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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347131/preclinical-in-vivo-cancer-straightway-to-patients
#1
Marion de Jong, Stephen Mather, Theodosia Maina
Detection of useful cellular targets has strongly stimulated personalized tumor-targeted imaging and therapy approaches, also involving synthesis and evaluation of nuclear imaging probes with potential for clinical applications. Reviews of preclinical and translational studies concerning such probes, including radiolabeled antibodies, nanobodies, affibodies, peptides, small molecule inhibitors, and nanoparticles, are presented in this issue. As most tracers described in these articles have been developed for the field of cancer imaging and radionuclide therapy, the current article on preclinical studies will focus on cancer research as well...
June 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346826/imaging-successive-intermediate-states-of-the-on-surface-ullmann-reaction-on-cu-111-role-of-the-metal-coordination
#2
Sören Zint, Daniel Ebeling, Tobias Schlöder, Sebastian Ahles, Doreen Mollenhauer, Hermann A Wegner, Andre Schirmeisen
The in-depth knowledge about on-surface reaction mechanisms is crucial for the tailor-made design of covalently bonded organic frameworks, for applications such as nanoelectronic or -optical devices. Latest developments in atomic force microscopy, which rely on functionalizing the tip with single CO molecules at low temperatures allow to image molecular systems with submolecular resolution. Here, we are using this technique to study the complete reaction pathway of the on-surface Ullmann-type coupling between bromotriphenylene molecules on a Cu(111) surface...
March 27, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346776/proton-exchange-in-a-paramagnetic-chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer-agent-from-experimental-studies-and-ab-initio-metadynamics-simulation
#3
Rodolphe Pollet, Célia S Bonnet, Pascal Retailleau, Philippe Durand, Éva Tóth
The proton-exchange process between water and a carbamate has been studied experimentally and theoretically in a lanthanide-based paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer agent endowed with potential multimodality detection capabilities (optical imaging, or T1 MRI for the Gd(III) analogue). In addition to an in-depth structural analysis by a combined approach (using X-ray crystallography, NMR, and molecular dynamics), our ab initio simulation in aqueous solution sheds light on the reaction mechanism for this proton exchange, which involves structural Grotthuss diffusion...
March 27, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345879/vibrational-probes-from-small-molecule-solvatochromism-theory-and-experiments-to-applications-in-complex-systems
#4
Bartosz Błasiak, Casey H Londergan, Lauren J Webb, Minhaeng Cho
The vibrational frequency of a chosen normal mode is one of the most accurately measurable spectroscopic properties of molecules in condensed phases. Accordingly, infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopy have provided valuable information on both distributions and ensemble-average values of molecular vibrational frequencies, and these frequencies are now routinely used to investigate structure, conformation, and even absolute configuration of chemical and biological molecules of interest. Recent advancements in coherent time-domain nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy have allowed the study of heterogeneous distributions of local structures and thermally driven ultrafast fluctuations of vibrational frequencies...
March 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345878/multispectral-optical-tweezers-for-biochemical-fingerprinting-of-cd9-positive-exosome-subpopulations
#5
Randy P Carney, Sidhartha Hazari, Macalistair Colquhoun, Di Tran, Billanna Hwang, Michael S Mulligan, James D Bryers, Eugenia Girda, Gary S Leiserowitz, Zachary James Smith, Kit S Lam
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, are circulating nanoscale particles heavily implicated in cell signaling, and can be isolated in vast numbers from human biofluids. Study of their molecular profiling and materials properties is currently underway for purposes of describing a variety of biological functions and diseases. However, the large, and as yet unquantified, variety of EV subpopulations differing in composition, size, and likely function, necessitates characterization schemes capable of measuring single vesicles...
March 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345690/expedient-synthesis-of-a-phenanthro-imidazo-pyridine-fused-heteropolynuclear-framework-via-cdc-coupling-a-new-class-of-luminophores
#6
Biswadip Banerji, Satadru Chatterjee, K Chandrasekhar, Suvankar Bera, Leena Majumder, Chandraday Prodhan, Keya Chaudhuri
We herein report the design and synthesis of a group of fused phenanthro-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivatives as a new class of luminescent materials through a Pd(ii) catalyzed intramolecular CDC (cross dehydrogenative coupling) reaction. This method thus unlocked a convenient & expedient way for the synthesis of a new molecular framework containing π-extended fused heteropolycycles. The heteropolycycles showed very good fluorescence properties both in solid and solution phases which were further utilized in live cell imaging...
