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Daoxi Zhang, Samantha Lavender, Jan-Peter Muller, David Walton, Xi Zou, Fang Shi
The historical data from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) is an invaluable archive for studying global waters from inland lakes to open oceans. Although the MERIS sensor ceased to operate in April 2012, the data capacities are now re-established through the recently launched Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI). The development of a consistent time series for investigating phytoplankton phenology features is crucial if the potential of MERIS and OLCI data is to be fully exploited for inland water monitoring...
June 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
David M Fisher, Spencer A Wood, Eric M White, Dale J Blahna, Sarah Lange, Alex Weinberg, Michael Tomco, Emilia Lia
Outdoor recreation is one of many important benefits provided by public lands. Data on recreational use are critical for informing management of recreation resources, however, managers often lack actionable information on visitor use for large protected areas that lack controlled access points. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential for social media data (e.g., geotagged images shared on Flickr and trip reports shared on a hiking forum) to provide land managers with useful measures of recreational use to dispersed areas, and to provide lessons learned from comparing several more traditional counting methods...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Hélène Cheap-Charpentier, Olivier Horner, Jean Lédion, Hubert Perrot
Scale deposition is a common issue in industrial plants, which creates technical problems, i.e. reduction of heat transfer, decrease of flow rate due to an obstruction of pipes. Therefore, the development of some appropriate methods based on well suitable in situ sensors to evaluate and predict the scaling propensity of water is a major concern in current research. This would be a good strategy for the optimization of anti-scaling treatments. In this study, scaling tests were carried out using a sensitive sensor, which has been developed using a quartz crystal microbalance with a pre-calcified electrode surface (SQCM)...
May 29, 2018: Water Research
Mark Richards, Brian Olshansky, Arjun D Sharma, Nicholas Wold, Paul Jones, David Perschbacher, Bruce L Wilkoff
BACKGROUND: Heart Rate Score (HRSc)≥70%, a novel parameter, predicts risk of mortality in patients with implantable defibrillators and identifies patients who have survival benefit with DDDR versus DDD pacing. OBJECTIVE: DDDR pacing lowers HRSc and dual-sensor with minute ventilation (MV) and accelerometer (XL) improves HRSc more than accelerometer (XL) alone in patients requiring pacemakers (PM). METHODS: HRSc, the percent of all beats in the predominant 10 bpm bin, was calculated...
June 13, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Hoda Ilkhani, Siamak Farhad
The aim of this study was to fabricate a novel electrochemical-based DNA-sensing device for Ebola virus DNA diagnostic by an enzyme-amplified detection, which improves the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor. A thiolated DNA capture probe sequence was immobilized on the screen printed electrode surface and hybridized with biotinylated target strand DNA for the fabrication of Ebola DNA-sensing devices. Prior to the electrochemical detection of the enzymatic product by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method, the biotinylated hybrid was labelled with a streptavidin-alkaline phosphate conjugate on the surface of the working electrode...
June 13, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Xiaohui Niu, Zunli Mo, Xing Yang, Mingyuan Sun, Pan Zhao, Zhenliang Li, Meixuan Ouyang, Zhenyu Liu, Huhu Gao, Ruibin Guo, Nijuan Liu
β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) possess a hydrophobic inner cavity and a hydrophilic exterior surface. They exhibit excellent inclusion properties with the guest molecules that match cavity size, and β-CD-based materials drew widespread attention in electrochemical sensors. The hydroxy groups at the edge of the cavity can form hydrogen bonds and undergo electrostatic and dipole-dipole interactions with other molecules. This review (with 109 refs.) reveals β-CD-based detection mechanisms from the viewpoint of the size/shape-fit concept, and summarizes the current state of multiple electrochemical sensors based on the use of β-CD and functionalized β-CD such as carboxymethyl-β-CD, mono-(6-ethanediamine-6-deoxy)-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-β-CD, thio-β-cyclodextrin, and others...
