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Molecular imaging

Beibei Hu, Wei Sun, Haiting Li, Helin Sui, Sanming Li
Thermogels, used as multi-functional drug-loading materials, have properties that mainly rely on their gelator structure. Although a large variety of organogel systems are used as drug delivery carriers, relatively few have been investigated in terms of their structure-property correlations based on amino acid derivative gelators. Here, a series of amino acid based gelators were synthesized to explore the role of the gelator structure on functional properties, with the aim of establishing a connection between the molecular parameters and gel properties...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Valentina Di Liberto, R Maarten van Dijk, Matthias Brendel, Ann-Marie Waldron, Christina Möller, Ines Koska, Isabel Seiffert, Fabio Gualtieri, Franz Josef Gildehaus, Barbara von Ungern-Sternberg, Magdalena Lindner, Sibylle Ziegler, Rupert Palme, Rainer Hellweg, Peter Gass, Peter Bartenstein, Heidrun Potschka
Psychiatric comorbidities are prevalent in patients with epilepsy and greatly contribute to the overall burden of disease. The availability of reliable biomarkers to diagnose epilepsy-associated comorbidities would allow for effective treatment and improved disease management. Due to their non-invasive nature, molecular imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) are ideal tools to measure pathologic changes. In the current study we investigated the potential of [18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([18 F]FDG) and 2'-methoxyphenyl-(N-2'-pyridinyl)-p-18 F-fluoro-benzamidoethylpiperazine ([18 F]MPPF) as imaging correlates of neurobehavioral comorbidities in the pilocarpine rat model of epilepsy...
June 19, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Patrick H Kee, Delia Danila
Management of patients suffering from myocardial infarction (MI) is based on the extent of coronary artery disease and myocardial scar burden. We have developed a potentially clinically-useful X-ray molecular imaging contrast agent based on gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) functionalized with collagen-binding adhesion protein 35 (CNA35) with the capabilities of achieving prolonged blood pool enhancement for vascular imaging of the coronary arteries and specific targeting of collagen within myocardial scar. At a concentration of ~ 45mg Au/ml, AuNPs maintained a stable blood pool enhancement at 142-160 HU within an hour of intravenous administration...
June 19, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Dan Yang, Sen Ye, Jun Jacob Hu
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been recognized as one of the most significant ROS (reactive oxygen species) in human health and disease. Due to the intrinsic attributes of H2O2 such as low reactivity under physiological pH, it is exceedingly challenging to develop small molecule fluorescent probes with high selectivity and sensitivity to visualize H2O2 in intricate biological milieux. To address this gap, we report a rationally designed tandem Payne/Dakin reaction that is specific to molecular recognition of H2O2, and demonstrate its application in developing novel biocompatible fluorescent probes...
June 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Andrés R Pérez-Riera, Raimundo Barbosa-Barros, Marianne P C de Rezende Barbosa, Rodrigo Daminello-Raimundo, Luiz C de Abreu, Kjell Nikus
In left bundle branch block (LBBB), the ventricles are activated in a sequential manner with alterations in left ventricular mechanics, perfusion, and workload resulting in cardiac remodeling. Underlying molecular, cellular, and interstitial changes manifest clinically as changes in size, mass, geometry, and function of the heart. Cardiac remodeling is associated with progressive ventricular dysfunction, arrhythmias, and impaired prognosis. Clinical and diagnostic notions about LBBB have evolved from a simple electrocardiographic alteration to a critically important finding affecting diagnostic and clinical management of many patients...
June 22, 2018: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
F Berthias, L Feketeová, H Abdoul-Carime, F Calvo, B Farizon, M Farizon, T D Märk
Velocity distributions of neutral water molecules evaporated after collision induced dissociation of protonated water clusters H+(H2O)n≤10 were measured using the combined correlated ion and neutral fragment time-of-flight (COINTOF) and velocity map imaging (VMI) techniques. As observed previously, all measured velocity distributions exhibit two contributions, with a low velocity part identified by statistical molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations as events obeying the Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics and a high velocity contribution corresponding to non-ergodic events in which energy redistribution is incomplete...