March 27, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345597/post-traumatic-osteoarthritis-in-mice-following-mechanical-injury-to-the-synovial-joint
#7
Muhammad Farooq Rai, Xin Duan, James D Quirk, Nilsson Holguin, Eric J Schmidt, Nobuaki Chinzei, Matthew J Silva, Linda J Sandell
We investigated the spectrum of lesions characteristic of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) across the knee joint in response to mechanical injury. We hypothesized that alteration in knee joint stability in mice reproduces molecular and structural features of PTOA that would suggest potential therapeutic targets in humans. The right knees of eight-week old male mice from two recombinant inbred lines (LGXSM-6 and LGXSM-33) were subjected to axial tibial compression. Three separate loading magnitudes were applied: 6N, 9N, and 12N...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345062/secondary-structure-propensity-and-chirality-of-the-amyloidophilic-peptide-p5-and-its-analogues-impacts-ligand-binding-in-vitro-characterization
#8
Jonathan S Wall, Angela Williams, Craig Wooliver, Emily B Martin, Xiaolin Cheng, R Eric Heidel, Stephen J Kennel
BACKGROUND: Polybasic helical peptides, such as peptide p5, bind human amyloid extracts and synthetic amyloid fibrils. When radiolabeled, peptide p5 has been shown to specifically bind amyloid in vivo thereby allowing imaging of the disease. Structural requirements for heparin and amyloid binding have been studied using analogs of p5 that modify helicity and chirality. METHODS: Peptide-ligand interactions were studied using CD spectroscopy and solution-phase binding assays with radiolabeled p5 analogs...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344749/heavily-calcified-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-pathophysiology-and-implications-of-a-rare-clinicopathologic-entity
#9
Massimiliano Salati, Giulia Orsi, Luca Reggiani Bonetti, Fabrizio Di Benedetto, Giuseppe Longo, Stefano Cascinu
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, and are characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical, histological and molecular features at presentation. Although focal and scattered calcifications are not uncommon within the primary tumor mass, heavy calcification within a GIST is rarely described in the literature and the clinical-biological meaning of this feature remains unclear. Cases with such an atypical presentation are challenging and may be associated with diagnostic pitfalls...
March 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344489/utilization-of-gel-electrophoreses-for-the-quantitative-estimation-of-digestive-enzyme-papain
#10
Magdy M Muharram, Maged S Abdel-Kader
SDS-PAGE densitometric method for analysis of papain in pharmaceutical formulations was developed and validated for the first time. Standard and samples were mixed with SDS sample buffer and denatured at 95 °C for 5 min and the gel was run at 20 mA and 200 V for 30-40 min in SDS-PAGE buffer. Gels were stained in Coomassie blue solution and distained by 5% methanol and 10% acetic acid. Destained gels were imaged and analyzed using the ChemiDoc™ XRS+ System. Bands of papain appeared at Rf value 0.78 ± 0...
March 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343392/pharmacokinetic-and-biodistribution-studies-of-hpma-copolymer-conjugates-in-an-aseptic-implant-loosening-mouse-model
#11
Xin Wei, Fei Li, Gang Zhao, Yashpal Singh S Chhonker, Christine Elise Averill, Josselyn Galdamez, P Edward Purdue, Xiaoyan Wang, Edward V Fehringer, Kevin L Garvin, Steven R Goldring, Yazen Alnouti, Dong Wang
N-(2-Hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers were previously found to represent a versatile delivery platform for the early detection and intervention of orthopedic implant loosening. In this manuscript, we evaluated the impact of different structural parameters of the HPMA copolymeric system (e.g. molecular weight (MW), drug content) to its pharmacokinetics and biodistribution (PK/BD) profile. Using 125I, Alexa Fluor® 488 and IRDye® 800 CW-labeled HPMA copolymer-dexamethasone (P-Dex) conjugates with different MW and dexamethasone (Dex) contents, we found the MW to be the predominant impact factor on the PK/BD profiles of P-Dex, with Dex content as a secondary impact factor...
March 25, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343380/ratiometric-visualization-of-no-h2s-cross-talk-in-living-cells-and-tissues-using-a-nitroxyl-responsive-two-photon-fluorescence-probe
#12
Yibo Zhou, Xiufang Zhang, Sheng Yang, Yuan Li, Zhihe Qing, Jing Zheng, Jishan Li, Ronghua Yang
It is of scientific significance to explore the intricate relationship between two crucial gasotransmitters nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), because they exert similar and interdependent biological actions within the living organisms. Nevertheless, visualization of the NO/H2S crosstalk using effective molecular imaging tools remains challenging. To address this issue, and given that nitroxyl (HNO) has been implicated as the interdependent production of NO and H2S via a network of cascading chemical reactions, we herein design a ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe for HNO, termed TP-Rho-HNO, which consists of benzo[h]chromene-rhodol scaffold as two-photon energy transfer cassette with phosphine moiety as specific HNO recognition unit...
March 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342763/serotonin-and-neuroplasticity-links-between-molecular-functional-and-structural-pathophysiology-in-depression
#13
REVIEW
Christoph Kraus, Eero Castrén, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Serotonin modulates neuroplasticity, especially during early life, and dysfunctions in both systems likewise contribute to pathophysiology of depression. Recent findings demonstrate that serotonin reuptake inhibitors trigger reactivation of juvenile-like neuroplasticity. How these findings translate to clinical antidepressant treatment in major depressive disorder remains unclear. With this review, we link preclinical with clinical work on serotonin and neuroplasticity to bring two pathophysiologic models in clinical depression closer together...
