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Molecular imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050398/delineating-sptan1-associated-phenotypes-from-isolated-epilepsy-to-encephalopathy-with-progressive-brain-atrophy
#1
Steffen Syrbe, Frederike L Harms, Elena Parrini, Martino Montomoli, Ulrike Mütze, Katherine L Helbig, Tilman Polster, Beate Albrecht, Ulrich Bernbeck, Ellen van Binsbergen, Saskia Biskup, Lydie Burglen, Jonas Denecke, Bénédicte Heron, Henrike O Heyne, Georg F Hoffmann, Frauke Hornemann, Takeshi Matsushige, Ryuki Matsuura, Mitsuhiro Kato, G Christoph Korenke, Alma Kuechler, Constanze Lämmer, Andreas Merkenschlager, Cyril Mignot, Susanne Ruf, Mitsuko Nakashima, Hirotomo Saitsu, Hannah Stamberger, Tiziana Pisano, Jun Tohyama, Sarah Weckhuysen, Wendy Werckx, Julia Wickert, Francesco Mari, Nienke E Verbeek, Rikke S Møller, Bobby Koeleman, Naomichi Matsumoto, William B Dobyns, Domenica Battaglia, Johannes R Lemke, Kerstin Kutsche, Renzo Guerrini
De novo in-frame deletions and duplications in the SPTAN1 gene, encoding the non-erythrocyte αII spectrin, have been associated with severe West syndrome with hypomyelination and pontocerebellar atrophy. We aimed at comprehensively delineating the phenotypic spectrum associated with SPTAN1 mutations. Using different molecular genetic techniques, we identified 20 patients with a pathogenic or likely pathogenic SPTAN1 variant and reviewed their clinical, genetic and imaging data. SPTAN1 de novo alterations included seven unique missense variants and nine in-frame deletions/duplications of which 12 were novel...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049733/tunneling-nanotubes-are-novel-cellular-structures-that-communicate-signals-between-trabecular-meshwork-cells
#2
Kate E Keller, John M Bradley, Ying Ying Sun, Yong-Feng Yang, Ted S Acott
Purpose: The actin cytoskeleton of trabecular meshwork (TM) cells plays a role in regulating aqueous humor outflow. Many studies have investigated stress fibers, but F-actin also assembles into other supramolecular structures including filopodia. Recently, specialized filopodia called tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been described, which communicate molecular signals and organelles directly between cells. Here, we investigate TNT formation by TM cells. Methods: Human TM cells were labeled separately with the fluorescent dyes, DiO and DiD, or with mitochondrial dye...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049414/wavelet-imaging-on-multiple-scales-wims-reveals-focal-adhesion-distributions-dynamics-and-coupling-between-actomyosin-bundle-stability
#3
Tim Toplak, Benoit Palmieri, Alba Juanes-García, Miguel Vicente-Manzanares, Martin Grant, Paul W Wiseman
We introduce and use Wavelet Imaging on Multiple Scales (WIMS) as an improvement to fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to measure physical processes and features that occur across multiple length scales. In this study, wavelet transforms of cell images are used to characterize molecular dynamics at the cellular and subcellular levels (i.e. focal adhesions). We show the usefulness of the technique by applying WIMS to an image time series of a migrating osteosarcoma cell expressing fluorescently labelled adhesion proteins, which allows us to characterize different components of the cell ranging from optical resolution scale through to focal adhesion and whole cell size scales...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048936/computed-tomography-in-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis-main-findings-differential-diagnosis-and-pitfalls
#4
Olívia Meira Dias, Bruno Guedes Baldi, Francesca Pennati, Andrea Aliverti, Rodrigo Caruso Chate, Márcio Valente Yamada Sawamura, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de Carvalho, André Luis Pereira de Albuquerque
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a disease with variable clinical presentation in which inflammation in the lung parenchyma is caused by the inhalation of specific organic antigens or low molecular weight substances in genetically susceptible individuals. Alterations of the acute, subacute and chronic forms may eventually overlap, and the diagnosis based on temporality and presence of fibrosis (acute/inflammatory HP vs. chronic HP) seems to be more feasible and useful in clinical practice. Differential diagnosis of chronic HP with other interstitial fibrotic diseases is challenging due to the overlap of the clinical history, and the functional and imaging findings of these pathologies in the terminal stages...
