evaluation used 468 male broiler chickens randomly assigned to dietary treatments from 0 to 21 d of age...
May 16, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770515/structural-variation-and-rates-of-genome-evolution-in-the-grass-family-seen-through-comparison-of-sequences-of-genomes-greatly-differing-in-size
#16
Jan Dvorak, Le Wang, Tingting Zhu, Chad M Jorgensen, Karin R Deal, Xiongtao Dai, Matthew W Dawson, Hans-Georg Müller, Ming-Cheng Luo, Ramesh K Ramasamy, Hamid Dehghani, Yong Q Gu, Bikram S Gill, Assaf Distelfeld, Katrien M Devos, Peng Qi, Frank M You, Patrick J Gulick, Patrick E McGuire
Homology was searched with genes annotated in the Aegilops tauschii pseudomolecules against genes annotated in the pseudomolecules of tetraploid wild emmer wheat, Brachypodium distachyon, sorghum, and rice. Similar searches were initiated with genes annotated in the rice pseudomolecules. Matrices of colinear genes and rearrangements in their order were constructed. Optical Bionano genome maps were constructed and used to validate rearrangements unique to the wild emmer and Ae. tauschii genomes. Most common rearrangements were short paracentric inversions and short intrachromosomal translocations...
May 16, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770453/determinants-of-wheat-noodle-color
#17
REVIEW
Craig F Morris
Noodles are a leading food in the world, and color is a key determinant of consumer acceptance. In this review the two prominent forms of wheat noodles are considered, white salted and alkaline. Many of the preparation and evaluation strategies are the same for both, with prominence placed on 'brightness' (L*) or a lack of discoloration (ΔL*), and the absence of 'specks'. All raw noodles darken over time. Increasing protein content of flours almost always translates into darker noodles. Greater discoloration is also associated with higher flour extraction rates, higher ash contents and higher starch damage...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767758/turgor-maintenance-by-osmotic-adjustment-40-years-of-progress
#18
Neil C Turner
Osmotic adjustment (OA), the accumulation of solutes in higher plant cells in response to water deficits, was first reported more than four decades ago. Since then, variation in OA among genotypes/cultivars in response to drought has been reported in many crop plants, but its role in maintaining growth and yield in water-limited environments has been questioned. The role of OA in the physiological and agronomic adaptation to water stress of crops, the methods of reliably measuring the degree of OA among genotypes or species, the range of OA in many studies and its impact on grain yield in water-limited environments are reviewed...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767554/a-new-resistance-gene-in-combination-with-rmg8-confers-strong-resistance-against-triticum-isolates-of-pyricularia-oryzae-in-a-common-wheat-landrace
#19
Shizhen Wang, Soichiro Asuke, Trinh Thi Phuong Vy, Yoshihiro Inoue, Izumi Chuma, Joe Win, Kenji Kato, Yukio Tosa
The wheat blast fungus (Triticum pathotype of Pyricularia oryzae) first arose in Brazil in 1985 and has recently spread to Asia. Resistance genes against this new pathogen are very rare in common wheat populations. We screened 520 local landraces of common wheat collected worldwide with Br48, a Triticum isolate collected in Brazil, and found a highly resistant, unique accession, GR119. When F2 seedlings derived from a cross between GR119 and Chinese Spring (CS, susceptible control) were inoculated with Br48, resistant and susceptible seedlings segregated in a 15:1 ratio, suggesting that GR119 carries two resistance genes...
May 16, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767279/identification-and-validation-of-qtl-for-grain-yield-and-plant-water-status-under-contrasting-water-treatments-in-fall-sown-spring-wheats
#20
Junli Zhang, Shiferaw Abate Gizaw, Eligio Bossolini, Joshua Hegarty, Tyson Howell, Arron H Carter, Eduard Akhunov, Jorge Dubcovsky
Chromosome regions affecting grain yield, grain yield components and plant water status were identified and validated in fall-sown spring wheats grown under full and limited irrigation. Increases in wheat production are required to feed a growing human population. To understand the genetic basis of grain yield in fall-sown spring wheats, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 262 photoperiod-insensitive spring wheat accessions grown under full and limited irrigation treatments. Analysis of molecular variance showed that 4...
May 16, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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