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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527403/interplay-between-bacillus-subtilis-recd2-and-the-recg-or-ruvab-helicase-in-recombinational-repair
#1
Rubén Torres, Hector Romero, Violeta Rodríguez-Cerrato, Juan C Alonso
Bacillus subtilis AddAB, RecS, RecQ, PcrA, HelD, DinG, RecG, RuvAB, PriA and RecD2 are genuine recombinational repair enzymes, but the biological role of RecD2 is poorly defined. A ΔrecD2 mutation sensitizes cells to DNA-damaging agents that stall or collapse replication forks. We found that this ΔrecD2 mutation impaired growth, and that a mutation in the pcrA gene (pcrA596) relieved this phenotype. The ΔrecD2 mutation was not epistatic to ΔaddAB, ΔrecQ, ΔrecS, ΔhelD, pcrA596 and ΔdinG, but epistatic to recA...
May 12, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527312/low-energy-electron-potentiometry
#2
Johannes Jobst, Jaap Kautz, Maria Mytiliniou, Rudolf M Tromp, Sense Jan van der Molen
In a lot of systems, charge transport is governed by local features rather than being a global property as suggested by extracting a single resistance value. Consequently, techniques that resolve local structure in the electronic potential are crucial for a detailed understanding of electronic transport in realistic devices. Recently, we have introduced a new potentiometry method based on low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) that utilizes characteristic features in the reflectivity spectra of layered materials [1]...
May 13, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526863/potential-of-pedot-pss-as-a-hole-selective-front-contact-for-silicon-heterojunction-solar-cells
#3
Sara Jäckle, Martin Liebhaber, Clemens Gersmann, Mathias Mews, Klaus Jäger, Silke Christiansen, Klaus Lips
We show that the highly conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) can successfully be applied as a hole selective front contact in silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. In combination with a superior electron selective heterojunction back contact based on amorphous silicon (a-Si), mono-crystalline n-type silicon (c-Si) solar cells reach power conversion efficiencies up to 14.8% and high open-circuit voltages exceeding 660 mV. Since in the PEDOT:PSS/c-Si/a-Si solar cell the inferior hybrid junction is determining the electrical device performance we are capable of assessing the recombination velocity (v I ) at the PEDOT:PSS/c-Si interface...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526636/rebamipide-ameliorates-radiation-induced-intestinal-injury-in-a-mouse-model
#4
Sehwan Shim, Hyo-Sun Jang, Hyun-Wook Myung, Jae Kyung Myung, Jin-Kyu Kang, Min-Jung Kim, Seung Bum Lee, Won-Suk Jang, Sun-Joo Lee, Young-Woo Jin, Seung-Sook Lee, Sunhoo Park
Radiation-induced enteritis is a major side effect in cancer patients undergoing abdominopelvic radiotherapy. Radiation exposure produces an uncontrolled inflammatory cascade and epithelial cell loss leading to impaired epithelial barrier function. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of rebamipide on regeneration of the intestinal epithelia after radiation injury. The abdomens of C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 13Gy of irradiation (IR) and then the mice were treated with rebamipide. Upon IR, intestinal epithelia were destroyed structurally at the microscopic level and bacterial translocation was increased...
May 16, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526583/the-connexin-43-c-terminus-a-tail-of-many-tales
#5
REVIEW
Edward Leithe, Marc Mesnil, Trond Aasen
Connexins are chordate gap junction channel proteins that, by enabling direct communication between the cytosols of adjacent cells, create a unique cell signalling network. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has important roles in controlling cell growth and differentiation and in tissue development and homeostasis. Moreover, several non-canonical connexin functions unrelated to GJIC have been discovered. Of the 21 members of the human connexin family, connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most widely expressed and studied...
May 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526561/mitochondrial-contact-site-and-cristae-organizing-system-a-central-player-in-membrane-shaping-and-crosstalk
#6
Florian Wollweber, Karina von der Malsburg, Martin van der Laan
Mitochondria are multifunctional metabolic factories and integrative signaling organelles of eukaryotic cells. The structural basis for their numerous functions is a complex and dynamic double-membrane architecture. The outer membrane connects mitochondria to the cytosol and other organelles. The inner membrane is composed of a boundary region and highly folded cristae membranes. The evolutionarily conserved mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) connects the two inner membrane domains via formation and stabilization of crista junction structures...
May 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526243/histopathology-in-ureteropelvic-junction-obstruction-with-and-without-crossing-vessels
#7
Madeline Cancian, Gyan Pareek, Anthony Caldamone, Liza Aguiar, Hai Wang, Ali Amin
OBJECTIVE: To determine if the histopathology of the ureteropelvic junction differs between those with and without crossing vessels who present with a ureteropelvic junction obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our database was queried for patients undergoing pyeloplasty (CPT 50400, 50405, 50544) between 6/1/2002 to 3/10/3016. We excluded patients with other renal anatomic abnormalities and patients undergoing surgery for upper tract tumor. One genitourinary pathologist reviewed all slides for muscle hypertrophy, fibrosis, edema and inflammation...
