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Molecular imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453540/cellular-and-molecular-toxicity-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#1
Blanca Laffon, Natalia Fernández-Bertólez, Carla Costa, Fátima Brandão, João Paulo Teixeira, Eduardo Pásaro, Vanessa Valdiglesias
Iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) have attracted much attention because of their particular physico-chemical properties, including superparamagnetism. These features make them suitable for many purposes and several interesting biomedical applications, such as to increase contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as drug delivery systems and as hyperthermia agents. However, they have also shown to be easily accumulated in diverse tissues and induce toxicity at different levels. This chapter reviews the different cellular and molecular effects induced by ION reported from in vitro studies with human and non-human cell lines...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453533/the-role-of-autophagy-in-nanoparticles-induced-toxicity-and-its-related-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms
#2
Yubin Li, Dianwen Ju
In the past decades, nanoparticles have been widely used in industry and pharmaceutical fields for drug delivery, anti-pathogen, and diagnostic imaging purposes because of their unique physicochemical characteristics such as special ultrastructure, dispersity, and effective cellular uptake properties. But the nanotoxicity has been raised over the extensive applications of nanoparticles. Researchers have elucidated series of mechanisms in nanoparticles-induced toxicity, including apoptosis, necrosis, oxidative stress, and autophagy...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453053/ultrasound-molecular-imaging-of-acute-cardiac-transplantation-rejection-using-nanobubbles-targeted-to-t-lymphocytes
#3
Jinfeng Liu, Yihan Chen, Guohua Wang, Qing Lv, Yali Yang, Jing Wang, Pingyu Zhang, Jie Liu, Yu Xie, Li Zhang, Mingxing Xie
Clinical surveillance of acute heart transplantation rejection requires repeated invasive endomyocardial biopsies and noninvasive diagnostic techniques are desperately needed. It is acknowledged that T lymphocyte infiltration is the central process of acute rejection. We hypothesized that ultrasound molecular imaging with T lymphocyte-targeted nanobubbles could be used to detect acute rejection in heart transplantation. In this study, nanobubbles bearing anti-CD3 antibody (NB CD3 ) or isotype antibody (NB con ) were prepared and characterized...
February 8, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452833/endothelial-vascular-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-is-a-marker-for-high-risk-carotid-plaques-and-target-for-ultrasound-molecular-imaging
#4
Craig C Weinkauf, Kirsten Concha-Moore, Jonathan R Lindner, Edmund R Marinelli, Kyle P Hadinger, Sandipan Bhattacharjee, Scott S Berman, Kay Goshima, Luis R Leon, Terry O Matsunaga, Evan Unger
BACKGROUND: Molecular imaging of carotid plaque vulnerability to atheroembolic events is likely to lead to improvements in selection of patients for carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The aims of this study were to assess the relative value of endothelial inflammatory markers for this application and to develop molecular ultrasound contrast agents for their imaging. METHODS: Human CEA specimens were obtained prospectively from asymptomatic (30) and symptomatic (30) patients...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452661/risk-stratification-in-follicular-lymphoma
#5
REVIEW
Carla Casulo
Advances in the understanding of FL biology, molecular characteristics and clinical risk factors are further highlighting the heterogeneity of this disease. Historically used prognostic factors were broadly based on clinical and laboratory features at the time of diagnosis. However novel prognostic factors are emerging that can be studied at the time of diagnosis, and relapse, and use a variety of tools including gene alterations and diagnostic imaging. These novel discoveries are being implemented into daily practice with the ultimate goal of providing a precise, individualized approach to every patient with FL...
March 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452623/currently-available-radiopharmaceuticals-for-imaging-infection-and-the-holy-grail
#6
REVIEW
Ebru Salmanoglu, Sung Kim, Mathew L Thakur
Infection is ubiquitous. However, its management is challenging for both the patients and the health-care providers. Scintigraphic imaging of infection dates back nearly half a century. The advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of disease at cellular and molecular levels have paved the way to the development of a large number of radiopharmaceuticals for scintigraphic imaging of infection. These include radiolabeling of blood elements such as serum proteins, white blood cells (WBCs), and cytokines, to name a few...
March 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452619/monitoring-response-to-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Mike M Sathekge, Alfred O Ankrah, Ismaheel Lawal, Mariza Vorster
Monitoring response to treatment is a key element in the management of infectious diseases, yet controversies still persist on reliable biomarkers for noninvasive response evaluation. Considering the limitations of invasiveness of most diagnostic procedures and the issue of expression heterogeneity of pathology, molecular imaging is better able to assay in vivo biologic processes noninvasively and quantitatively. The usefulness of 18 F-FDG-PET/CT in assessing treatment response in infectious diseases is more promising than for conventional imaging...
