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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213650/alleviation-of-water-and-osmotic-stress-induced-changes-in-nitrogen-metabolizing-enzymes-in-triticum-aestivum-l-cultivars-by-potassium
#1
Mohammad Abass Ahanger, Megha Tittal, Rayees Ahmad Mir, R M Agarwal
Present communication reports laboratory and pot experiments conducted to study the influence of water and osmotic stress on nitrogen uptake and metabolism in two wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars with and without potassium supplementation. Polyethylene glycol 6000-induced osmotic stress/restricted irrigation caused a considerable decline in the activity of nitrate reductase, glutamate synthase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, and glutamate dehydrogenase. Potassium considerably improved nitrogen metabolism under normal water supply conditions and also resulted in amelioration of the negative impact of water and osmotic stresses indicating that potassium supplementation can be used as a potential tool for enhancing the nitrogen use efficiency in wheat for exploiting its genetic potential...
February 17, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213475/wheat-landrace-genome-diversity
#2
Luzie U Wingen, Claire West, Michelle Leverington-Waite, Sarah Collier, Simon Orford, Richard Goram, Cai-Yun Yang, Julie King, Alexandra M Allen, Amanda Burridge, Keith J Edwards, Simon Griffiths
Understanding the genomic complexity of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a cornerstone in the quest to unravel the processes of domestication and the following adaptation of domesticated wheat to a wide variety of environments across the globe. Additionally, it is of importance for future improvement of the crop, particularly in the light of climate change. Focussing on the adaptation after domestication, a nested association mapping (NAM) panel of 60 segregating bi-parental populations were developed mainly involving landrace accessions from the core set of the Watkins hexaploid wheat collection optimized for genetic diversity (WINGEN et al...
February 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213038/hydrolysate-from-a-mixture-of-legume-flours-with-antifungal-activity-as-an-ingredient-for-prolonging-the-shelf-life-of-wheat-bread
#3
Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello, Michela Verni, Stefano Bordignon, Valerio Gramaglia, Marco Gobbetti
Aiming at identifying antifungal compounds from plant matrices to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, a water/salt-soluble extract (WSE) was produced from a legume enzyme hydrolysate, consisting of a mixture of pea, lentil, and faba bean flours, and assayed towards Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. Agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the optimal processing conditions for hydrolysis. As shown by hyphal radial growth rate, the inhibition was observed towards several fungi, including Aspergillus parasiticus CBS971...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212314/a-gin4-like-protein-kinase-gil1-involvement-in-hyphal-growth-asexual-development-and-pathogenesis-in-fusarium-graminearum
#4
Dan Yu, Shijie Zhang, Xiaoping Li, Jin-Rong Xu, Zachary Schultzhaus, Qiaojun Jin
Fusarium graminearum is the main causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat and barley. In a previous study, a GIN4-like protein kinase gene, GIL1, was found to be important for plant infection and sexual reproduction. In this study we further characterized the functions of GIL1 kinase in different developmental processes. The Δgil1 mutants were reduced in growth, conidiation, and virulence, and formed whitish and compact colonies. Although phialide formation was rarely observed in the mutants, deletion of GIL1 resulted in increased hyphal branching and increased tolerance to cell wall and cell membrane stresses...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211474/dissection-of-genomic-features-and-variations-of-three-pathotypes-of-puccinia-striiformis-through-whole-genome-sequencing
#5
Kanti Kiran, Hukam C Rawal, Himanshu Dubey, R Jaswal, Subhash C Bhardwaj, P Prasad, Dharam Pal, B N Devanna, Tilak R Sharma
Stripe rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the important diseases of wheat. We used NGS technologies to generate a draft genome sequence of two highly virulent (46S 119 and 31) and a least virulent (K) pathotypes of P. striiformis from the Indian subcontinent. We generated ~24,000-32,000 sequence contigs (N50;7.4-9.2 kb), which accounted for ~86X-105X sequence depth coverage with an estimated genome size of these pathotypes ranging from 66.2-70.2 Mb. A genome-wide analysis revealed that pathotype 46S 119 might be highly evolved among the three pathotypes in terms of year of detection and prevalence...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208797/multi-mycotoxin%C3%A2-analysis%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-durum%C3%A2-wheat%C3%A2-pasta%C3%A2-by%C3%A2-liquid%C3%A2-chromatography%C3%A2-coupled%C3%A2-to%C3%A2-quadrupole%C3%A2-orbitrap%C3%A2-mass%C3%A2-spectrometry
#6
Josefa Tolosa, Giulia Graziani, Anna Gaspari, Donato Chianese, Emilia Ferrer, Jordi Mañes, Alberto Ritieni
A simple and rapid multi-mycotoxin method for the determination of 17 mycotoxins  simultaneously  is  described  in  the  present  survey  on  durum  and  soft  wheat  pasta  samples.  Mycotoxins included in the study were those mainly reported in cereal samples: ochratoxin-A  (OTA), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZON), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol  (3-AcDON and 15-AcDON), nivalenol (NIV), neosolaniol (NEO), fusarenon-X, (FUS-X), T-2 toxin  (T-2) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2), fumonisin B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2), and four emerging mycotoxins:  three  enniatins  (ENA,  ENA1,  and  ENB),  and  beauvericin  (BEA)...
