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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645038/when-attention-wanders-pupillometric-signatures-of-fluctuations-in-external-attention
#1
Mahiko Konishi, Kevin Brown, Luca Battaglini, Jonathan Smallwood
Attention is not always directed to events in the external environment. On occasion our thoughts wander to people and places distant from the here and now. Sometimes, this lack of external attention can compromise ongoing task performance. In the current study we set out to understand the extent to which states of internal and external attention can be determined using pupillometry as an index of ongoing cognition. In two experiments we found that periods of slow responding were associated with elevations in the baseline pupil signal over three and a half seconds prior to a behavioural response...
June 20, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645035/ctab-induced-hierarchical-bismuth-microspheres-for-visible-light-photocatalytic-study
#2
Fengnan Zhang, Yan Zhao, Yawen Li, Gongjuan Wu, Jingzhe Zhao
Nanosheet constructed bismuth microspheres were prepared through an aqueous reduction approach in the presence of CTAB molecules, with initial formed BiOCl as the precursor and hydrazine hydrate as the reductant. The flower-like morphology and platelet units of BiOCl precursor determined the evolution of hierarchical Bi microspheres through a morphology-heredity process. Trisodium citrate was introduced to keep the Bi microspheres from oxidation, the high purity in composition are beneficial to eliminate the influence of bismuth oxides...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645004/amplified-detection-of-hepatitis-b-virus-using-an-electrochemical-dna-biosensor-on-a-nanoporous-gold-platform
#3
Laleh Enayati Ahangar, Masoud A Mehrgardi
In the present study, a nanoporous gold platform was applied for the amplified detection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) by an electrochemical DNA biosensor. Ferrocene as a redox reporter was covalently attached to the DNA probe and its electrochemical signal was recorded as the biosensor response. For real samples, DNA was firstly extracted from blood of patients and then amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for 5cycles. Sensitivity of this biosensor was enhanced by using nanoporous gold electrode, therefore this sensor can discriminate the genome of HBV in real sample with low PCR cycles...
June 15, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644957/chemical-probes-for-visualizing-intact-animal-and-human-brain-tissue
#4
REVIEW
Hei Ming Lai, Wai-Lung Ng, Steve M Gentleman, Wutian Wu
Newly developed tissue clearing techniques can be used to render intact tissues transparent. When combined with fluorescent labeling technologies and optical sectioning microscopy, this allows visualization of fine structure in three dimensions. Gene-transfection techniques have proved very useful in visualizing cellular structures in animal models, but they are not applicable to human brain tissue. Here, we discuss the characteristics of an ideal chemical fluorescent probe for use in brain and other cleared tissues, and offer a comprehensive overview of currently available chemical probes...
June 22, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644951/principles-of-chemical-biology-from-sexy-fatty-acids-and-ebv-probes-to-anti-acid-antibiotic-via-post-biotics-and-host-microbe-metabolic-complementarity
#5
(no author information available yet)
This month: The role of fatty acids in sex determination; a probe to monitor and inhibit EBNA1 at the same time; a biological role for post-biotics; what happens when you mix microbes, hosts, and drugs; and an antibiotic that cross-protects with acid.
June 22, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644734/high-throughput-phenotypic-screening-of-kinase-inhibitors-to-identify-drug-targets-for-polycystic-kidney-disease
#6
Tijmen H Booij, Hester Bange, Wouter N Leonhard, Kuan Yan, Michiel Fokkelman, Steven J Kunnen, Johannes G Dauwerse, Yu Qin, Bob van de Water, Gerard J P van Westen, Dorien J M Peters, Leo S Price
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a prevalent disorder characterized by renal cysts that lead to kidney failure. Various signaling pathways have been targeted to stop disease progression, but most interventions still focus on alleviating PKD-associated symptoms. The mechanistic complexity of the disease, as well as the lack of functional in vitro assays for compound testing, has made drug discovery for PKD challenging. To identify modulators of PKD, Pkd1(-/-) kidney tubule epithelial cells were applied to a scalable and automated 3D cyst culture model for compound screening, followed by phenotypic profiling to determine compound efficacy...
June 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644670/effective-forces-between-quantum-bound-states
#7
Alexander Rokash, Evgeny Epelbaum, Hermann Krebs, Dean Lee
Recent ab initio lattice studies have found that the interactions between alpha particles (^{4}He nuclei) are sensitive to seemingly minor details of the nucleon-nucleon force, such as interaction locality. In order to uncover the essential physics of this puzzling phenomenon without unnecessary complications, we study a simple model involving two-component fermions in one spatial dimension. We probe the interaction between two bound dimers for several different particle-particle interactions and measure an effective potential between the dimers using external point potentials which act as numerical tweezers...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644659/remanent-magnetization-signature-of-many-body-localization-in-quantum-antiferromagnets
#8
V Ros, M Müller
We study the remanent magnetization in antiferromagnetic, many-body localized quantum spin chains, initialized in a fully magnetized state. Its long time limit is an order parameter for the localization transition, which is readily accessible by standard experimental probes in magnets. We analytically calculate its value in the strong-disorder regime exploiting the explicit construction of quasilocal conserved quantities of the localized phase. We discuss analogies in cold atomic systems.