June 16, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Oili Pekkola, Christoph Lungenschmied, Peter Fejes, Anke Handreck, Wilfried Hermes, Stephan Irle, Christian Lennartz, Christian Schildknecht, Peter Schillen, Patrick Schindler, Robert Send, Sebastian Valouch, Erwin Thiel, Ingmar Bruder
We present the Focus-Induced Photoresponse (FIP) technique, a novel approach to optical distance measurement. It takes advantage of a universally-observed phenomenon in photodetector devices, an irradiance-dependent responsivity. This means that the output from a sensor is not only dependent on the total flux of incident photons, but also on the size of the area in which they fall. If probe light from an object is cast on the detector through a lens, the sensor response depends on how far in or out of focus the object is...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lena Walenta, Nina Schmid, J U Schwarzer, Frank-Michael Köhn, Henryk Urbanski, Ruediger Behr, Leena Strauss, Matti Poutanen, Artur Mayerhofer
NLRP3 is part of the NLRP3 inflammasome and a global sensor of cellular damage. It was recently discovered in rodent Sertoli cells. We investigated NLRP3 in mouse, human and non-human primate (marmoset and rhesus macaque) testes, employing immunohistochemistry. Sertoli cells of all species expressed NLRP3, and the expression preceded puberty. In addition, peritubular cells of the adult human testes expressed NLRP3. NLRP3 and associated genes (ASC, CASP1, IL1B) were also found in isolated human testicular peritubular cells (HTPCs) and the mouse Sertoli cell line TM4...
June 15, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Shizuka Koh, Cynthia I Tung, Yasushi Inoue, Vishal Jhanji
The precorneal tear film is maintained by blinking and exhibits different phases in the tear cycle. The tear film serves as the most anterior surface of the eye and plays an important role as a first refractive component of the eye. Alterations in tear film dynamics may cause both vision-related and ocular surface-related symptoms. Although the optical quality associated with the tear film dynamics previously received little attention, objective measurements of optical quality using wavefront sensors have enabled us to quantify optical aberrations induced by the tear film...
June 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Ada Ng, Madhu Reddy, Alyson K Zalta, Stephen M Schueller
BACKGROUND: The increase in availability of patient data through consumer health wearable devices and mobile phone sensors provides opportunities for mental health treatment beyond traditional self-report measurements. Previous studies have suggested that wearables can be effectively used to benefit the physical health of people with mental health issues, but little research has explored the integration of wearable devices into mental health care. As such, early research is still necessary to address factors that might impact integration including patients' motivations to use wearables and their subsequent data...
June 15, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
Young-Ji Kim, Hong-Seok Kim, Jung-Whan Chon, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Ji-Yeon Hyeon, Kun-Ho Seo
Campylobacter is the most common cause of infectious intestinal disease, with nearly all cases caused by two species: C. jejuni and C. coli. We recently reported a gold nanoparticle-based two-stage aptasensing platform, which was improved in the present study for the rapid and on-site detection of both C. jejuni and C. coli in food samples. Compared to the previous platform, the improved platform yielded a more obvious colour change from red to purple due to the aggregation of gold nanoparticles, and does not require additional time or a pH optimization step for the aptamers to be adsorbed onto the gold nanoparticles...
October 31, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Yashuang Hei, Xiqian Li, Xiao Zhou, Jingju Liu, Mehboob Hassan, Siyi Zhang, Yu Yang, Xiangjie Bo, Hsing-Lin Wang, Ming Zhou
In this work, the three-dimensional nitrogen-doped nanostructured carbons with hierarchical architectures (3D-NNCsHAs) with high density of defective sites, high surface area and pluralities of pore size distributions was prepared through the pyrolysis of sea-tangle (Laminaria japonica), an inexpensive, eco-friendly and abundant precursor. Benefitting from their structural uniqueness, a selective and sensitive ascorbic acid (AA) sensor based on 3D-NNCsHAs was developed. Compared to the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and the carbon nanotubes modified GCE (CNTs/GCE), the 3D-NNCsHAs modified GCE (3D-NNCsHAs/GCE) presents higher performance towards the electrocatalysis and detection of AA, such as lower detection limit (1 μM), wider linear range (10-4410 μM) and lower electrooxidation peak potential (-0...
October 31, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Anna Banasiak, John Cassidy, John Colleran
To date, DNA cleavage, caused by cleavage agents, has been monitored mainly by gel and capillary electrophoresis. However, these techniques are time-consuming, non-quantitative and require gel stains. In this work, a novel, simple and, importantly, a quantitative method for monitoring the DNA nuclease activity of potential anti-cancer drugs, at a DNA electrochemical sensor, is presented. The DNA sensors were prepared using thiol-modified oligonucleotides that self-assembled to create a DNA monolayer at gold electrode surfaces...
