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O Tsave, C Gabriel, M Kafantari, M Yavropoulou, J G Yovos, C P Raptopoulou, V Psycharis, A Terzis, C Mateescu, A Salifoglou
In an attempt to understand the aqueous interactions of Cr(III) with low-molecular mass physiological ligands and examine its role as an adipogenic metallodrug agent in Diabetes mellitus II, the pH-specific synthesis in the binary-ternary Cr(III)-(HA = hydroxycarboxylic acid)-(N,N)-aromatic chelator (AC) (HA = 2-hydroxyethyl iminodiacetic acid/heidaH2 , quinic acid; AC = 1,10-phenanthroline/phen) systems was pursued, leading to four new crystalline compounds. All materials were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-Visible, FT-IR, and ESI-MS spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and X-Ray crystallography...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Eloi R Verrier, Seung-Ae Yim, Laura Heydmann, Houssein El Saghire, Charlotte Bach, Vincent Turon-Lagot, Laurent Mailly, Sarah C Durand, Julie Lucifora, David Durantel, Patrick Pessaux, Nicolas Manel, Ivan Hirsch, Mirjam B Zeisel, Nathalie Pochet, Catherine Schuster, Thomas F Baumert
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease and cancer worldwide. The mechanisms of viral genome sensing and the evasion of innate immune responses by HBV infection are still poorly understood. Recently, the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) was identified as a DNA sensor. In this study, we aimed to investigate the functional role of cGAS in sensing of HBV infection and elucidate the mechanisms of viral evasion. We performed functional studies including loss- and gain-of-function experiments combined with cGAS effector gene expression profiling in an infectious cell culture model, primary human hepatocytes and HBV-infected human liver chimeric mice...
April 20, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Marc Bienias, Normi Brück, Constanze Griep, Christine Wolf, Stefanie Kretschmer, Barbara Kind, Victoria Tüngler, Reinhard Berner, Min Ae Lee-Kirsch
To review recent scientific advances and therapeutic approaches in the expanding field of type I interferonopathies. Type I interferonopathies represent a genetically and phenotypically heterogenous group of disorders of the innate immune system caused by constitutive activation of antiviral type I interferon (IFN). Clinically, type I interferonopathies are characterized by autoinflammation and varying degrees of autoimmunity or immunodeficiency. The elucidation of the underlying genetic causes has revealed novel cell-intrinsic mechanisms that protect the organism against inappropriate immune recognition of self nucleic acids by cytosolic nucleic acid sensors...
April 20, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
Zhuo Zhang, Weicai Chen, Yuzheng Zhao, Yi Yang
The brain has very high energy requirements and consumes 20% of the oxygen and 25% of the glucose in the human body. Therefore, the molecular mechanism underlying how the brain metabolizes substances to support neural activity is a fundamental issue for neuroscience studies. A well-known model in the brain, the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle, postulates that glucose uptake and glycolytic activity are enhanced in astrocytes upon neuronal activation and that astrocytes transport lactate into neurons to fulfill their energy requirements...
April 20, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Daniele Magistro, Salvatore Sessa, Andrew P Kingsnorth, Adam Loveday, Alessandro Simeone, Massimiliano Zecca, Dale W Esliger
BACKGROUND: Unfortunately, global efforts to promote "how much" physical activity people should be undertaking have been largely unsuccessful. Given the difficulty of achieving a sustained lifestyle behavior change, many scientists are reexamining their approaches. One such approach is to focus on understanding the context of the lifestyle behavior (ie, where, when, and with whom) with a view to identifying promising intervention targets. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and implement an innovative algorithm to determine "where" physical activity occurs using proximity sensors coupled with a widely used physical activity monitor...
