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Biopsy processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740496/evaluation-of-antigen-specific-igm-and-igg-production-during-an-in-vitro-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell-culture-assay
#1
Yoshiko Matsuda, Ryoichi Imamura, Shiro Takahara
The recent attention given to diseases associated with memory B-cell (mBC)-produced antibodies (Abs) suggests the need for a similar in vitro assay to evaluate the functions of mBCs. Here, we cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with the intent to collect mBC-derived Abs in vitro and maintain their cell-cell contact-dependent interactions with helper T-cells. PBMCs were cultured with interleukin (IL)-21, CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and phytohemagglutinin/leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) in 24-well flat-bottom plates (5 × 10(5) cells/well)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739313/cardiac-amyloidosis-an-update-on-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Omar K Siddiqi, Frederick L Ruberg
The amyloidoses are a group of systemic diseases characterized by organ deposition of misfolded protein fragments of diverse origins. The natural history of the disease, involvement of other organs, and treatment options vary significantly based on the protein of origin. In AL amyloidosis, amyloid protein is derived from immunoglobulin light chains, and most often involves the kidneys and the heart. ATTR amyloidosis is categorized as mutant or wild-type depending on the genetic sequence of the transthyretin (TTR) protein produced by the liver...
July 13, 2017: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738904/increased-interleukin-27-cytokine-expression-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#3
Patrice H Lalive, Mario Kreutzfeldt, Odile Devergne, Imke Metz, Wolfgang Bruck, Doron Merkler, Caroline Pot
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by chronic inflammation, demyelination, and neuronal damage. During autoimmunity, cytokines are important mediators of the inflammation. In this line, interleukin-27 (IL-27) modulates inflammation and can be produced directly at inflammatory sites such as in the joints during rheumatoid arthritis or in the central nervous system (CNS) during MS. While in animal models of MS, treatment with IL-27 decreases the disease severity, its role in humans is not clearly established and it is not known if IL-27 could be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736821/testing-for-high-risk-hpv-in-cervical-and-tonsillar-paraffin-embedded-tissue-using-a-cartridge-based-assay
#4
Elina Virtanen, Pekka Laurila, Jaana Hagström, Pekka Nieminen, Eeva Auvinen
This study evaluates the suitability of Xpert HPV (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) test for cervical and tonsillar formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples as compared to the tests currently used in diagnostics. Cervical biopsies and liquid cytology (LC) samples were collected from 48 women attending colposcopy. Biopsies were processed for histology and tested for hrHPV using Xpert HPV. LC samples were tested using Xpert and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2; Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) tests. Also 29 archived tonsillar carcinoma samples were tested using Xpert, and the results were compared with histology and immunohistochemical p16INK4a (p16) staining...
July 24, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736022/use-of-nanoice-for-procurement-achieves-better-cooling-of-liver-grafts
#5
J D Reyes, F G Jalikis, L C Olson, M Yeh, M I Montenovo
BACKGROUND: Rapid cooling at procurement after cross-clamping has been the cornerstone of organ preservation. NanoICE is a new form of ice that has emerged in the food industry and is providing more efficient cooling and preservation than regular ice. We hypothesize that the use of NanoICE will accelerate the cooling process of the allograft and will be able to maintain a steady low temperature without causing any significant histologic damage. METHODS: In this randomized pilot study, 14 pigs were used to study the liver core/surface cooling in a non-survival organ procurement operation...
July 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732438/investigation-of-killer-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-kir-and-hla-genotypes-to-predict-the-occurrence-of-acute-allograft-rejection-after-kidney-transplantation
#6
Davood Jafari, Mohsen Nafar, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Razieh Abdolvahabi, Mahboob Lesan Pezeshki, Efat Razaghi, Ali Akbar Amirzargar
After kidney transplantation, natural killer (NK) cells play a pivotal role in triggering the immune response to the allogeneic grafts primarily by their killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). This process may be one mechanism that contributes to graft rejection. In this study, we have evaluated whether acute rejection after kidney transplantation was associated with predicted NK cell alloreactivity based on KIR gene and ligand along with KIR/HLA compound genotype analysis. After kidney transplantation, natural killer (NK) cells play a pivotal role in triggering the immune response to the allogeneic grafts primarily by their killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR)...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731711/identification-of-proteomic-features-to-distinguish-benign-pulmonary-nodules-from-lung-adenocarcinoma
#7
Simona G Codreanu, Megan D Hoeksema, Robbert J C Slebos, Lisa J Zimmerman, S M Jamshedur Rahman, Ming Li, Sheau-Chiann Chen, Heidi Chen, Rosana Eisenberg, Daniel C Liebler, Pierre P Massion
We hypothesized that distinct protein expression features of benign and malignant pulmonary nodules may reveal novel candidate biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer. We performed proteome profiling by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to characterize 34 resected benign lung nodules, 24 early stage untreated lung adenocarcinomas (ADCs) and biopsies of bronchial epithelium. Group comparisons identified 65 proteins that differentiate nodules from ADCs and normal bronchial epithelium, and 66 proteins that differentiate ADCs from nodules and normal bronchial epithelium...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730786/clinical-significance-of-microvessel-density-and-proliferation-in-prostate-cancer-core-biopsy
#8
Stevan D Matic, Milena S Rakocevic, Tomislav T Jocic, Milos S Todorovic, Ljiljana M Vuckovic, Snezana A Jancic, Milan G Knezevic
PURPOSE: To investigate the microvessel density (MVD) and proliferation in prostate cancer (PC) core biopsies. METHODS: Core biopsy samples of PC tissue from 45 patients were routinely processed and embedded in paraffin. The samples of PC formed the investigated group (n=25), while samples of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) served as controls (n=20). From paraffin blocks, 3-5 μm-thick sections were made and routine hematoxylin-eosin method and immunohistochemical ABC method with Ki67 and CD34 antibodies were applied...