June 1, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Simeone Zomer, Jun Zhang, Sameer Talwar, Sayantan Chattoraj, Christopher Hewitt
The pharmaceutical industry is undergoing a significant change in product development and manufacturing strategies with the progressive shift from batch to continuous processes. These typically feature vast volumes of data generated by the numerous sensors connected to several unit operations running over the period of several hours or even days and that demand the application of increasingly efficient tools for process understanding, monitoring and control. This paper describes the use of multivariate statistical process modeling by means of chemometric methods to monitor the continuous wet granulation tableting process for a drug product currently under development...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Maria Pujantell, Sandra Franco, Iván Galván-Femenía, Roger Badia, Marc Castellví, Edurne Garcia-Vidal, Bonaventura Clotet, Rafael de Cid, Cristina Tural, Miguel A Martínez, Eva Riveira-Muñoz, José A Esté, Ester Ballana
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a globally prevalent infectious pathogen. As many as 80% of people infected with HCV do not control the virus and develop a chronic infection. Response to interferon (IFN) therapy is widely variable in chronic HCV infected patients, suggesting that HCV has evolved mechanisms to suppress and evade innate immunity responsible for its control and elimination. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is a relevant factor in the regulation of the innate immune response. The loss of ADAR1 RNA-editing activity and the resulting loss of inosine bases in RNA are critical in producing aberrant RLR-mediated innate immune response, mediated by RNA sensors MDA5 and RIG-I...
June 12, 2018: Antiviral Research
Jitendra Kumar Tripathi, Atul Sharma, Pramod Sukumaran, Yuyang Sun, Bibhuti Bhusan Mishra, Brij Bhan Singh, Jyotika Sharma
Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation constitutes an important extracellular antimicrobial function of neutrophils that plays a protective role in bacterial pneumonia. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as highly diffusible hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) is a hallmark of oxidative stress during inflammatory lung conditions including pneumonia. However, the impact of exogenous ROS on NET formation and the signaling pathway involved in the process is not completely understood. Here we demonstrate that the ROS-sensing, nonselective, calcium-permeable channel transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is required for NET formation in response to exogenous H2 O2 ...
June 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Zdenka Jarolimova, Tingting Han, Ulriika Mattinen, Johan Bobacka, Eric Bakker
We present here a capacitive model for the coulometric signal transduction readout of solid-contact ion-selective membrane electrodes (SC-ISE) with a conducting polymer (CP) as an intermediate layer for the detection of anions. The capacitive model correlates well with experimental data obtained for chloride-selective SC-ISE utilizing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with chloride as the ion-to-electron transducer. Additionally, Prussian blue is used as a simple sodium capacitor to further demonstrate the role of the transduction layer...
June 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jan T Burri, Hannes Vogler, Nino F Läubli, Chengzhi Hu, Ueli Grossniklaus, Bradley J Nelson
Physical forces are involved in the regulation of plant development and morphogenesis by translating mechanical stress into the modification of physiological processes, which, in turn, can affect cellular growth. Pollen tubes respond rapidly to external stimuli and provide an ideal system to study the effect of mechanical cues at the single-cell level. Here, pollen tubes were exposed to mechanical stress while monitoring the reconfiguration of their growth and recording the generated forces in real-time. We combined a lab-on-a-chip device with a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based capacitive force sensor to mimic and quantify the forces that are involved in pollen tube navigation upon confronting mechanical obstacles...
June 15, 2018: New Phytologist
Mei-Wei Lin, Yen-Wen Tseng, Chih-Che Shen, Mu-Nung Hsu, Jih-Ru Hwu, Chin-Wei Chang, Chung-Ju Yeh, Min-Yuan Chou, Jaw-Ching Wu, Yu-Chen Hu
Baculovirus (BV) holds promise as a vector for anticancer gene delivery to combat the most common liver cancer-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, in vivo BV administration inevitably results in BV entry into non-HCC normal cells, leaky anticancer gene expression and possible toxicity. To improve the safety, we employed synthetic biology to engineer BV for transgene expression regulation. We first uncovered that miR-196a and miR-126 are exclusively expressed in HCC and normal cells, respectively, which allowed us to engineer a sensor based on distinct miRNA expression signature...
June 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Feng Xia Wang, Cui Ye, Shi Mo, Liu Li Liao, Xiao Fang Zhang, Yu Ling, Lu Lu, Hong Qun Luo, Nian Bing Li
The use of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as a biomarker in some diseases including hepatitis, obstructive jaundice, osteoblastic bone cancer, and osteomalacia is important in clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, ALP activity detection is an essential hot topic in environmental monitoring, biomedical research, and other research fields. In this study, a novel "signal-on" photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor based on the ALP-catalyzed phosphorylation reaction was designed to sensitively detect ALP activity...
June 15, 2018: Analyst
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