April 20, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Stéphane Deparis, Alessandra Pascale, Pierpaolo Tommasi, Spyros Kotoulas
This paper describes an application of Bayesian Networks to mo-del persons with multimorbidity using measurements of vital signs and lifestyle assessments. The model was developed as part of a project on the use of wearable and home sensors and tablet applications to help persons with multimorbidity and their carers manage their conditions in daily life. The training data was extracted from TILDA, an open dataset collected from a longitudinal health study of the older Irish population. A categorical BN structure was learnt using a score-based approach, with constraints on the ordering of variables...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Christian Lins, Alexander Gerka, Christian Lüpkes, Rainer Röhrig, Andreas Hein
In this paper, we present an approach for enhancing the safety of artificially ventilated patients using ambient process analysis. We propose to use an analysis system consisting of low-cost ambient sensors such as power sensor, RGB-D sensor, passage detector, and matrix infrared temperature sensor to reduce risks for artificially ventilated patients in both home and clinical environments. We describe the system concept and our implementation and show how the system can contribute to patient safety.
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Anna L Beukenhorst, Jamie C Sergeant, Max A Little, John McBeth, William G Dixon
Longitudinal data from patients' natural environments would benefit chronic disease care, yet most devices cannot collect sensor data alongside patient-reported outcomes. Here we describe Koalap, a consumer cellular smartwatch application that collects patient-reported outcomes alongside physical activity data from various sensors. Additionally, we show preliminary results indicating high engagement of our 26 participants with knee osteoarthritis. Our future work will show whether data collection with consumer smartwatches is feasible in terms of user engagement, acceptability, data quality and consistency...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Vincent Nguyen, Holger Kunz, Paul Taylor, Dionisio Acosta
We investigate what supervised classification models using clinical and wearables data are best suited to address two important questions about the management of Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients: 1) does a PD patient require pharmacotherapy or not, and 2) whether therapies are having an effect. Currently, patient management is suboptimal due to using subjective patient reported episodes to answer these questions. METHODOLOGY: Clinical and real environment sensor data (memory, tapping, walking) was provided by the mPower study (6805 participants)...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Young-Jun Lee, Jong-Gyu Kim, Joo-Hyung Kim, Jaesook Yun, Won Jun Jang
The detection and monitoring of colorless and odorless chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has become important due to the increasing threat of terrorist activities. To enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of CWAs a number of sensing materials have been developed, including the widely used polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). However, PVDF is limited by its low sensitivity and selectivity for many CWAs. In this study, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) was used as a sensing material for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) a simulant of sarin nerve gas...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Byeong-Cheol Kang, Jun-Young Jeon, Young Tae Byun, Tae-Jun Ha
In this paper, we demonstrate the highly sensitive carbon nanotube (CNT) sensors for the detection of sub-ppm nitric oxide (NO) gas operating at room temperature. Such achievement can be realized by functionalizing CNT thin films with amine-based polymers through a solution-process technology at low temperature. In addition to high sensitivity, functionalized CNT sensors exhibit high selectivity towards NO gas, which is an effective and practical factor for health-care monitoring nano-electronics. We also investigated the effect of a post-cleaning treatment on the sensing performance of functionalized CNT thin films for sub-ppm NO gas sensors...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Seok Hun Kwon, Hyung Jin Kim, Won Seok Choi, Hyunil Kang
In this study, a mass sensor was fabricated using a carbon nanowalls, and its performance was analyzed. The substrate that was used to fabricate the mass sensor was a polyimide film, on which a SiO2 insulating layer and a copper electrode were deposited using an RF magnetron sputter. Thereafter, a carbon nanowalls was grown on the substrate until its size was 5 by 5 mm. The growth times of the completely grown carbon nanowalls were 20, 25, and 30 minutes, respectively. The performance of the mass sensors fabricated based on different carbon nanowalls grown for various growth times was analyzed according to the changing mass from 1 to 5 mg...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Donghwan Kim, Hyunsuk Lee, Joohyeon Bae, Hyomin Jeong, Byeongkeun Choi, Taehyun Nam, Jungpil Noh