May 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729099/implementing-a-cervical-sentinel-lymph-node-biopsy-program-quality-improvement-in-gynaecologic-oncology
#9
Maria C Cusimano, Rachel Walker, Marcus Q Bernardini, Geneviève Bouchard-Fortier, Stephane Laframboise, Taymaa May, Joan Murphy, Barry Rosen, Al Covens, Blaise Clarke, Patricia Shaw, Marjan Rouzbahman, Ravi Mohan, Sarah E Ferguson
OBJECTIVE: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is becoming a reasonable alternative to pelvic lymphadenectomy in early-stage cervical cancer. It is therefore imperative that centres without prior experience are able to successfully implement the procedure. The objectives of the current study were to (1) describe the process of implementing an SLN biopsy program with a novel peer mentorship component and (2) assess post-program quality improvement metrics, including SLN detection rate (DR) and diagnostic parameters...
August 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727235/thermal-imaging-and-dermoscopy-for-detecting-inflammation-in-frontal-fibrosing-alopecia
#10
Anna Lis-Święty, Bartosz Miziołek, Irmina Ranosz-Janicka, Grażyna Bierzyńska-Macyszyn, Ligia Brzezińska-Wcisło
BACKGROUND: Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is an inflammatory condition of the scalp, which leads to scarring and slowly progressive recession of frontotemporal and/or frontoparietal hairline. Choice of FFA treatment is highly dependent on accurate assessment of disease phase, as medical treatments are effective only during the initial inflammatory stage. METHODS: To objectively quantify the activity of the inflammatory process in FFA, 22 female patients were examined by both infrared thermography and optical dermoscopy before tissue sampling...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727003/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-intramuscular-fat-deposition-in-ruminants-and-pigs-a-transcriptomics-perspective
#11
B P Dalrymple, B Guo
The genomics era has led to an explosion in the study of gene expression in production animals. Intramuscular fat (IMF) content (both high and low) and composition are major quality attributes of meat, and more than 90 transcriptomic studies of IMF deposition have been undertaken in the ruminants and pigs since 2001, with the majority since 2008. The studies have implicated many genes involved in the control of adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and deposition of IMF, but there is relatively little consistency between the different studies...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725586/role-of-prostate-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-active-surveillance
#12
REVIEW
Xiaosong Meng, Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Samir S Taneja
Active surveillance (AS) has emerged as a beneficial strategy for management of low risk prostate cancer (PCa) and prevention of overtreatment of indolent disease. However, selection of patients for AS using traditional 12-core transrectal prostate biopsy is prone to sampling error and presents a challenge for accurate risk stratification. In fact, around a third of men are upgraded on repeat biopsy which disqualifies them as appropriate AS candidates. This uncertainty affects adoption of AS among patients and physicians, leading to current AS protocols involving repetitive prostate biopsies and unclear triggers for progression to definitive treatment...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724596/severe-destructive-nasopharyngeal-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-with-superimposed-skull-base-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-osteomyelitis
#13
Mitchell S von Itzstein, Jithma P Abeykoon, Daniel D Summerfield, Jennifer A Whitaker
Skull base osteomyelitis in the setting of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is rare and entails significant diagnostic challenges. We present a case of a 65-year-old Caucasian man with a history of rheumatoid arthritis, off immunosuppression for 18 months, who presented with 2 years of chronic headaches, severe fatigue, saddle nose deformity and 20-kilogram unintentional weight loss. Maxillofacial CT revealed an extensive destructive sinonasal and erosive skull base process. Laboratory evaluation showed equivocal elevation of antiproteinase 3 antibodies with negative antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody panel...