May 16, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526034/differential-darc-ackr1-expression-distinguishes-venular-from-non-venular-endothelial-cells-in-murine-tissues
#8
Aude Thiriot, Carolina Perdomo, Guiying Cheng, Igor Novitzky-Basso, Sara McArdle, Jamie K Kishimoto, Olga Barreiro, Irina Mazo, Robinson Triboulet, Klaus Ley, Antal Rot, Ulrich H von Andrian
BACKGROUND: Intravascular leukocyte recruitment in most vertebrate tissues is restricted to postcapillary and collecting venules, whereas capillaries and arterioles usually support little or no leukocyte adhesion. This segmental restriction is thought to be mediated by endothelial, rather than hemodynamic, differences. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown, in part because effective tools to distinguish, isolate, and analyze venular endothelial cells (V-ECs) and non-venular endothelial cells (NV-ECs) have been unavailable...
May 19, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525960/the-behavioral-and-neural-signatures-of-distinct-conceptions-of-fairness
#9
Laura Niemi, Emily Wasserman, Liane Young
Adhering to standard procedures (impartiality), returning favors (reciprocity), or giving based on individuals' needs (charity) may all be considered moral and/or fair ways to allocate resources. However, these allocation behaviors may be perceived as differently motivated, and their moral evaluation may make different demands on theory of mind (ToM)-the capacity to process information about mental states, including motives. In Studies 1-2, we examined participants' moral judgments of allocations based on (a) impartiality, (b) reciprocity, (c) charity, and (d) unspecified criteria as depicted in vignettes, as well as participants' perceptions of allocators' motivations...
May 19, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525895/dietary-zno-nanoparticles-alters-intestinal-microbiota-and-inflammation-response-in-weaned-piglets
#10
Tian Xia, Wenqing Lai, Miaomiao Han, Meng Han, Xi Ma, Liying Zhang
The present study was carried out to determine whether low dose of zinc oxide nanoparticles (Nano-ZnO) could serve as a potential substitute of pharmacological dose of traditional ZnO in weaned piglets. 180 crossbred weaning piglets were randomly assigned to 3 treatments. Experimental animals were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 mg Zn/kg (Control), 600 mg Zn/kg (Nano-ZnO) and 2000 mg Zn/kg (ZnO) for 14 days. On day 14 after weaning, the piglets fed Nano-ZnO did not differ from those fed traditional ZnO in growth performance and jejunal morphology, while Nano-ZnO treatment could significantly alleviate the incidence of diarrhea (P < 0...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525778/inferior-vena-cava-collapsibility-detects-fluid-responsiveness-among-spontaneously-breathing-critically-ill-patients
#11
Keith A Corl, Naomi R George, Justin Romanoff, Andrew T Levinson, Darin B Chheng, Roland C Merchant, Mitchell M Levy, Anthony M Napoli
PURPOSE: Measurement of inferior vena cava collapsibility (cIVC) by point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has been proposed as a viable, non-invasive means of assessing fluid responsiveness. We aimed to determine the ability of cIVC to identify patients who will respond to additional intravenous fluid (IVF) administration among spontaneously breathing critically-ill patients. METHODS: Prospective observational trial of spontaneously breathing critically-ill patients...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525474/anatomy-of-lamina-in-the-subaxial-cervical-spine-with-the-special-reference-to-translaminar-screws-ct-and-cadaveric-analysis-with-screw-trajectory-simulation
#12
Woojin Cho, Jason T Le, Adam L Shimer, Brian C Werner, John A Glaser, Francis H Shen
STUDY DESIGN: A cadaveric study. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Translaminar screws were initially developed for C2 fixation. Since then, their usage has expanded to include the subaxial cervical spine, and thoracic and lumbar spine. To the best of our knowledge, special anatomy for inserting translaminar screws in the subaxial cervical spine has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To report the special anatomy for inserting translaminar screws in the subaxial cervical spine...
June 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524846/concerted-regulation-of-retinal-pigment-epithelium-basement-membrane-and-barrier-function-by-angiocrine-factors
#13
Ignacio Benedicto, Guillermo L Lehmann, Michael Ginsberg, Daniel J Nolan, Rohan Bareja, Olivier Elemento, Zelda Salfati, Nazia M Alam, Glen T Prusky, Pierre Llanos, Sina Y Rabbany, Arvydas Maminishkis, Sheldon S Miller, Shahin Rafii, Enrique Rodriguez-Boulan
The outer blood-retina barrier is established through the coordinated terminal maturation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), fenestrated choroid endothelial cells (ECs) and Bruch's membrane, a highly organized basement membrane that lies between both cell types. Here we study the contribution of choroid ECs to this process by comparing their gene expression profile before (P5) and after (P30) the critical postnatal period when mice acquire mature visual function. Transcriptome analyses show that expression of extracellular matrix-related genes changes dramatically over this period...