Ti-Ni shape memory alloy (SMA) thin films are very attractive material for industrial and medical applications such as micro-actuator, micro-sensors, and stents for blood vessels. An important property besides shape memory effect in the application of SMA thin films is the adhesion between the film and the substrate. When using thin films as micro-actuators or micro-sensors in MEMS, the film must be strongly adhered to the substrate. On the other hand, when using SMA thin films in medical devices such as stents, the deposited alloy thin film must be easily separable from the substrate for efficient processing...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Jinwoo Park, Mi Choi, Cheong-Soo Hwang
In this study, water-dispersible manganese (II) ion-doped ZnS nanocrystals (ZnS:Mn NCs) were synthesized by capping the surface with L-glycine molecules at various pH conditions. The UV-Visible and solution photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed broad peaks approximately at 330 and 590 nm, respectively. The calculated relative quantum efficiencies were in the range of 4.9∼5.8%, and the average particle sizes measured from the HR-TEM images were about 8 nm. Moreover, the surface charges of the corresponding ZnS:Mn-Gly NCs were determined by the electrophoretic method as: (-)14...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Bulgan Tsedenbal, Imad Hussain, M S Anwar, Bon Heun Koo
We report the morphological, structural and magnetic properties of the flower like iron oxide α-Fe2O3 samples prepared by the polyol method. The α-Fe2O3 samples were prepared by using different amount of the iron chloride in the starting materials and the impact of the different iron chloride amount on the morphology of the precursor and after heat treatment of the samples was investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the formation of the α-Fe2O3 phase without detecting any impurity phase...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Younghwan Hyeon, Pyungho Choi, Sangsub Kim, Minsoo Kim, Jeonghyun Lee, Kiwon Lim, Soonkon Kim, Kwangjun Koo, Byoungdeog Choi
In this study, the charge polarity of aluminum fluoride (AlF3) as a function of varying thickness (tAlF3 = 20, 35, 50, 65, and 80 nm) was discussed. AlF3 films were deposited onto p-Si wafers via electron beam sputtering. Thickness dependent charge polarity and reliability issues under bias-temperature stress conditions were identified using a capacitance-voltage (C-V) characterization method. AlF3 was found to possess negative fixed charges, leading to a C-V curve shift toward the positive gate bias direction as tAlF3 was increased up to 50 nm...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Youngseung Cho, Hyunjin Ji, Hyoungsub Kim, Jinsuop Yoon, Byoungdeog Choi
This study provides new insight into mechanisms of ionic reactions on the surface of ZnO nanorod networks, which could result in enhanced performance in optical or molecular sensors. The current- voltage characteristics of ZnO nanorod network devices exhibit typical nonlinear behavior in air, which implies the formation of a Schottky barrier when metals are used as contacts. The conductance of the device increased significantly in vacuum, which can be explained by the desorption of hydroxyl groups at very low pressure...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Vinay Sharma, Navpreet Kaur, Pranav Tiwari, Shaikh M Mobin
Carbon-based nano materials are developed as a cytocompatible alternative to semiconducting quantum dots for bioimaging and fluorescence-based sensing. The green alternatives for the synthesis of carbon materials are imminent. The present study demonstrates microwave based one step quick synthesis of fluorescent carbon material (FCM) having three variants: (i) un-doped fluorescent carbon material (UFCM) (ii) nitrogen doped FCM (N@FCM), and (iii) nitrogen & phosphorus co-doped FCM (N-P@FCM) using sugarcane extract as a carbon source...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Leann Lerie Matta, Saranraj Karuppuswami, Premjeet Chahal, Evangelyn C Alocilja
Rapid detection techniques of pathogenic bacteria in the liquid food supply chain are of significant research interest due to their pivotal role in preventing foodborne outbreaks, and in maintaining high standards of public health and safety. Milk and dairy products are of particular interest due to their widespread consumption across the globe. In this paper, a biosensor for detecting pathogenic bacteria in milk using dextrin-capped gold nanoparticles (d-AuNP) as labels decoded at microwave frequencies is presented...
April 11, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Paramasivam Balasubramanian, Ramki Settu, Shen-Ming Chen, Tse-Wei Chen, Ganapathi Sharmila
Herein, we report a novel, disposable electrochemical sensor for the detection of nitrite ions in food samples based on the sonochemical synthesized orthorhombic CaFe2 O4 (CFO) clusters modified screen printed electrode. As synthesized CFO clusters were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformer infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry (i-t)...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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