March 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451412/development-and-validation-of-a-radiomic-signature-to-predict-hpv-p16-status-from-standard-ct-imaging-a-multicenter-study
#8
Leijenaar Rth, Bogowicz M, Jochems A, Hoebers Fjp, Frederik Fwr, Huang Sh, Chan B, Waldron Jn, O'Sullivan B, Rietveld D, Leemans Cr, Brakenhoff Rh, Riesterer O, Tanadini-Lang S, Guckenberger M, Ikenberg K, Lambin P
OBJECTIVES: HPV positive oropharyngeal cancer (OPSCC) is biologically and clinically different from HPV negative OPSCC. Here, we evaluate the use of a radiomic approach to identify the HPV status of OPSCC. METHODS: Four independent cohorts, totaling 778 OPSCC patients with HPV determined by p16 were collected. We randomly assigned 80% of all data for model training (N=628) and 20% for validation (N=150). On the pre-treatment CT images, 902 radiomic features were calculated from the gross tumor volume (GTV)...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450970/direct-imaging-of-space-charge-accumulation-and-work-function-characteristics-of-functional-organic-interfaces
#9
Pablo F Siles, Mirunalini Devarajulu, Feng Zhu, Oliver G Schmidt
The tailoring of organic systems is crucial to further extend the efficiency of charge transfer mechanisms and represents a cornerstone for molecular device technologies. However, this demands control of electrical properties and understanding of the physics behind organic interfaces. Here, a quantitative spatial overview of work function characteristics for phthalocyanine architectures on Au substrates is provided via kelvin probe microscopy. While macroscopic investigations are very informative, the current approach offers a nanoscale spatial rendering of electrical characteristics which is not possible to attain via conventional techniques...
February 16, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450723/molecular-imaging-and-theranostic-approaches-in-pheochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma
#10
REVIEW
David Taïeb, Karel Pacak
Pheochromocytomas and their extra-adrenal counterpart paragangliomas (PGLs; together called PPGLs), belong to the family of neural crest-derived tumors. Given the overexpression of a wide variety of specific targets in PPGLs, it seems that these tumors are optimally suited to be imaged by specific radiopharmaceuticals. Thus, theranostics approaches with somatostatin agonists and antagonists are rapidly evolving in the setting of these tumors and may be considered as the next step in the therapeutic arsenal of metastatic PPGLs...
February 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450711/renal-fat-fraction-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-patients-with-early-stage-diabetic-nephropathy
#11
Yuan-Cheng Wang, Yinglian Feng, Chun-Qiang Lu, Shenghong Ju
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the renal fat fraction and water molecular diffusion features in patients with early-stage DN using Dixon imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: Sixty-one type 2 diabetics (normoalbuminuria: n = 40; microalbuminuria: n = 21) and 34 non-diabetic volunteers were included. All participants received three-point Dixon imaging and DTI using a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imager. The fat fraction [FF] and DTI features [fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), tract counts and length from DTI tractography] were collected...
February 15, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450654/visualizing-protoporphyrin-ix-formation-in-the-dura-tail-of-meningiomas-by-mass-spectrometry-imaging
#12
Benjamin Brokinkel, Sabrina Kröger, Volker Senner, Astrid Jeibmann, Uwe Karst, Walter Stummer
BACKGROUND: The advantages of 5-aminolevulinacid (5-ALA)-induced fluorescence-guided surgery in meningiomas are increasingly discussed. In this context, despite detectable tumor tissue in histopathologial analyses, no fluorescence was shown at the dura tail using the standard operating microscope. Thus, 5-ALA metabolism in this surgically important site remains unknown but needs to be elucidated when further evaluating indications of fluorescence-guided surgery in meningiomas. METHOD: We here present the spatially resolved identification of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in sphenoid ridge meningioma cryosections from a patient who underwent fluorescence-guided microsurgery using molecular imaging analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS)...
February 15, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449697/stereochemical-identification-of-glucans-by-oligothiophenes-enables-cellulose-anatomical-mapping-in-plant-tissues
#13
Ferdinand X Choong, Marcus Bäck, Anette Schulz, K Peter R Nilsson, Ulrica Edlund, Agneta Richter-Dahlfors
Efficient use of plant-derived materials requires enabling technologies for non-disruptive composition analysis. The ability to identify and spatially locate polysaccharides in native plant tissues is difficult but essential. Here, we develop an optical method for cellulose identification using the structure-responsive, heptameric oligothiophene h-FTAA as molecular fluorophore. Spectrophotometric analysis of h-FTAA interacting with closely related glucans revealed an exceptional specificity for β-linked glucans...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449608/mapping-molecular-assemblies-with-fluorescence-microscopy-and-object-based-spatial-statistics
#14
Thibault Lagache, Alexandre Grassart, Stéphane Dallongeville, Orestis Faklaris, Nathalie Sauvonnet, Alexandre Dufour, Lydia Danglot, Jean-Christophe Olivo-Marin
Elucidating protein functions and molecular organisation requires to localise precisely single or aggregated molecules and analyse their spatial distributions. We develop a statistical method SODA (Statistical Object Distance Analysis) that uses either micro- or nanoscopy to significantly improve on standard co-localisation techniques. Our method considers cellular geometry and densities of molecules to provide statistical maps of isolated and associated (coupled) molecules. We use SODA with three-colour structured-illumination microscopy (SIM) images of hippocampal neurons, and statistically characterise spatial organisation of thousands of synapses...