October 19, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048555/an-architecture-for-genomics-analysis-in-a-clinical-setting-using-galaxy-and-docker
#5
W Digan, H Countouris, M Barritault, D Baudoin, P Laurent-Puig, H Blons, A Burgun, B Rance
Background: Next Generation Sequencing is used on a daily basis to perform molecular analysis to determine subtypes of disease (e.g., in cancer) and to assist in the selection of the optimal treatment. Clinical bioinformatics handles the manipulation of the data generated by the sequencer, from the generation to the analysis and interpretation. Reproducibility and traceability are crucial issues in a clinical setting. Results: We have designed an approach based on the Docker container technology and Galaxy, the popular bioinformatics analysis support open-source software...
October 18, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048480/panax-ginseng-genome-examination-for-ginsenoside-biosynthesis
#6
Xu Jiang, Chu Yang, Liao Baosheng, Xiao Shuiming, Yin Qinggang, Bai Rui, Su He, Dong Linlin, Li Xiwen, Qian Jun, Zhang Jingjing, Zhang Yujun, Zhang Xiaoyan, Wu Mingli, Zhang Jie, Li Guozheng, Zhang Lei, Chang Zhenzhan, Zhang Yuebin, Jia Zhengwei, Liu Zhixiang, Daniel Afreh, Ruth Nahurira, Zhang Lianjuan, Cheng Ruiyang, Zhu Yingjie, Zhu Guangwei, Rao Wei, Zhou Chao, Qiao Lirui, Huang Zhihai, Cheng Yung-Chi, Chen Shilin
Background: Ginseng, which contain ginsenosides as bioactive compounds, has been regarded as an important traditional medicine for several millennia. However, the genetic background of ginseng remains poorly understood partly because of the plant's large and complex genome composition. Results: We report the entire genome sequence of Panax ginseng using next-generation sequencing. The 3.5Gb nucleotide sequence contained more than 60% repeats and encoded 42,006 predicted genes...
October 5, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047053/mild-zellweger-syndrome-due-to-a-novel-pex6-mutation-correlation-between-clinical-phenotype-and-in-silico-prediction-of-variant-pathogenicity
#7
Małgorzata Rydzanicz, Teresa Joanna Stradomska, Elżbieta Jurkiewicz, Ewa Jamroz, Piotr Gasperowicz, Grażyna Kostrzewa, Rafał Płoski, Anna Tylki-Szymańska
Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is a consequence of a peroxisome biogenesis disorder (PBD) caused by the presence of a pathogenic mutation in one of the 13 genes from the PEX family. ZS is a severe multisystem condition characterized by neonatal appearance of symptoms and a shorter life. Here, we report a case of ZS with a mild phenotype, due to a novel PEX6 gene mutation. The patient presented subtle craniofacial dysmorphic features and slightly slower psychomotor development. At the age of 2 years, he was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency, hypoacusis, and general deterioration...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046922/selection-and-identification-of-transferrin-receptor-specific-peptides-as-recognition-probes-for-cancer-cells
#8
Yuyu Tan, Wenli Liu, Zhi Zhu, Lijun Lang, Junxia Wang, Mengjiao Huang, Mingxia Zhang, Chaoyong Yang
Since the transferrin receptor (CD71 or TFRC) is known to be highly expressed in numerous cancers, CD71 has become an attractive target in cancer research. Acquiring specific molecular probes for CD71, such as small molecular ligands, aptamers, peptides, or antibodies, is of great importance for cancer cell recognition and capture. In this work, we chose CD71 as the target for phage display, and after four rounds of positive selection and one round of negative selection, the specific phage library was enriched...
