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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228211/asymmetry-of-post-mortem-neuropathology-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#1
David J Irwin, Corey T McMillan, Sharon X Xie, Katya Rascovsky, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, H Branch Coslett, Roy Hamilton, Geoffrey Aguirre, Edward B Lee, Virginia M Y Lee, John Q Trojanowski, Murray Grossman
Antemortem behavioural and anatomic abnormalities have largely been associated with right hemisphere disease in behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia, but post-mortem neuropathological examination of bilateral hemispheres remains to be defined. Here we measured the severity of post-mortem pathology in both grey and white matter using a validated digital image analysis method in four cortical regions sampled from each hemisphere in 26 patients with behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia, including those with frontotemporal degeneration (i...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228180/longitudinal-structural-and-molecular-neuroimaging-in-agrammatic-primary-progressive-aphasia
#2
Katerina A Tetzloff, Joseph R Duffy, Heather M Clark, Edythe A Strand, Mary M Machulda, Christopher G Schwarz, Matthew L Senjem, Robert I Reid, Anthony J Spychalla, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Val J Lowe, Clifford R Jack, Keith A Josephs, Jennifer L Whitwell
The agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia affects normal grammatical language production, often occurs with apraxia of speech, and is associated with left frontal abnormalities on cross-sectional neuroimaging studies. We aimed to perform a detailed assessment of longitudinal change on structural and molecular neuroimaging to provide a complete picture of neurodegeneration in these patients, and to determine how patterns of progression compare to patients with isolated apraxia of speech (primary progressive apraxia of speech)...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227576/microscopic-investigation-of-topically-applied-nanoparticles-for-molecular-imaging-of-fresh-tissue-surfaces
#3
Soyoung Kang, Yu Winston Wang, Xiaochun Xu, Eric Navarro, Kenneth M Tichauer, Jonathan T C Liu
Previous studies have shown that functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) topically applied on fresh tissues are able to rapidly target cell-surface protein biomarkers of cancer. Furthermore, studies have shown that a paired-agent approach, in which an untargeted NP is co-administered with a panel of targeted NPs, controls for nonspecific behavior of the NPs, enabling quantitative imaging of biomarker expression. However, given the complexities in nonspecific accumulation, diffusion, and chemical binding of targeted NPs in tissues, studies are needed to better understand these processes at the microscopic scale...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227555/combining-fluorescence-and-bioluminescence-microscopy-to-study-the-series-of-events-from-cellular-signal-transduction-to-gene-expression
#4
Kazuhito Goda, Takeo Takahashi, Hirobumi Suzuki
The molecular interactions and translocation of signal transduction factors in individual cells can be imaged by fluorescence microscopy. Alternatively, downstream promoter activity in single cells can be imaged by bioluminescence microscopy. However, the same stimuli can lead to different gene expression responses in individual cells. For this reason, it is desirable to simultaneously image signal transduction and gene expression events in the same cells. Here, we describe a method that combines fluorescence and bioluminescence microscopy to image protein kinase C (PKC) translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane and the expression of nuclear factor kappa-light polypeptide B (NF-κB)-regulated genes...
December 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227549/in-vitro-dissection-of-autophagy
#5
Min Zhang, Dawei Liu, Liang Ge
Autophagy is an essential cellular process for bulk degradation of cytoplasmic components through the lysosome. Underlying this process is an intricate interaction between protein factors and the cell endomembrane system, leading to a gradual maturation of the autophagic membrane. This structure sequesters a portion of the cytoplasm by the formation of a double-membrane compartment called the autophagosome. The autophagosome then delivers the cargo to the lysosome to complete degradation. The molecular mechanism accounting for the generation of the autophagic membrane is a longstanding question...
December 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227035/mass-spectrometry-analyses-of-multicellular-tumour-spheroids
#6
REVIEW
Mitchell Acland, Parul Mittal, Noor A Lokman, Manuela Klingler-Hoffmann, Martin K Oehler, Peter Hoffmann
Multicellular tumour spheroids (MCTS) are a powerful biological in vitro model, which closely mimics the 3D structure of primary avascularised tumours. Mass spectrometry (MS) has established itself as a powerful analytical tool, not only to better understand and describe the complex structure of MCTS, but also to monitor their response to cancer therapeutics. The first part of this review focuses on traditional mass spectrometry approaches with an emphasis on elucidating the molecular characteristics of these structures...