March 22, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342718/noisy-response-to-antibiotic-stress-predicts-subsequent-single-cell-survival-in-an-acidic-environment
#14
Karin Mitosch, Georg Rieckh, Tobias Bollenbach
Antibiotics elicit drastic changes in microbial gene expression, including the induction of stress response genes. While certain stress responses are known to "cross-protect" bacteria from other stressors, it is unclear whether cellular responses to antibiotics have a similar protective role. By measuring the genome-wide transcriptional response dynamics of Escherichia coli to four antibiotics, we found that trimethoprim induces a rapid acid stress response that protects bacteria from subsequent exposure to acid...
March 21, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341401/discovery-of-2-aminophenyl-methanol-as-a-new-molecular-chaperone-that-rescues-the-localization-of-p123s-mutant-pendrin-stably-expressed-in-hek293-cells
#15
Wataru Nabeyama, Kenji Ishihara, Hyun Seung Ban, Hiroshi Wada, Hiroyuki Nakamura
Pendred syndrome is the most common form of syndromic deafness. It is associated with a mutation in the SLC26A4 gene that encodes pendrin, which is thought to maintain the ion concentration of endolymph in the inner ear most likely by acting as a chloride/bicarbonate transporter. Mutations in the SLC26A4 gene are responsible for sensorineural hearing loss. In this study, we established a stable HEK293 cell line expressing P123S mutant pendrin and developed screening methods for compounds that show pharmacological chaperone activity by image analysis using CellInsight™...
March 14, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340341/tridimensional-visualization-and-analysis-of-early-human-development
#16
Morgane Belle, David Godefroy, Gérard Couly, Samuel A Malone, Francis Collier, Paolo Giacobini, Alain Chédotal
Generating a precise cellular and molecular cartography of the human embryo is essential to our understanding of the mechanisms of organogenesis in normal and pathological conditions. Here, we have combined whole-mount immunostaining, 3DISCO clearing, and light-sheet imaging to start building a 3D cellular map of the human development during the first trimester of gestation. We provide high-resolution 3D images of the developing peripheral nervous, muscular, vascular, cardiopulmonary, and urogenital systems...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339791/bridg-a-domain-information-model-for-translational-and-clinical-protocol-driven-research
#17
Lauren B Becnel, Smita Hastak, Wendy Ver Hoef, Robert P Milius, MaryAnn Slack, Diane Wold, Michael L Glickman, Boris Brodsky, Charles Jaffe, Rebecca Kush, Edward Helton
Background: It is critical to integrate and analyze data from biological, translational, and clinical studies with data from health systems; however, electronic artifacts are stored in thousands of disparate systems that are often unable to readily exchange data. Objective: To facilitate meaningful data exchange, a model that presents a common understanding of biomedical research concepts and their relationships with health care semantics is required. The Biomedical Research Integrated Domain Group (BRIDG) domain information model fulfills this need...
February 26, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339588/mri-features-predict-survival-and-molecular-markers-in-diffuse-lower-grade-gliomas
#18
Hao Zhou, Martin Vallières, Harrison X Bai, Chang Su, Haiyun Tang, Derek Oldridge, Zishu Zhang, Bo Xiao, Weihua Liao, Yongguang Tao, Jianhua Zhou, Paul Zhang, Li Yang
Background.: Previous studies have shown that MR imaging features can be used to predict survival and molecular profile of glioblastoma. However, no study of a similar type has been performed on lower-grade gliomas (LGGs). Methods.: Presurgical MRIs of 165 patients with diffuse low- and intermediate-grade gliomas (histological grades II and III) were scored according to the Visually Accessible Rembrandt Images (VASARI) annotations. Radiomic models using automated texture analysis and VASARI features were built to predict isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation, 1p/19q codeletion status, histological grade, and tumor progression...
January 24, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339120/accessing-structurally-diverse-near-infrared-cyanine-dyes-for-folate-receptor-targeted-cancer-cell-staining
#19
Sandra G König, Roland Krämer
Folate receptor (FR) targeting is one of the most promising strategies for the development of small-molecule based cancer imaging agents since the FR is highly overexpressed on the surface of many cancer cell types. FR-targeted conjugates of NIR emissive cyanine dyes are in advanced clinical trials for fluorescence-guided surgery and are valuable research tools for optical molecular imaging in animal models. Only a small number of promising conjugates has been evaluated so far. Analysis of structure-performance relations to identify critical factors modulating the performance of targeted conjugates is essential for successful further optimization...
March 24, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338958/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-antimicrobial-peptides-from-skin-of-hylarana-guentheri
#20
Zhu Dong, Wenjie Luo, Hengren Zhong, Manchuriga Wang, Yanting Song, Shiming Deng, Yingxia Zhang
The cDNAs encoding antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the skin of Hylarana guentheri were identified, namely temporin (five peptides, termed temporin-GHa-GHd and temporin-GUa), brevinin-1 (one peptide, brevinin-1GUb), and brevinin-2 (eight peptides, brevinin-2GHd-2GHj, and brevinin-2GHb). Eleven of the 14 peptides have novel primary structures. Synthesized temporin GHa-GHd have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), as well as fungus (Candida albicans)...
March 18, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
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