May 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524792/analysis-and-interrater-reliability-of-pb-c2-using-mri-and-ct-data-from-the-park-reeves-syringomyelia-research-consortium-on-behalf-of-the-pediatric-craniocervical-society
#14
Todd C Hankinson, Gerald F Tuite, Dagmara I Moscoso, Leslie C Robinson, James C Torner, David D Limbrick, Tae Sung Park, Richard C E Anderson
OBJECTIVE The distance to the ventral dura, perpendicular to the basion to C2 line (pB-C2), is commonly employed as a measure describing the anatomy of the craniovertebral junction. However, both the reliability among observers and the clinical utility of this measurement in the context of Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) have been incompletely determined. METHODS Data were reviewed from the first 600 patients enrolled in the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium with CM-I and syringomyelia. Thirty-one cases were identified in which both CT and MRI studies were available for review...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524745/actin-cytoskeleton-regulates-functional-anchorage-migration-switch-during-t-cadherin-induced-phenotype-modulation-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#15
Agne Frismantiene, Emmanouil Kyriakakis, Boris Dasen, Paul Erne, Therese J Resink, Maria Philippova
Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) switching between differentiated and dedifferentiated phenotypes is reversible and accompanied by morphological and functional alterations that require reconfiguration of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion networks. Studies attempting to explore changes in overall composition of the adhesion nexus during SMC phenotype transition are lacking. We have previously demonstrated that T-cadherin knockdown enforces SMC differentiation, whereas T-cadherin upregulation promotes SMC dedifferentiation...
May 19, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524708/significance-of-baseline-fdg-pet-ct-scan-as-a-method-of-staging-regional-lymph-nodes-in-patients-with-operable-distal-oesophageal-or-gastroesophageal-junction-adenocarcinoma
#16
George Papaxoinis, Jamie M J Weaver, Leila Khoja, Ana Patrao, Sofia Stamatopoulou, Alia Alchawaf, Vikki Owen-Holt, Theodora Germetaki, Zoe Kordatou, Wasat Mansoor
BACKGROUND: The new American Joint Committee on Cancer eighth edition (AJCC8) staging is the first to describe separate clinical and pathology staging systems, but still has low performance to predict prognosis in patients with oesophageal/gastroesophageal junction (O/GOJ) adenocarcinoma, who are candidates for surgery. Recent studies have demonstrated that O/GOJ cancer patients with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avid regional lymph nodes (RLNs) may have poor prognosis. The aim of our study was to examine whether the baseline assessment of the FDG uptake of RLN improves the prognostic accuracy of the new AJCC8 staging...
May 19, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524684/quantum-hall-spin-diode
#17
J P Eisenstein, L N Pfeiffer, K W West
Double layer two-dimensional electron systems at high perpendicular magnetic field are used to realize magnetic tunnel junctions in which the electrons at the Fermi level in the two layers have either parallel or antiparallel spin magnetizations. In the antiparallel case the tunnel junction, at low temperatures, behaves as a nearly ideal spin diode. At elevated temperatures the diode character degrades as long-wavelength spin waves are thermally excited. These tunnel junctions provide a demonstration that the spin polarization of the electrons in the N=1 Landau level at filling factors ν=5/2 and 7/2 is essentially complete, and, with the aid of an in-plane magnetic field component, that Landau level mixing at these filling factors is weak in the samples studied...
May 5, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524245/towards-efficient-spectral-converters-through-materials-design-for-luminescent-solar-devices
#18
REVIEW
Barry McKenna, Rachel C Evans
Single-junction photovoltaic devices exhibit a bottleneck in their efficiency due to incomplete or inefficient harvesting of photons in the low- or high-energy regions of the solar spectrum. Spectral converters can be used to convert solar photons into energies that are more effectively captured by the photovoltaic device through a photoluminescence process. Here, recent advances in the fields of luminescent solar concentration, luminescent downshifting, and upconversion are discussed. The focus is specifically on the role that materials science has to play in overcoming barriers in the optical performance in all spectral converters and on their successful integration with both established (e...
May 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523829/the-prediction-of-viscous-losses-and-pressure-drop-in-models-of-the-human-airways
#19
A K Wells, I P Jones, S Hamill, R Bordas
This paper examines the viscous flow resistance in branching tubes as applied to simplified models of the lungs, and compares the results of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations for a range of conditions with measurement data. The results are in good agreement with the available measurement data for both inspiration and expiration. A detailed sensitivity analysis of the dissipation and viscous resistance in a branch then examines the ratio of the viscous resistance to that for a fully developed Poiseuille flow, Z...
May 18, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523565/blood-brain-barrier-permeability-is-exacerbated-in-experimental-model-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-via-mmp-9-activation-and-downregulation-of-tight-junction-proteins
#20
Saurabh Dhanda, Rajat Sandhir
The present study was designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in bile duct ligation (BDL) model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Four weeks after BDL surgery, a significant increase was observed in serum bilirubin levels. Masson trichrome staining revealed severe hepatic fibrosis in the BDL rats. (99m)Tc-mebrofenin retention was increased in the liver of BDL rats suggesting impaired hepatobiliary transport. An increase in permeability to sodium fluorescein, Evans blue, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran along with increase in water and electrolyte content was observed in brain regions of BDL rats suggesting disrupted BBB...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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