December 11, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226682/first-evaluation-of-radioiodinated-flavonoids-as-necrosis-avid-agents-and-application-in-the-early-assessment-of-tumor-necrosis
#7
Jiajia Liang, Ziping Sun, Dongjian Zhang, Qiaomei Jin, Lingqiao Cai, Lin Ma, Wei Liu, Yicheng Ni, Jian Zhang, Zhiqi Yin
A rapid and accurate identification of necrotic tissues is of great importance to define disease severity, predict prognosis and monitor responses to therapies. To seek necrosis-avid agents with clinically translational potential, we first evaluated the necrosis avidity of flavonoids in rodent models of muscular, myocardial and tumoral necrosis. In this study, the necrosis avidity of eight radioiodinated 5,7-dihydroxyflavones was tested by ex vivo gamma counting, histochemical staining, and autoradiography in mouse models of ethanol-induced muscular necrosis...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226432/multi-functional-peptide-microrna-nanocomplex-for-targeted-microrna-delivery-and-function-imaging
#8
Xiao Xiao, Xingxing Wang, Yuqi Wang, Tianren Yu, Lei Huang, Lei Chen, Jinbo Li, Chenyu Zhang, Yan Zhang
Targeted delivery of microRNA (miRNA) mimics into specific cells/tissues and real-time monitoring on the biological function of delivered miRNA mimics at molecular level represent two major challenges in the development of miRNA-based therapeutics. Here we report a highly efficient method to address these two challenges simultaneously by using the self-assembled nanocomplex formed by miRNA mimics with a multi-functional peptide conjugate. Using the nanocomplex formed by tumor-suppressive miR-34a and the multi-functional peptide conjugate FA-R9-FPcas3, we demonstrated the highly efficient and target-selective delivery of miR-34a into HeLa cells and tumors...
December 10, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226247/in-operando-x-ray-imaging-of-nanoscale-devices-composition-valence-and-internal-electrical-fields
#9
Andreas Johannes, Damien Salomon, Gema Martinez-Criado, Markus Glaser, Alois Lugstein, Carsten Ronning
We introduce a method for directly imaging depletion layers in operando with elemental specificity and chemical speciation at sub-100 nm spatial resolution applicable to today's three-dimensional electronic architectures. These typically contain complex, multicomponent designs consisting of epitaxial heterostructures, buried domains, or nanostructures with different shapes and sizes. Although the variety of devices is immense, they commonly rely on carrier separation in a built-in potential induced by composition or strain gradients...
December 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226245/multivalent-ions-induce-lateral-structural-inhomogeneities-in-polyelectrolyte-brushes
#10
Jing Yu, Nicholas E Jackson, Xin Xu, Blair K Brettmann, Marina Ruths, Juan J de Pablo, Matthew Tirrell
Subtle details about a polyelectrolyte's surrounding environment can dictate its structural features and potential applications. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface forces apparatus (SFA) measurements, and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are combined to study the structure of planar polyelectrolyte brushes [poly(styrenesulfonate), PSS] in a variety of solvent conditions. More specifically, AFM images provide a first direct visualization of lateral inhomogeneities on the surface of polyelectrolyte brushes collapsed in solutions containing trivalent counterions...
December 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226040/creutzfeldt-cell-rich-glioblastoma-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#11
Zain Boghani, William J Steele, Matthew D Cykowski, Leomar Y Ballester, Gavin Britz
Differentiating demyelinating conditions from neoplastic conditions can pose a significant challenge. There are a number of reports in the literature of large ring-enhancing, space-occupying lesions that were initially considered neoplastic or infectious but, on further review, were deemed demyelinating. Creutzfeldt-Peters cells (CPC) are reactive astrocytes with fragmented nuclear inclusions that are routinely seen in multiple sclerosis (MS) and generally exclude the diagnosis of glioblastoma (GB). The patient is a 78-year-old man with a history of prostate cancer, which was treated with radiation therapy, who presented with altered mental status...
October 5, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225720/new-frontiers-in-molecular-and-imaging-research-on-evaluation-and-diagnosis-of-bladder-outlet-obstruction-in-women
#12
Laura Martinez, Rose Khavari
Purpose: Diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) often presents a challenge in female patients. Traditional diagnostic elements such as symptom history and urodynamic data are rarely clear cut in women. Therefore, we sought to review the current literature on diagnosis of female BOO, focusing on new frontiers in the realm of molecular markers and imaging modalities. Recent Findings: In addition to fluoroscopy in the setting of videourodynamics, ultrasound and MRI can augment the diagnosis and aid in therapeutic planning in certain etiologies of female BOO...
