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Jennifer Y Chen, Lynn S Penn, Jun Xi
Cell adhesion is an essential aspect of cellular behavior. Finding innovative methods to probe the adhesion of cells in their native state can greatly advance the understanding of control and regulation of cellular behavior and their impact on human health. The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is a label-free, biosensing system that has, in the past fifty years, evolved from a simple acoustic based mass sensor to a powerful bioanalytical tool. Its unique capability of monitoring the cell-substrate interaction non-invasively in real time has led to the emergence of its applications in areas that are relevant to fundamental cell biology and medical research...
August 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Urban M Fietzek, Lisa Stuhlinger, Annika Plate, Andres Ceballos-Baumann, Kai Bötzel
OBJECTIVE: Turning and limitations to step length were shown to trigger progressive shortening of steps, which can lead to freezing of gait. By reducing the base area in which the turn had to take place, we aimed to evaluate the contribution of spatial constraints on 360° axial turns in people with Parkinson's disease with and without freezing. METHODS: We evaluated 40 patients with and without freezing and 16 age-matched healthy subjects. We assessed clinical data, and used body-worn inertial sensors to describe stepping and turn duration of 360° in quadratic squares of different sizes marked on the floor...
July 25, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Jo Hee Yoon, Kyung Hoon Kim, Nam Ho Bae, Gap Seop Sim, Yong-Jun Oh, Seok Jae Lee, Tae Jae Lee, Kyoung G Lee, Bong Gill Choi
Paper-based materials have attracted a great deal of attention in sensor applications because they are readily available, biodegradable, inexpensive, and mechanically flexible. Although paper-based sensors have been developed, but important obstacles remian, which include the retention of chemical and mechanical stabilities when paper is wetted. Herein, we develop a simple and scalable process for fabrication of newspaper-based platforms by coating of parylene C and patterning of metal layers. As-prepared parylene C-coated newspaper (PC-paper) provides low-cost, disposable, and mechanically and chemically stable electrochemical platforms for the development of potentiometric ion sensors for the detection of electrolyte cations, such as, H(+) and K(+)...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Luuk C Otterspoor, Marcel van 't Veer, Lokien X van Nunen, Guus R G Brueren, Pim A L Tonino, Inge F Wijnbergen, Harold Helmes, Frederik M Zimmermann, Eduard Van Hagen, Nils P Johnson, Nico H J Pijls
AIMS: Hypothermia reduces reperfusion injury and infarct size in animal models of acute myocardial infarction if started before reperfusion. Human studies have not confirmed benefit, probably due to insufficient myocardial cooling and adverse systemic effects. This study assessed safety and feasibility of a novel method for selective, sensor- monitored intracoronary hypothermia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) were included...
August 22, 2017: EuroIntervention
Graeme N Carvlin, Humberto Lugo, Luis Olmedo, Ester Bejarano, Alexa Wilkie, Dan Meltzer, Michelle Wong, Galatea King, Amanda Northcross, Michael Jerrett, Paul B English, Donald Hammond, Edmund Seto
The Imperial County Community Air Monitoring Network was developed as part of a community-engaged research study to provide real-time particulate matter (PM) air quality information at a high spatial resolution in Imperial County, California. The network augmented the few existing regulatory monitors and increased monitoring near susceptible populations. Monitors were both calibrated and field validated, a key component of evaluating the quality of the data produced by the community-monitoring network. This paper examines the performance of a customized version of the low-cost Dylos optical particle counter used in the community air monitors compared to both PM2...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Prakash Chandra Mondal, Vikram Singh, Michael Zharnikov
Over the last few decades, molecular assemblies on solid substrates have become increasingly popular, challenging the traditional systems and materials in terms of better control over molecular structure and function at the nanoscale. A variety of such assemblies with high complexity and adjustable properties was generated on the basis of organic, inorganic, organometallic, polymeric, and biomolecular building blocks. Particular versatile elements in this context are terpyridyls due to their wide design flexibility, ease of functionalization, and ability to coordinate to a broad variety of transition-metal ions without forming diastereoisomers, which facilitates tuning of their optical and electronic properties...