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644642/probing-electron-phonon-interaction-through-two-photon-interference-in-resonantly-driven-semiconductor-quantum-dots
#9
Antoine Reigue, Jake Iles-Smith, Fabian Lux, Léonard Monniello, Mathieu Bernard, Florent Margaillan, Aristide Lemaitre, Anthony Martinez, Dara P S McCutcheon, Jesper Mørk, Richard Hostein, Valia Voliotis
We investigate the temperature dependence of photon coherence properties through two-photon interference (TPI) measurements from a single quantum dot (QD) under resonant excitation. We show that the loss of indistinguishability is related only to the electron-phonon coupling and is not affected by spectral diffusion. Through these measurements and a complementary microscopic theory, we identify two independent separate decoherence processes, both of which are associated with phonons. Below 10 K, we find that the relaxation of the vibrational lattice is the dominant contribution to the loss of TPI visibility...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644641/emergent-weyl-fermion-excitations-in-tap-explored-by-181-ta-quadrupole-resonance
#10
H Yasuoka, T Kubo, Y Kishimoto, D Kasinathan, M Schmidt, B Yan, Y Zhang, H Tou, C Felser, A P Mackenzie, M Baenitz
The ^{181}Ta quadrupole resonance [nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR)] technique is utilized to investigate the microscopic magnetic properties of the Weyl semimetal TaP. We find three zero-field NQR signals associated with the transition between the quadrupole split levels for Ta with I=7/2 nuclear spin. A quadrupole coupling constant, ν_{Q}=19.250  MHz, and an asymmetric parameter of the electric field gradient, η=0.423, are extracted, in good agreement with band structure calculations. In order to examine the magnetic excitations, the temperature dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T_{1}T) is measured for the f_{2} line (±5/2↔±3/2 transition)...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644638/ferroelectric-domain-patterning-controlled-schottky-junction-state-in-monolayer-mos_-2
#11
Zhiyong Xiao, Jingfeng Song, David K Ferry, Stephen Ducharme, Xia Hong
We exploit scanning-probe-controlled domain patterning in a ferroelectric top layer to induce nonvolatile modulation of the conduction characteristic of monolayer MoS_{2} between a transistor and a junction state. In the presence of a domain wall, MoS_{2} exhibits rectified I-V characteristics that are well described by the thermionic emission model. The induced Schottky barrier height Φ_{B}^{eff} varies from 0.38 to 0.57 eV and is tunable by a SiO_{2} global back gate, while the tuning range of Φ_{B}^{eff} depends sensitively on the conduction-band-tail trapping states...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644626/2d-h-bond-network-as-the-topmost-skin-to-the-air-water-interface
#12
Simone Pezzotti, Daria Ruth Galimberti, Marie-Pierre Gaigeot
We provide a detailed description of the structure of water at the interface with the air (liquid-vapor LV interface) from state-of-the-art DFT-based molecular dynamics simulations. For the first time, a two-dimensional (2D) H-bond extended network has been identified and fully characterized, demonstrating that interfacial water is organized into a 2D sheet with H-bonds oriented parallel to the instantaneous surface and following its spatial and temporal oscillations. By analyzing the nonlinear vSFG (vibrational sum frequency generation) spectrum of the LV interface in terms of layer-by-layer signal, we demonstrate that the 2D water sheet is solely responsible for the spectral signatures, hence providing the interfacial 3...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644485/probing-the-early-stages-of-photoreception-in-photoactive-yellow-protein-with-ultrafast-time-domain-raman-spectroscopy
#13
Hikaru Kuramochi, Satoshi Takeuchi, Kento Yonezawa, Hironari Kamikubo, Mikio Kataoka, Tahei Tahara
Unveiling the nuclear motions of photoreceptor proteins in action is a crucial goal in protein science in order to understand their elaborate mechanisms and how they achieve optimal selectivity and efficiency. Previous studies have provided detailed information on the structures of intermediates that appear during the later stages (>ns) of such photoreception cycles, yet the initial events immediately after photoabsorption remain unclear because of experimental challenges in monitoring nuclear rearrangements on ultrafast timescales, including protein-specific low-frequency motions...
July 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644423/probing-the-interaction-of-dielectric-nanoparticles-with-supported-lipid-membrane-coatings-on-nanoplasmonic-arrays
#14
Abdul Rahim Ferhan, Gamaliel Junren Ma, Joshua A Jackman, Tun Naw Sut, Jae Hyeon Park, Nam-Joon Cho
The integration of supported lipid membranes with surface-based nanoplasmonic arrays provides a powerful sensing approach to investigate biointerfacial phenomena at membrane interfaces. While a growing number of lipid vesicles, protein, and nucleic acid systems have been explored with nanoplasmonic sensors, there has been only very limited investigation of the interactions between solution-phase nanomaterials and supported lipid membranes. Herein, we established a surface-based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensing platform for probing the interaction of dielectric nanoparticles with supported lipid bilayer (SLB)-coated, plasmonic nanodisk arrays...