October 18, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046889/whispering-gallery-mode-emission-from-biological-luminescent-protein-microcavity-assemblies
#9
Matjaž Humar, Seok Hyun Yun
Fluorescence and bioluminescence are widely used to study biological systems from molecular to whole organism level. However, their broadband emission is often a bottleneck for sensitive spectral measurements and multiplexing. To overcome the limitation, the emitters can be coupled with optical cavity modes to generate narrowband spectral features. Here we demonstrate several types of emitter-resonator complexes made of fluorescent or bioluminescent proteins and artificially or naturally formed optical resonators...
2017: Optica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046057/bile-duct-ligature-in-young-rats-a-revisited-animal-model-for-biliary-atresia
#10
Matias Garrido, Camila Escobar, Constanza Zamora, Carolina Rejas, Juan Varas, Mario Párraga, Sebastian San Martin, Sandra Montedónico
Biliary atresia leads to cirrhosis in the vast majority of patients and constitutes the first cause of paediatric liver transplantation. Animal models allow us to understand the molecular basis and natural history of diseases. The aim of this study is to describe a surgically created animal model of biliary atresia with emphasis in long-term liver function. Forty-two 3-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: bile duct ligature (BDL) and control. The animals were sacrificed on the 2nd, 4th, and 6th postoperative weeks...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045978/-clinicopathologic-features-of-infant-dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumor-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
H Wang, J T Ye, H X Yao, D Li, Y Dong
Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) has traditionally been viewed as rare benign tumors that present with seizure widely considered curable with surgery alone. Most DNTs occur in childhood and young adults. However, rare reported cases occur in infants. This paper reported an infant case of DNT and its diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment, molecular features and prognosis based on the review of current literatures. The age onset of this patient was only 11 months old. The clinical manifestations were partial seizures and the imaging data untypical; CT and MRI were all supportive of astrocytoma...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045872/the-detection-of-nanoscale-membrane-bending-with-polarized-localization-microscopy
#12
Abir M Kabbani, Christopher V Kelly
The curvature of biological membranes at the nanometer scale is critically important for vesicle trafficking, organelle morphology, and disease propagation. The initiation of membrane bending occurs at a length scale that is irresolvable by most superresolution optical microscopy methods. Here, we report the development of polarized localization microscopy (PLM), a pointillist optical imaging technique for the detection of nanoscale membrane curvature in correlation with single-molecule dynamics and molecular sorting...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045232/imaging-neoadjuvant-therapy-response-in-breast-cancer
#13
Amy M Fowler, David A Mankoff, Bonnie N Joe
The use of neoadjuvant systemic therapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients is increasing beyond the scope of locally advanced disease. Imaging provides important information in assessing response to therapy as a complement to conventional tumor measurements via physical examination. The purpose of this article is to discuss the advantages and limitations of current assessment methods, as well as review functional and molecular imaging approaches being investigated as emerging techniques for evaluating neoadjuvant therapy response for patients with primary breast cancer...
November 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045132/a-solid-state-photo-induced-luminescence-switch-for-advanced-anti-counterfeiting-and-super-resolution-imaging-applications
#14
Qingkai Qi, Chong Li, Xiaogang Liu, Shan Jiang, Zhaochao Xu, Richmond Lee, Mingqiang Zhu, Bin Xu, Wenjing Tian
Solid-state organic photoswitches with reversible luminescence modulation property is highly attractive because of their wide prospects in advanced photonic applications, such as optical data storage, anti-counterfeiting and bioimaging. Yet, developing such materials has long been a significant challenge. In this work, we construct an efficient solid-state photoswitch based on a spiropyran-functionalized distyrylanthracene derivative (DSA-2SP) which exhibits exceptional reversible absorption/luminescence modulation ability...
October 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044736/multiscale-humidity-visualization-by-environmentally-sensitive-fluorescent-molecular-rotors
#15
Yanhua Cheng, Jianguo Wang, Zijie Qiu, Xiaoyan Zheng, Nelson L C Leung, Jacky W Y Lam, Ben Zhong Tang
Building humidity sensors possessing the features of diverse-configuration compatibility, and capability of measurement of spatial and temporal humidity gradients is of great interest for highly integrated electronics and wearable monitoring systems. Herein, a visual sensing approach based on fluorescent imaging is presented, by assembling aggregation-induced-emission (AIE)-active molecular rotors into a moisture-captured network; the resulting AIE humidity sensors are compatible with diverse applications, having tunable geometries and desirable architectures...