August 22, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Thomas R Vincent, James Canham, Masatsugu Toyota, Marieta Avramova, Sam T Mugford, Simon Gilroy, Anthony J Miller, Saskia Hogenhout, Dale Sanders
Calcium ions are predicted to be key signaling entities during biotic interactions, with calcium signaling forming an established part of the plant defense response to microbial elicitors and to wounding caused by chewing insects, eliciting systemic calcium signals in plants. However, the role of calcium in vivo during biotic stress is still unclear. This protocol describes the use of a genetically-encoded calcium sensor to detect calcium signals in plants during feeding by a hemipteran pest. Hemipterans such as aphids pierce a small number of cells with specialized, elongated sucking mouthparts, making them the ideal tool to study calcium dynamics when a plant is faced with a biotic stress, which is distinct from a wounding response...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Elliott G Magee, S Ourselin, Daniil Nikitichev, T Vercauteren, Anne Vanhoestenberghe
In this manuscript, we present two 'Bionic Clicker' systems, the first designed to demonstrate electromyography (EMG) based control systems for educational purposes and the second for research purposes. EMG based control systems pick up electrical signals generated by muscle activation and use these as inputs for controllers. EMG controllers are widely used in prosthetics to control limbs. The Mark I (MK I) clicker allows the wearer to change the slide of a presentation by raising their index finger. It is built around a microcontroller and a bio-signals shield...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Guofeng Du, Juan Zhang, Jicheng Zhang, Gangbing Song
The filling of thin-walled steel tubes with quartz sand can help to prevent the premature buckling of the steel tube at a low cost. During an impact, the internal stress of the quartz sand-filled steel tube column is subjected to not only axial force but also lateral confining force, resulting in complicated internal stress. A suitable sensor for monitoring the internal stress of such a structure under an impact is important for structural health monitoring. In this paper, piezoceramic Smart Aggregates (SAs) are embedded into a quartz Sand-Filled Steel Tube Column (SFSTC) to monitor the internal structural stress during impacts...
August 22, 2017: Sensors
Changmin Lee, Seung-Eun Yu, DaeEun Kim
A number of landmark-based navigation algorithms have been studied using feature extraction over the visual information. In this paper, we apply the distance information of the surrounding environment in a landmark navigation model. We mount a depth sensor on a mobile robot, in order to obtain omnidirectional distance information. The surrounding environment is represented as a circular form of landmark vectors, which forms a snapshot. The depth snapshots at the current position and the target position are compared to determine the homing direction, inspired by the snapshot model...
August 22, 2017: Sensors
Suwan Zhu, Xiaolong Liu, Jun Zhuang, Li Zhao
In this paper, an electrical-based NH₃ sensor with an Al/p-Si/Al structure is reported. The p-Si substrate is microstructured by fs-laser irradiation and then etched by 30% alkaline solution. This sensor works well at room temperature with fast response/recovery for NH₃ gas at 5-100 ppm concentration. However, when the sensor is annealed in N₂/H₂ forming gas or short-circuited for Al/Si electrodes, its sensitivity decreases drastically and almost vanishes. Further I-V and FT-IR results show that the two back-to-back Schottky diodes on the device play a key role in its sensing performance...
August 22, 2017: Sensors
Prathamesh Sunil Chopade, Sreekantha Reddy Dugasani, Mallikarjuna Reddy Kesama, Sanghyun Yoo, Bramaramba Gnapareddy, Yun Woo Lee, Sohee Jeon, Jun-Ho Jeong, Sung Ha Park
We fabricated synthetic double-crossover (DX) DNA lattices and natural salmon DNA (SDNA) thin films, doped with 3 combinations of double divalent metal ions (M2+)-doped groups (Co2+‒Ni2+, Cu2+‒Co2+, and Cu2+‒Ni2+) and single combination of a triple M2+-doped group (Cu2+‒Ni2+‒Co2+) at various concentrations of M2+ ([M2+]). We evaluated the optimum concentration of M2+ ([M2+]O) (the phase of M2+-doped DX DNA lattices changed from crystalline (up to ([M2+]O) to amorphous (above [M2+]O)) and measured the current, absorbance, and photoluminescent characteristics of multiple M2+-doped SDNA thin films...
August 22, 2017: Nanotechnology
Chien-Chih Liao, Chuan-Kang Ting
The Set k-Cover problem aims to partition a set of nodes for the maximal number of covers. This problem is crucial for extending the lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) under the constraint of covering all targets. More specifically, the Set k-Cover problem enables partitioning the set of sensors into several covers over all targets and activating the covers by turns to effectively extend the WSN lifetime. To resolve this problem, we propose a novel memetic algorithm (MA) based on integer-coded genetic algorithm and local search...