July 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724047/correlation-between-virulence-markers-of-helicobacter-pylori-in-the-oral-cavity-and-gastric-biopsies
#14
Myriam Lucrecia Medina, Marcelo Gabriel Medina, Luis Antonio Merino
BACKGROUND: The clinical outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection has been associated with virulence factors. The presence of these factors is useful as molecular markers in the identification of the high risk for developing severe gastric pathologies. OBJECTIVE: To correlate the presence of virulence markers cagA and bab2A of H. pylori in oral and gastric biopsy samples. METHODS: An observational, prospective, descriptive, and cross-sectional study was carried out between September 2011 and September 2012...
July 13, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722118/at2-r-deficiency-mediated-podocyte-loss-via-activation-of-ectopic-hedgehog-interacting-protein-hhip-gene-expression
#15
Min-Chun Liao, Xin-Ping Zhao, Shiao-Ying Chang, Chao-Sheng Lo, Isabelle Chenier, Tomoko Takano, Julie R Ingelfinger, Shao-Ling Zhang
Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2 R) deficiency in AT2 R knockout (KO) mice has been linked to congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs are poorly understood. In this study, we examined whether AT2 R deficiency impaired glomerulogenesis and mediated podocyte loss/dysfunction in vivo and in vitro. Nephrin-cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-transgenic (Tg) and Nephrin/AT2 RKO mice were used to assess glomerulogenesis, while wild-type and AT2 RKO mice were used to evaluate maturation of podocyte morphology/function...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721993/honey-and-olive-oil-as-bio-friendly-substitutes-for-formalin-and-xylene-in-routine-histopathology
#16
Keerthi Muddana, Jaya Nagendra Krishna Muppala, Shyam Prasad Reddy Dorankula, Aruna Kumari Maloth, Pavan G Kulkarni, Deepsagar Thadudari
BACKGROUND: Formalin has long been the standard fixative and xylene has been the clearing agent for routine histopathology and immunohistochemistry worldwide. In recent years, as a result of increasing concerns about the potential carcinogenicity of formaldehyde and xylene, attempts have been made to find safer alternatives. In the present study, we considered honey as better alternative for formalin and olive oil as safer substitute for xylene. AIMS: The aim of this study was to know whether honey could be a possible substitute for formalin and olive oil could be a possible substitute for xylene...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720077/hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-as-the-presenting-manifestation-of-wt1-mutation-and-denys-drash-syndrome-a-case-report
#17
Joseph L Alge, Scott E Wenderfer, John Hicks, Mir Reza Bekheirnia, Deborah A Schady, Jamey S Kain, Michael C Braun
BACKGROUND: Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) can occur as a primary process due to mutations in complement genes or secondary to another underlying disease. HUS sometimes occurs in the setting of glomerular diseases, and it has been described in association with Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS), which is characterized by the triad of abnormal genitourinary development; a pathognomonic glomerulopathy, diffuse mesangial sclerosis; and the development of Wilms tumor. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 46, XX female infant who presented with HUS and biopsy-proven thrombotic microangiopathy...
July 18, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720048/mesangial-proliferative-lupus-nephritis-with-podocytopathy-a-special-entity-of-lupus-nephritis
#18
S F Wang, Y H Chen, D Q Chen, Z Z Liu, F Xu, C H Zeng, W X Hu
Mesangial proliferative lupus nephritis may coexist with podocytopathy, but its clinical-morphological features, treatment response and outcomes have not been compared with mesangial proliferative lupus nephritis without podocytopathy. In this study, 125 biopsies of lupus nephritis patients showing mesangial proliferation with mesangial immune deposits were collected and divided into podocytopathy group (defined as podocyte foot process effacement (FPE) >50% with nephrotic syndrome (NS)) and mesangial group (FPE ≤50%, or FPE >50% without NS)...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719980/distinguishing-epidermolysis-bullosa-acquisita-from-bullous-pemphigoid-without-direct-immunofluorescence
#19
Kerry M Gardner, Richard I Crawford
BACKGROUND: It has been postulated that periodic acid-Schiff staining of basement membrane can predict direct immunofluorescence patterns seen in epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and bullous pemphigoid. It has also been suggested that the type of inflammatory infiltrate or presence of fraying of basal keratinocytes may differentiate these two conditions. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to confirm these observations. METHODS: We reviewed 13 cases of direct immunofluorescence-confirmed epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and 19 cases of direct immunofluorescence-confirmed bullous pemphigoid, all with a subepidermal blister in the routinely processed specimen...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719434/primary-cutaneous-small-medium-cd4-t-cell-lymphoproliferative-disorder-occurring-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-melanoma
#20
Jonathan J Davick, Elizabeth Gaughan, Megan Barry, Alejandro A Gru
Therapeutic agents designed to stimulate the immune system are now cornerstones in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. These drugs promote lymphocyte growth and survival, which could plausibly result in clinical lymphoproliferative disorders. We report the case of a 62-year-old female with metastatic melanoma who developed primary cutaneous small/medium CD4 T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (PC-SMTCL) after treatment with vemurafenib and recombinant high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2). The patient developed a painless red papule behind the ear...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
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