October 16, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044154/cryo-em-visualization-of-lipid-and-polymer-stabilized-perfluorocarbon-gas-nanobubbles-a-step-towards-nanobubble-mediated-drug-delivery
#16
Christopher Hernandez, Sahil Gulati, Gabriella Fioravanti, Phoebe L Stewart, Agata A Exner
Gas microbubbles stabilized with lipids, surfactants, proteins and/or polymers are widely used clinically as ultrasound contrast agents. Because of their large 1-10 µm size, applications of microbubbles are confined to the blood vessels. Accordingly, there is much interest in generating nanoscale echogenic bubbles (nanobubbles), which can enable new uses of ultrasound contrast agents in molecular imaging and drug delivery, particularly for cancer applications. While the interactions of microbubbles with ultrasound have been widely investigated, little is known about the activity of nanobubbles under ultrasound exposure...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044152/a-machine-learning-assisted-label-free-non-invasive-approach-for-somatic-reprogramming-in-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-colony-formation-detection-and-prediction
#17
Ke Fan, Sheng Zhang, Ying Zhang, Jun Lu, Mike Holcombe, Xiao Zhang
During cellular reprogramming, the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition is accompanied by changes in morphology, which occur prior to iPSC colony formation. The current approach for detecting morphological changes associated with reprogramming purely relies on human experiences, which involve intensive amounts of upfront training, human error with limited quality control and batch-to-batch variations. Here, we report a time-lapse-based bright-field imaging analysis system that allows us to implement a label-free, non-invasive approach to measure morphological dynamics...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044117/rock-regulates-the-intermittent-mode-of-interstitial-t-cell-migration-in-inflamed-lungs
#18
Paulus Mrass, Sreenivasa Rao Oruganti, G Matthew Fricke, Justyna Tafoya, Janie R Byrum, Lihua Yang, Samantha L Hamilton, Mark J Miller, Melanie E Moses, Judy L Cannon
Effector T cell migration through tissues can enable control of infection or mediate inflammatory damage. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms that regulate migration of effector T cells within the interstitial space of inflamed lungs are incompletely understood. Here, we show T cell migration in a mouse model of acute lung injury with two-photon imaging of intact lung tissue. Computational analysis indicates that T cells migrate with an intermittent mode, switching between confined and almost straight migration, guided by lung-associated vasculature...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043992/correlation-of-the-ultrasound-imaging-of-breast-cancer-and-the-expression-of-molecular-biological-indexes
#19
Jie Xu, Feng Li, Fengling Chang
This paper aims to 137 cases of breast malignant tumors confirmed by surgery and pathology were collected. All patients received ultrasound examination and were not treated by radiotherapy or chemotherapy before operation. The preoperative ultrasound images of breast cancer patients and postoperative pathological characteristics of paraffin sections were retrospectively observed. Ultrasound indicators included tumor size, shape, ratio of the longest/shortest dimension, edge of the spiculation and peripheral hyperechoic halo sign, internal echo types, micro calcification, posterior echo types, blood flow and signs of lymph node metastasis...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043954/n-acetylglucosamine-affects-cryptococcus-neoformans-cell-wall-composition-and-melanin-architecture
#20
Emma Camacho, Christine Chrissian, Radames J B Cordero, Livia Liporagi-Lopes, Ruth E Stark, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmental fungus that belongs to the phylum Basidiomycetes and is a major pathogen in immunocompromised patients. The ability of C. neoformans to produce melanin pigments represents its second most important virulence factor, after the presence of a polysaccharide capsule. Both the capsule and melanin are closely associated with the fungal cell wall, a complex structure that is essential for maintaining cell morphology and viability under conditions of stress. The amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is a key constituent of the cell-wall chitin and is used for both N-linked glycosylation and GPI anchor synthesis...
October 18, 2017: Microbiology
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