June 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Thomas Pfeiffer, Stefanie Poll, Stephane Bancelin, Julie Angibaud, Vvg Krishna Inavalli, Kevin Keppler, Manuel Mittag, Martin Fuhrmann, U Valentin Nägerl
Rewiring neural circuits by the formation and elimination of synapses is thought to be a key cellular mechanism of learning and memory in the mammalian brain. Dendritic spines are the postsynaptic structural component of excitatory synapses, and their experience-dependent plasticity has been extensively studied in mouse superficial cortex using two-photon microscopy in vivo. By contrast, very little is known about spine plasticity in the hippocampus, which is the archetypical memory center of the brain, mostly because it is difficult to visualize dendritic spines in this deeply embedded structure with sufficient spatial resolution...
June 22, 2018: ELife
Negar Sadeghipour, Scott C Davis, Kenneth M Tichauer
Paired-agent kinetic modeling protocols provide one means of estimating cancer cell-surface receptors with in vivo molecular imaging. The protocols employ the coadministration of a control imaging agent with one or more targeted imaging agent to account for the nonspecific uptake and retention of the targeted agent. These methods require the targeted and control agent data be converted to equivalent units of concentration, typically requiring specialized equipment and calibration, and/or complex algorithms that raise the barrier to adoption...
June 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
E Baria, G Nesi, R Santi, V Maio, D Massi, C Pratesi, R Cicchi, F S Pavone
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of heart disease, and it's caused by atherosclerosis. In fact, an arterial wall lesion centered on the accumulation of cholesterol-rich lipids and the accompanying inflammatory response generates a plaque, whose rupture may result in a thrombus with fatal consequences. Plaque characterization for assessing the severity of atherosclerosis is generally performed through standard histopathological examination based on haematoxylin/eosin (H&E) staining, which is operator-dependent and requires relatively long procedures...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Jie Tao, Feng Jiang, Cheng Liu, Zhirui Liu, Yudan Zhu, Jian Xu, Yiqin Ge, Kan Xu, Peihao Yin
Chan-su (toad venom) has been used as an analgesic agent in China from ancient to modern times. Bufalin, a non-peptide toxin extracted from toad venom, is considered as one of the analgesic components. The molecular mechanism underlying the anti-nociceptive effects of bufalin remains unclear so far. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological effects of bufalin on pain-related ion channels as well as animal models through patch clamping, calcium imaging and animal behavior observation. Using the whole-cell recording, bufalin caused remarkable suppressive effect on the peak currents of Nav channels (voltage gated sodium channels, VGSCs) of dorsal root ganglion neuroblastomas (ND7-23 cell) in a dose-dependent manner...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Huan-Cheng Zeng, Jia-Lin Hu, Jing-Wen Bai, Guo-Jun Zhang
Optical molecular imaging, a highly sensitive and noninvasive technique which is simple to operate, inexpensive, and has the real-time capability, is increasingly being used in the diagnosis and treatment of carcinomas. The near-infrared fluorescence dye indocyanine green (ICG) is widely used in optical imaging for the dynamic detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in real time improving the detection rate and accuracy. ICG has the advantages of low scattering in tissue absorbance, low auto-fluorescence, and high signal-to-background ratio...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Holly R Brooker, Irene A Gyamfi, Agnieszka Wieckowska, Nicholas J Brooks, Daniel P Mulvihill, Michael A Geeves
Life is dependent upon the ability of a cell to rapidly respond to changes in environment. Small perturbations in local environments change the ability of molecules to interact and hence communicate. Hydrostatic pressure provides a rapid non-invasive, fully-reversible method for modulating affinities between molecules both in vivo and in vitro We have developed a simple fluorescence imaging chamber that allows intracellular protein dynamics and molecular events to be followed at pressures up to 200 bar in living cells...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Ali Bani-Fatemi, Samia Tasmim, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Philip Gerretsen, John Strauss, Nathan Kolla, Gianfranco Spalletta, Vincenzo De Luca
Brain imaging is a non-invasive and in vivo direct estimation of detailed brain structure, regional brain functioning and estimation of molecular processes in the brain. The main objective of this review was to analyze functional and structural neuroimaging studies of individuals at risk for suicide. We reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2018, indexed in PubMed and Medline, assessing structural and functional alterations of the brain of individuals at high risk for suicide and at low risk for suicide...