December 2017: Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225594/overexpression-of-oscipk30-enhances-plant-tolerance-to-rice-stripe-virus
#13
Zhiyang Liu, Xuejuan Li, Feng Sun, Tong Zhou, Yijun Zhou
Rice stripe virus (RSV) causes a severe disease in Oryza sativa (rice) in many Eastern Asian countries. The NS3 protein of RSV is a viral suppressor of RNA silencing, but plant host factors interacting with NS3 have not been reported yet. Here, we present evidence that expression of RSV NS3 in Arabidopsis thaliana causes developmental abnormalities. Through yeast two-hybrid screening and a luciferase complementation imaging assay, we demonstrate that RSV NS3 interacted with OsCIPK30, a CBL (calcineurin B-like proteins)-interaction protein kinase protein...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225563/music-evoked-emotions-current-studies
#14
REVIEW
Hans-Eckhardt Schaefer
The present study is focused on a review of the current state of investigating music-evoked emotions experimentally, theoretically and with respect to their therapeutic potentials. After a concise historical overview and a schematic of the hearing mechanisms, experimental studies on music listeners and on music performers are discussed, starting with the presentation of characteristic musical stimuli and the basic features of tomographic imaging of emotional activation in the brain, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), which offer high spatial resolution in the millimeter range...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225336/psychiatric-polygenic-risk-associates-with-cortical-morphology-and-functional-organization-in-aging
#15
Annie Lee, Mojun Shen, Anqi Qiu
Common brain abnormalities in cortical morphology and functional organization are observed in psychiatric disorders and aging, reflecting shared genetic influences. This preliminary study aimed to examine the contribution of a polygenetic risk for psychiatric disorders (PRScross) to aging brain and to identify molecular mechanisms through the use of multimodal brain images, genotypes, and transcriptome data. We showed age-related cortical thinning in bilateral inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and superior temporal gyrus and alterations in the functional connectivity between bilateral IFC and between right IFC and right inferior parietal lobe as a function of PRScross...
December 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225294/-chinese-journal-of-nuclear-medicine-and-molecular-imaging-volume-37-number-11-november-25-2017
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Kaku Igaku. the Japanese Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225149/detection-and-characterization-of-molecular-level-collagen-damage-in-overstretched-cerebral-arteries
#17
Matthew I Converse, Raymond G Walther, Justin T Ingram, Yang Li, S Michael Yu, Kenneth L Monson
It is well established that overstretch of arteries alters their mechanics and compromises their function. However, the underlying structural mechanisms behind these changes are poorly understood. Utilizing a recently developed collagen hybridizing peptide (CHP), we demonstrate that a single mechanical overstretch of an artery produces molecular-level unfolding of collagen. In addition, imaging and quantification of CHP binding revealed that overstretch produces damage (unfolding) among fibers aligned with the direction of loading, that damage increases with overstretch severity, and that the onset of this damage is closely associated with tissue yielding...
December 7, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225106/tannic-acid-ta-a-molecular-tool-for-chelating-and-imaging-labile-iron
#18
Isara Phiwchai, Wiphawee Yuensook, Natsaree Sawaengsiriphon, Saowalak Krungchanuchat, Chalermchai Pilapong
This report presents the potential utilization of tannic acid (TA) as a natural iron chelator. TA is capable of binding with small ferric complexes without competitive binding with endogenous iron-containing molecules such as ferritin and transferrin. It was observed that the extracellular iron binding of TA resulted in the formation of self-assembled Fe3+-TA complexes, which were then taken up by HepG2 cells via phagocytosis pathway with autophagy-inducing properties. Obviously, TA was found to inhibit iron-induced HepG2 cell growth...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225029/vagus-motor-neuron-topographic-map-determined-by-parallel-mechanisms-of-hox5-expression-and-time-of-axon-initiation
#19
Gabrielle R Barsh, Adam J Isabella, Cecilia B Moens
Many networks throughout the nervous system are organized into topographic maps, where the positions of neuron cell bodies in the projecting field correspond with the positions of their axons in the target field. Previous studies of topographic map development show evidence for spatial patterning mechanisms, in which molecular determinants expressed across the projecting and target fields are matched directly in a point-to-point mapping process. Here, we describe a novel temporal mechanism of topographic map formation that depends on spatially regulated differences in the timing of axon outgrowth and functions in parallel with spatial point-to-point mapping mechanisms...
December 1, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224278/-clinicopathologic-and-molecular-genetic-characterizations-of-biphenotypic-sinonasal-sarcoma
#20
M Zhao, Q Y LaoI, D H Zhao, J Ma, G Q Ru, X L He, Z Wang, J Wang
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics, immunophenotypes, molecular genetics, and diagnostic and differential diagnostic features of biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma (BSNS). Methods: Three cases of BSNS were retrieved, the histomorphology, immunophenotype and molecular genetics were analyzed with review of literature. Results: There were 2 male and 1 female patient aged 45, 29 and 40 years, respectively.Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examinations showed a large polypoid mass occupying the sinonasal cavity in all 3 patients...
December 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
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