June 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644347/age-and-sex-normalization-of-intestinal-permeability-measures-for-the-improved-assessment-of-enteropathy-in-infancy-and-early-childhood-results-from-the-mal-ed-study
#15
Margaret N Kosek, Gwenyth O Lee, Richard L Guerrant, Rashidul Haque, Gagandeep Kang, Tahmeed Ahmed, Pascal Bessong, Asad Ali, Estomih Mduma, Pablo Peñataro Yori, William A Faubion, Aldo A M Lima, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Carl Mason, Sudhir Babji, Ravinder Singh, Shahida Qureshi, Peter S Kosek, Amidou Samie, John Pascal, Sanjaya Shrestha, Benjamin J J McCormick, Jessica C Seidman, Dennis R Lang, Anita Zaidi, Laura E Caulfield, Michael Gottlieb
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to describe changes in intestinal permeability in early childhood in diverse epidemiologic settings. METHODS: In a birth cohort study, the lactulose:mannitol (L:M) test was administered to 1980 children at 4 time points in the first 24 months of life in 8 countries. Data from the Brazil site with an incidence of diarrhea similar to that seen in the United States and no growth faltering was used as an internal study reference to derive age- and sex-specific z scores for mannitol and lactulose recoveries and the L:M ratio...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644108/comparison-of-periodontal-parameters-and-self-perceived-oral-symptoms-among-cigarette-smokers-individuals-vaping-electronic-cigarettes-and-never-smokers-a-pilot-study
#16
Fawad Javed, Tariq Abduljabbar, Fahim Vohra, Hans Malmstrom, Irfan Rahman, Georgios E Romanos
BACKGROUND: There are no studies that have compared periodontal parameters and self-perceived oral symptoms (OS) among cigarette smokers (Group-1), individuals exclusively vaping electronic cigarettes (Group-2) and never-smokers (Group-3). The aim was to assess the periodontal parameters and self-perceived OS among vaping individuals, CS and NS. METHODS: Demographic data, self-perceived OS and duration and daily frequency of vaping and smoking were gathered using a questionnaire...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644107/gingival-perfusion-and-tissue-biomarkers-during-early-healing-of-post-extraction-regenerative-procedures-a-prospective-case-series
#17
Lamees Alssum, Timothy D Eubank, Sashwati Roy, Barbaros S Erdal, Vedat O Yildiz, Dimitris N Tatakis, Binnaz Leblebicioglu
BACKGROUND: Post-extraction alveolar bone loss, mostly affecting the buccal plate, occurs despite regenerative procedures. To better understand possible determinants, this prospective case series assessed gingival blood perfusion and tissue molecular responses in relation to post-extraction regenerative outcomes. METHODS: Adults scheduled to receive bone grafting in maxillary, non-molar, single tooth extraction site were recruited. Clinical documentation included probing pocket depth (PD), keratinized tissue width (KT), tissue biotype (TB), plaque (P) and bleeding...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644025/a-mitochondria-targeted-cryptocyanine-based-photothermogenic-photosensitizer
#18
Hyo Sung Jung, Jae Hong Lee, Kyutae Kim, Seyoung Koo, Peter Verwilst, Jonathan L Sessler, Chulhun Kang, Jong Seung Kim
Cryptocyanine-based probes exhibit highly efficient photothermal conversion and represent a new class of photothermal agents for use in photothermal therapy (PTT). With the thermal susceptibility of mitochondria in mind, we have prepared a mitochondria-targeted, NIR-absorbing cryptocyanine probe (Mito-CCy) and evaluated its photophysical properties, photothermal conversion efficiency, biological compatibility, cytotoxicity, and mitochondrial localization in HeLa cells. Upon subjecting 0.5 mL of a PBS buffer solution (10 mM, pH 7...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644007/cyclotides-as-tools-in-chemical-biology
#19
Simon J de Veer, Joachim Weidmann, David J Craik
Among the various molecules that plants produce for defense against pests and pathogens, cyclotides stand out as exceptionally stable and structurally unique. These ribosomally synthesized peptides are around 30 amino acids in size, and are stabilized by a head-to-tail cyclic peptide backbone and three disulfide bonds that form a cystine knot. They occur in certain plants of the Rubiaceae, Violaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, and Solanaceae families, with an individual plant producing up to hundreds of different cyclotides...
June 23, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643771/dynamics-of-valence-shell-electrons-and-nuclei-probed-by-strong-field-holography-and-rescattering
#20
Samuel G Walt, Niraghatam Bhargava Ram, Marcos Atala, Nikolay I Shvetsov-Shilovski, Aaron von Conta, Denitsa Baykusheva, Manfred Lein, Hans Jakob Wörner
Strong-field photoelectron holography and laser-induced electron diffraction (LIED) are two powerful emerging methods for probing the ultrafast dynamics of molecules. However, both of them have remained restricted to static systems and to nuclear dynamics induced by strong-field ionization. Here we extend these promising methods to image purely electronic valence-shell dynamics in molecules using photoelectron holography. In the same experiment, we use LIED and photoelectron holography simultaneously, to observe coupled electronic-rotational dynamics taking place on similar timescales...
June 15, 2017: Nature Communications
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