May 18, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
Nilantha Bandara, Tamila J Stott Reynolds, Rebecca Schehr, Rajendra P Bandari, Philipp J Diebolder, Stephanie Krieger, Jingli Xu, Yubin Miao, Buck E Rogers, Charles J Smith
INTRODUCTION: In this study, we describe development of a true matched-pair theranostic agent that is able to target the αV β3 integrin and the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR). We herein describe methods to metallate and characterize the new conjugate and to validate its biological efficacy by in vitro and in vivo methods. METHODS: We have previously described the development of [RGD-Glu-6Ahx-RM2] (where RGD: Arg-Gly-Asp; Glu: glutamic acid; 6-Ahx: 6-amino hexanoic acid; RM2: (D-Phe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Sta-Leu-NH2)) that has been conjugated to a DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) bifunctional chelating agent (BFCA) to afford [RGD-Glu-[DO3A]-6-Ahx-RM2] peptide...
June 8, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Abdel-Naser A Zohri, Mohamed Abdelazim, Sara Ibrahim
3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) reducing sugar assay is the most convenient method for quantification of total reducing sugar in biomass hydrolysate, fermentation samples, sugar industry and biotechnology laboratories. The dimeric proton transfer salt 2-aminoethanaminium 2-(ethoxycarbonyl)-4,6-dinitrophenolate (AED) is an intensely colored derivative of DNS and in turn its reduced form intense color showed a superior properties in reducing sugar quantification eliminating phenol and rochelle salt additives using the same practical methodology of DNS giving an overall methodology advantageous than using DNS assay as a greener route...
2018: MethodsX
Xinrui Huang, Sha Li, Song Gao
Cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) imaging has the unique potential to bridge the gap between cellular and molecular biology by revealing the structures of large macromolecular assemblies and cellular complexes. Therefore, cryo-EM three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction has been rapidly developed in recent several years and applied widely in life science research; however, it suffers from reduced contrast and low signal-to-noise ratios with a high degree of noise under low electron dose conditions, resulting in failures of many conventional filters...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
Christian Schwechheimer, Larissa Doll, Hans-Achim Wagenknecht
Fluorescence molecular imaging is widely used to visualize and observe different biomolecules, in particular DNA and RNA, in vivo and in real time. Typically, DNA strands are tagged with only one fluorophore, and, in the case of molecular beacons, an additional quencher is conjugated, which bears the risk of false-positive or false-negative results because only fluorescence intensities at one fluorescence wavelength (color) are compared. To address this drawback, the concept of "DNA/RNA traffic lights," which is characterized by a fluorescence color change due to energy transfer between two dyes, was developed by our working group...
March 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Mongkol Pongsuchart, Takahiro Kuchimaru, Sakiko Yonezawa, Diem Thi Phuong Tran, Nguyen The Kha, Ngoc Thi Hong Hoang, Tetsuya Kadonosono, Shinae Kizaka-Kondoh
Lung metastasis is a major cause of mortality in patients with osteosarcoma (OS). A better understanding of the molecular mechanism of OS lung metastasis may facilitate development of new therapeutic strategies to prevent the metastasis. We have established high- and low-metastatic sublines (LM8-H and LM8-L respectively) from Dunn OS cell line LM8 by using in vivo image-guided screening. Among the genes whose expression was significantly increased in LM8-H compared to LM8-L, the transcription factor lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1) was identified as a factor that promotes LM8-H cell extravasation into the lungs...
June 21, 2018: Cancer Science
Lachlan A Jolly, Ying Sun, Renée Carroll, Claire C Homan, Jozef Gecz
Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) have been by far the most prevalent cell type used to study the genetics underlying normal and disease-relevant human phenotypic variation, across personal to epidemiological scales. In contrast, only few studies have explored the use of LCLs in functional genomics and mechanistic studies. Two major reasons are technical, as (1) interrogating the sub-cellular spatial information of LCLs is challenged by their non-adherent nature, and (2) LCLs are refractory to gene transfection...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
Oscar Brück, Sami Blom, Olli Dufva, Riku Turkki, Himanshu Chheda, Antonio Ribeiro, Panu Kovanen, Tero Aittokallio, Perttu Koskenvesa, Olli Kallioniemi, Kimmo Porkka, Teijo Pellinen, Satu Mustjoki
Increasing evidence suggests that the immune system affects prognosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but the detailed immunological composition of the leukemia bone marrow (BM) microenvironment is unknown. We aimed to characterize the immune landscape of the CML BM and predict the current treatment goal of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy, molecular remission 4.0 (MR4.0). Using multiplex immunohistochemistry (mIHC) and automated image analysis, we studied BM tissues of CML patients (n = 56) and controls (n = 14) with a total of 30 immunophenotype markers essential in cancer immunology...
June 20, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
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