February 9, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207851/impact-of-levels-of-total-digestible-nutrients-on-microbiome-enzyme-profile-and-degradation-of-feeds-in-buffalo-rumen
#7
Anju Kala, D N Kamra, Avinash Kumar, Neeta Agarwal, L C Chaudhary, C G Joshi
The present study was aimed at understanding a shift in rumen microbiome of buffaloes fed various levels of total digestible nutrients. To understand the process, the metagenomics of rumen microbes, in vivo and in vitro rumen fermentation studies were carried out. Three rumen fistulated adult male Murrah buffaloes were fed three isonitrogenous diets varying in total digestible nutrients (70, 85 and 100% of TDN requirement) in 3X3 switch over design. On dry matter basis, wheat straw/ roughage content were 81, 63 and 51% and that of maize grain was 8, 16 and 21% in three diets respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207830/influence-of-nutrient-signals-and-carbon-allocation-on-the-expression-of-phosphate-and-nitrogen-transporter-genes-in-winter-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-roots-colonized-by-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#8
Hui Tian, Xiaolei Yuan, Jianfeng Duan, Wenhu Li, Bingnian Zhai, Yajun Gao
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization of plant roots causes the down-regulation of expression of phosphate (Pi) or nitrogen (N) transporter genes involved in direct nutrient uptake pathways. The mechanism of this effect remains unknown. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the expression of Pi or N transporter genes in roots of winter wheat colonized by AM fungus responded to (1) Pi or N nutrient signals transferred from the AM extra-radical hyphae, or (2) carbon allocation changes in the AM association...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206756/effect-of-bioprocessing-on-the-in-vitro-colonic-microbial-metabolism-of-phenolic-acids-from-rye-bran-fortified-breads
#9
Ville Mikael Koistinen, Emilia Nordlund, Kati Katina, Ismo Mattila, Kaisa Poutanen, Kati Hanhineva, Anna-Marja Aura
Cereal bran is an important source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids. We aimed to study the phenolic acid metabolism of native and bioprocessed rye bran fortified refined wheat bread and to elucidate the microbial metabolic route of phenolic acids. After incubation in an in vitro colon model, the metabolites were analyzed using two different methods applying mass spectrometry. While phenolic acids were released more extensively from the bioprocessed bran bread and ferulic acid had consistently higher concentrations in the bread type during fermentation, there were only minor differences in the appearance of microbial metabolites, including the diminished levels of certain phenylacetic acids in the bioprocessed bran...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204843/bread-wheat-milling-behavior-effects-of-genetic-and-environmental-factors-and-modeling-using-grain-mechanical-resistance-traits
#10
François-Xavier Oury, P Lasme, C Michelet, A Dubat, O Gardet, E Heumez, B Rolland, M Rousset, J Abecassis, C Bar L'Helgouac'h, V Lullien-Pellerin
Genetic (Pinb-D1 alleles) and environment (through vitreousness) have important effects on bread wheat milling behavior. SKCS optimal values corresponding to soft vitreous or hard mealy grains were defined to obtain the highest total flour yield. Near-isogenic lines of bread wheat that differ in hardness, due to distinct puroindoline-b alleles (the wild type, Pinb-D1a, or the mutated forms, Pinb-D1b or Pinb-D1d), were grown in different environments and under two nitrogen fertilization levels, to study genetic and environmental effects on milling behavior...
February 15, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204789/potential-of-pelleted-wheat-straw-as-an-alternative-bedding-material-for-broilers
#11
S K Kheravii, R A Swick, M Choct, S-B Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203774/novel-chromatographic-methods-for-simultaneous-quantification-of-fish-and-wheat-germ-oils-mixture-in-pharmaceutical-dosage-forms
#12
Amira F El-Yazbi, Amr El-Hawiet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203644/optimization-of-the-functional-characteristics-pasting-and-rheological-properties-of-pearl-millet-based-composite-flour
#13
Olugbenga Olufemi Awolu
Optimisation of composite flour comprising pearl millet, kidney beans and tigernut with xanthan gum was evaluated for rheological evaluations. The functional properties of the composite flour were optimized using optimal design of response surface methodology. The optimum blends, defined as blends with overall best functional characteristics were run 3 (75.956% pearl millet, 17.692% kidney beans, 6.352% tigernut flours), run 7 (85.000% pearl millet, 10.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours) and run 13 (75...