August 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Naoki Takizawa, Hiroaki Yano, Hiroo Iwata, Yukio Oshiro, Nobuhiro Ohkohch
This paper describes the development of an encountered-type haptic interface that can generate the physical characteristics, such as shape and rigidity, of three-dimensional (3D) virtual objects using an array of newly developed non-expandable balloons. To alter the rigidity of each non-expandable balloon, the volume of air in it is controlled through a linear actuator and a pressure sensor based on Hooke's law. Furthermore, to change the volume of each balloon, its exposed surface area is controlled by using another linear actuator with a trumpet-shaped tube...
August 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Serene S Paul, Raymond G Walther, Ethan A Beseris, Leland E Dibble, Mark E Lester
A consequence of vestibular loss is increased coupling of head-on-trunk motion, particularly in the yaw plane, which adversely affects community mobility in these patients. Inertial sensors may provide a means of better understanding normal decoupling behaviors in community environments, but demonstration of their validity and responsiveness is needed. This study examined the validity and measurement sensitivity of inertial sensors in quantifying yaw plane head-trunk decoupling during unrestricted and restricted cervical motion conditions in healthy adults...
August 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Kaikai Chen, Matyas Juhasz, Felix Gularek, Elmar Weinhold, Yu Tian, Ulrich F Keyser, Nicholas A W Bell
Nanopore sensors show great potential for rapid, single-molecule determination of DNA sequence information. Here, we develop an ionic current-based method for determining the positions of short sequence motifs in double-stranded DNA molecules with solid-state nanopores. Using the DNA-methyltransferase M.TaqI and a biotinylated S-adenosyl-l-methionine cofactor analogue we create covalently attached biotin labels at 5'-TCGA-3' sequence motifs. Monovalent streptavidin is then added to bind to the biotinylated sites giving rise to additional current blockade signals when the DNA passes through a conical quartz nanopore...
August 22, 2017: Nano Letters
Yulin Zhang, Fan Yang, Zhongyue Sun, Yu-Tao Li, Guo-Jun Zhang
This work reports a surface acoustic wave (SAW) DNA sensor that synergizes the surface mass effect for signal-amplified and sequence-specific DNA detection in blood serum. By combining an enzyme-mediated DNA extension reaction (both viscoelastic and mass fractions) with the in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles (mass fraction), a highly sensitive SAW biosensing interface with synergistic mass loading was tailor-engineered. As target DNA hybridized with the surface-confined capture probes, the exposed 3'-OH terminal of the target sequence could be triggered to elongate in the presence of terminal deoxynucleoside transferase (TdT) and deoxy-ribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP), thereby producing an evident mass effect...
August 22, 2017: Analyst
Nesrine Blel, Najla Fourati, Mina Souiri, Chouki Zerrouki, Asma Omezzine, Ali Bouslama, Ali Othmane
Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in the world. The diagnosis, staging, prognosis and monitoring are usually done with Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA). Biosensors have emerging as a novel analytical technology for PSA detection. They provide several advantages for clinical applications and will benefit clinicians, patients and forensic workers in the future. Among them, electrochemical immunosensors have gained growing interests. Hence, their sensitivity is often improved by modifying them with nanoparticles especially iron oxide (IONP)...
August 21, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Davide Zocco, Natasa Zarovni
Extracellular vesicle (EV)-associated RNAs (EV-RNA) are under intense investigation due to their potential role in health and disease. Several approaches are currently employed to isolate blood-derived EVs for RNA analysis, most of which are either time-consuming and expensive, such as methods based on EVs physical properties (ultracentrifugation and Optiprep density gradient), or also copurify blood contaminants, mostly protein aggregates and immune complexes, (such as chemical precipitation). In addition, there is a lack of standardized protocols for the extraction of EV-RNA and very little consensus on the technological platforms and normalization tools for assessing the expression levels of different RNA species...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hyungsoon Im, Katherine Yang, Hakho Lee, Cesar M Castro
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR ) enables real-time, label-free detection of ligand binding to target receptors immobilized on a sensing surface. SPR has emerged as a promising technique for extracellular vesicle (EV) characterization with its label-free detection scheme, and exquisite sensitivity. Among the various system configurations, nanohole-based SPR sensors are of particular interest because of their simple optical setup, tunability, and scalability. Here, we describe the characterization of circulating EVs or exosomes from human clinical samples using a nanohole-based SPR sensor, named nPLEX (nano-plasmonic exosome) sensing...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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