February 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449515/-therapeutic-effects-of-low-dose-bevacizumab-for-the-treatment-of-recurrent-brain-metastases
#15
Etsuko Hattori, Akinori Miyakoshi, Kohichi Go, Toshiharu Aotake, Yoshiyuki Kawakami, Masato Sakamoto, Takeshi Kawauchi, Yuuki Oichi, Noritaka Sano, Makoto Hayase, Makoto Ohta, Yuki Hirose, Hiroki Toda
OBJECTIVE: Molecularly targeted therapy has been adopted to treat a number of cancers. Bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, is a representative agent used in molecularly targeted therapeutic regimens. However, the therapeutic effect of bevacizumab for the treatment of brain metastases remains unknown. We report the clinical effects of low dose bevacizumab(≤2.5mg/kg/week)to treat recurrent brain metastases. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with brain metastases who had been treated with bevacizumab between 2012 and 2016 at our institution...
February 2018: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449411/molecular-imaging-in-drug-discovery-and-development
#16
Jonathan R Lindner, Jeanne Link
Noninvasive imaging has played an increasing role in the process of cardiovascular drug development. This review focuses specifically on the use of molecular imaging, which has been increasingly applied to improve and accelerate certain preclinical steps in drug development, including the identification of appropriate therapeutic targets, evaluation of on-target and off-target effects of candidate therapies, assessment of dose response, and the evaluation of drug or biological biodistribution and pharmacodynamics...
February 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448628/functionalized-magnetic-plga-nanospheres-for-targeting-and-bioimaging-of-breast-cancer
#17
Seung-Jun Lee, Hee-Jin Kim, Yong-Min Huh, Il Won Kim, Jae Hyun Jeong, Jin-Chul Kim, Jong-Duk Kim
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are actively used as highly sensitive imaging probes to provide contrast in MRI. In this study, we propose the use of SPIONs encapsulated with antibody-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) as a potent theragnostic agent. The SPIONs were synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation method of ferric and ferrous ions, and subsequently encapsulated with PLGA by using an emulsification-diffusion method. Herceptin was chemically conjugated to the SPION-encapsulating PLGA nanoparticles to target the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2/neu) overexpressing breast cancers...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448520/synthesis-of-fluorophore-decorated-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-for-in-vitro-cytocompatibility
#18
Adhigan Murali, Neelamegan Haridharan, Pombala Suresh Babu, Sivalingam Jayaveni, Sellamuthu N Jaisankar
We report rhodamine based fluorophore derivative for the stable dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), which can afford better fluorescent label to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The nanotubes-fluorophore conjugates are helpful in achieving stable dispersion in polar and non-polar solvents with intense fluorescence. The product was characterized through NMR, Mass spectrometry, Raman, XPS, SEM, AFM and Fluorescence measurements. The formation of SWCNT-g- Rhodamine was confirmed by the presence of D and G bands in Raman spectrum...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446156/3d-nir-ii-molecular-imaging-distinguishes-targeted-organs-with-high-performance-nir-ii-bioconjugates
#19
Shoujun Zhu, Sonia Herraiz, Jingying Yue, Mingxi Zhang, Hao Wan, Qinglai Yang, Zhuoran Ma, Yan Wang, Jiahuan He, Alexander L Antaris, Yeteng Zhong, Shuo Diao, Yi Feng, Ying Zhou, Kuai Yu, Guosong Hong, Yongye Liang, Aaron J Hsueh, Hongjie Dai
Greatly reduced scattering in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) region (1000-1700 nm) opens up many new exciting avenues of bioimaging research, yet NIR-II fluorescence imaging is mostly implemented by using nontargeted fluorophores or wide-field imaging setups, limiting the signal-to-background ratio and imaging penetration depth due to poor specific binding and out-of-focus signals. A newly developed high-performance NIR-II bioconjugate enables targeted imaging of a specific organ in the living body with high quality...
February 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446097/three-dimensional-reciprocal-space-x-ray-coherent-scattering-tomography-of-two-dimensional-object
#20
Zheyuan Zhu, Shuo Pang
PURPOSE: X-ray coherent scattering tomography is a powerful tool in discriminating biological tissues and bio-compatible materials. Conventional X-ray scattering tomography framework can only resolve isotropic scattering profile under the assumption that the material is amorphous or in powder form, which is not true especially for biological samples with orientation-dependent structure. Previous tomography schemes based on X-ray coherent scattering failed to preserve the scattering pattern from samples with preferred orientations, or required elaborated data acquisition scheme, which could limit its application in practical settings...
February 15, 2018: Medical Physics
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