February 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202813/female-fecundity-variation-affects-reproducibility-of-experiments-on-host-plant-preference-and-acceptance-in-a-phytophagous-insect
#14
Alexander Schäpers, Hampus Petrén, Christopher W Wheat, Christer Wiklund, Magne Friberg
Reproducibility is a scientific cornerstone. Many recent studies, however, describe a reproducibility crisis and call for assessments of reproducibility across scientific domains. Here, we explore the reproducibility of a classic ecological experiment-that of assessing female host plant preference and acceptance in phytophagous insects, a group in which host specialization is a key driver of diversification. We exposed multiple cohorts of Pieris napi butterflies from the same population to traditional host acceptance and preference tests on three Brassicaceae host species...
February 22, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202046/highly-predictive-snp-markers-for-efficient-selection-of-the-wheat-leaf-rust-resistance-gene-lr16
#15
Mulualem T Kassa, Frank M You, Colin W Hiebert, Curtis J Pozniak, Pierre R Fobert, Andrew G Sharpe, James G Menzies, D Gavin Humphreys, Nicole Rezac Harrison, John P Fellers, Brent D McCallum, Curt A McCartney
BACKGROUND: Lr16 is a widely deployed leaf rust resistance gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that is highly effective against the North American Puccinia triticina population when pyramided with the gene Lr34. Lr16 is a seedling leaf rust resistance gene conditioning an incompatible interaction with a distinct necrotic ring surrounding the uredinium. Lr16 was previously mapped to the telomeric region of the short arm of wheat chromosome 2B. The goals of this study were to develop numerous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the Lr16 region and identify diagnostic gene-specific SNP marker assays for marker-assisted selection (MAS)...
February 15, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202009/development-of-intron-targeting-it-markers-specific-for-chromosome-arm-4vs-of-haynaldia-villosa-by-chromosome-sorting-and-next-generation-sequencing
#16
Haiyan Wang, Keli Dai, Jin Xiao, Chunxia Yuan, Renhui Zhao, Jaroslav Doležel, Yufeng Wu, Aizhong Cao, Peidu Chen, Shouzhong Zhang, Xiue Wang
BACKGROUND: Haynaldia villosa (L.) Schur (syn. Dasypyrum villosum L. Candargy, 2n = 14, genome VV) is the tertiary gene pool of wheat, and thus a potential resource of genes for wheat improvement. Among other, wheat yellow mosaic (WYM) resistance gene Wss1 and a take-all resistance gene were identified on the short arm of chromosome 4 V (4VS) of H. villosa. We had obtained introgressions on 4VS chromosome arm, with the objective of utilizing the target genes. However, monitoring these introgressions has been a daunting task because of inadequate knowledge as to H...
February 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201934/feeding-value-of-field-beans-vicia-faba-l-var-minor-with-and-without-enzyme-containing-tannase-pectinase-and-xylanase-activities-for-broilers
#17
Jalil Mahmwd Abdulla, Stephen Paul Rose, Alexander Mackay Mackenzie, Vasil Radoslavov Pirgozliev
Effects of field beans with various tannin content and exogenous enzyme mixture containing tannase, pectinase and xylanase activities on N-corrected dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn), coefficients of dry matter (DMR) and nitrogen retention (NR), fat digestibility, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, jejunal villus morphometry, ileal digesta viscosity and sialic acid were examined. Birds' growth performance and energy conversion ratio (ECR) were also measured. Birds were fed one of eight mash diets...
April 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201630/novel-rht-1-dwarfing-genes-tools-for-wheat-breeding-and-dissecting-the-function-of-della-proteins
#18
Stephen G Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28200109/identifying-seedling-root-architectural-traits-associated-with-yield-and-yield-components-in-wheat
#19
Quan Xie, Kurukulasuriya M C Fernando, Sean Mayes, Debbie L Sparkes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199942/atmospheric-contribution-to-boron-enrichment-in-aboveground-wheat-tissues
#20
Cheng Wang, Junfeng Ji, Mindong Chen, Cong Zhong, Zhongfang Yang, Patrick Browne
Boron is an essential trace element for all organisms and has both beneficial and harmful biological functions. A particular amount of boron is discharged into the environment every year because of industrial activities; however, the effects of environmental boron emissions on boron accumulation in cereals has not yet been estimated. The present study characterized the accumulation of boron in wheat under different ecological conditions in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) area. This study aimed to estimate the effects of atmospheric boron that is associated with industrial activities on boron accumulation in wheat...
February 3, 2017: Chemosphere
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