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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925727/can-point-defects-in-surfaces-in-solution-be-atomically-resolved-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#1
Bernhard Reischl, Paolo Raiteri, Julian D Gale, Andrew L Rohl
While the atomic force microscope (AFM) is able to image mineral surfaces in solution with atomic resolution, so far, it has been a matter of debate whether imaging point defects is also possible under these conditions. The difficulties stem from the limited knowledge of what types of defects may be stable in the presence of an AFM tip, as well as from the complicated imaging mechanism involving interactions between hydration layers over the surface and around the tip apex. Here, we present atomistic molecular dynamics and free energy calculations of the AFM imaging of vacancies and ionic substitutions in the calcite (101[over ¯]4) surface in water, using a new silica AFM tip model...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925251/a-novel-method-for-blood-typing-using-nitrocellulose
#2
Parastoo Afshari, Nabiollah Abolfathi
Blood wicking in its steady state form -i.e. the uniform distribution of blood cells in plasma- is completely different from its coagulated form on a porous surface like paper. The hydrophilic property of the Cellulose leads to a Significant wicking of the blood cells on paper fibers after being rinsed by the isotonic solution. The difference in the wicking length of the blood cells in a steady state and the coagulated form could be considered as a criterion to recognize the blood type in paper-based kit. However, due to the molecular structure of the nitrocellulose, a better process occurs while separating the coagulated blood from the steady form of cells...
December 7, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925224/fluorescent-protein-photoprotein-fusions-and-their-applications-in-calcium-imaging
#3
Adil Bakayan, Beatriz Domingo, Cecilia F Vaquero, Nadine Peyriéras, Juan Llopis
Calcium-activated photoproteins, such as aequorin, have been used as luminescent Ca(2+) indicators since 1967. After the cloning of aequorin in 1985, microinjection was substituted by its heterologous expression, which opened the way for a widespread use. Molecular fusion of GFP to aequorin recapitulated the nonradiative energy transfer process that occurs in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, from which these two proteins were obtained, resulting in an increase of light emission and a shift to longer wavelength...
December 7, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924371/the-need-of-standardization-and-of-large-clinical-studies-in-an-emerging-indication-of-18-f-fdg-pet-the-autoimmune-encephalitis
#4
EDITORIAL
Silvia Morbelli, Javier Arbizu, Jan Booij, Ming-Kai Chen, Gael Chetelat, Donna J Cross, Mehdi Djekidel, Alexander Drzezga, Ozgul Ekmekcioglu, Valentina Garibotto, Swen Hesse, Kazunari Ishii, Lida Jafari Saraf, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Ian Law, Dana Mathews, Satoshi Minoshima, Karina Mosci, Marco Pagani, Sabina Pappata, Daniel Hillel Silverman, Alberto Signore, Elsmarieke Van De Giessen, Victor Villemagne, Henryk Barthel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924312/protein-ligand-interaction-detection-with-a-novel-method-of-transient-induced-molecular-electronic-spectroscopy-times-experimental-and-theoretical-studies
#5
Tiantian Zhang, Tao Wei, Yuanyuan Han, Heng Ma, Mohammadreza Samieegohar, Ping-Wei Chen, Ian Lian, Yu-Hwa Lo
Protein-ligand interaction detection without disturbances (e.g., surface immobilization, fluorescent labeling, and crystallization) presents a key question in protein chemistry and drug discovery. The emergent technology of transient induced molecular electronic spectroscopy (TIMES), which incorporates a unique design of microfluidic platform and integrated sensing electrodes, is designed to operate in a label-free and immobilization-free manner to provide crucial information for protein-ligand interactions in relevant physiological conditions...
November 23, 2016: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924159/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-89-zr-ds-8273a-as-a-theranostic-for-anti-death-receptor-5-therapy
#6
Ingrid J G Burvenich, Fook-Thean Lee, Nancy Guo, Hui K Gan, Angela Rigopoulos, Adam C Parslow, Graeme J O'Keefe, Sylvia J Gong, Henri Tochon-Danguy, Stacey E Rudd, Paul S Donnelly, Masakatsu Kotsuma, Toshiaki Ohtsuka, Giorgio Senaldi, Andrew M Scott
Background: DS-8273a, an anti-human death receptor 5 (DR5) agonistic antibody, has cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells and induces apoptosis after specific binding to DR5. DS-8273a is currently being used in clinical Phase I trials. This study evaluated the molecular imaging of DR5 expression in vivo in mouse tumor models using SPECT/CT and PET/MRI, as a tool for drug development and trial design. Methods: DS-8273a was radiolabeled with indium-111 and zirconium-89. Radiochemical purity, immunoreactivity, antigen binding affinity and serum stability were assessed in vitro...
2016: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923827/preclinical-evidence-that-3-deoxy-3-18f-fluorothymidine-pet-can-visualize-recovery-of-hematopoiesis-after-gemcitabine-chemotherapy
#7
Sonja Schelhaas, Annelena Held, Nicole Bäumer, Thomas Viel, Sven Hermann, Carsten Müller-Tidow, Andreas H Jacobs
Molecular imaging with the PET tracer 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluorothymidine ([(18)F]FLT) allows assessment of the proliferative state of organs in vivo Although used primarily in the oncology clinic, it can also shed light on the proliferation of other tissues, as demonstrated here for monitoring hematopoietic organs that recover after myelosuppressive chemotherapy. In the NMRI nude mouse model, we observed up to a 4.5-fold increase in [(18)F]FLT uptake in bone marrow and spleen on days 2, 3, and 5 after treatment with gemcitabine, a chemotherapeutic agent that is powerfully myelosuppressive in the model...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922605/pattern-of-structural-brain-changes-in-social-anxiety-disorder-after-cognitive-behavioral-group-therapy-a-longitudinal-multimodal-mri-study
#8
V R Steiger, A B Brühl, S Weidt, A Delsignore, M Rufer, L Jäncke, U Herwig, J Hänggi
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fears of social and performance situations. Cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) has in general positive effects on symptoms, distress and avoidance in SAD. Prior studies found increased cortical volumes and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in SAD compared with healthy controls (HCs). Thirty-three participants diagnosed with SAD attended in a 10-week CBGT and were scanned before and after therapy. We applied three neuroimaging methods-surface-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging and network-based statistics-each with specific longitudinal processing protocols, to investigate CBGT-induced structural brain alterations of the gray and white matter (WM)...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922502/the-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophies-and-the-dystrophinopathies
#9
Stanley Jones P Iyadurai, John T Kissel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The classic approach to identifying and accurately diagnosing limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) relied heavily on phenotypic characterization and ancillary studies including muscle biopsy. Because of rapid advances in genetic sequencing methodologies, several additional LGMDs have been molecularly characterized, and the diagnostic approach to these disorders has been simplified. This article summarizes the epidemiology, clinical features, and genetic defects underlying the LGMDs...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922501/an-overview-of-congenital-myopathies
#10
Jean K Mah, Jeffrey T Joseph
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article uses a case-based approach to highlight the clinical features as well as recent advances in molecular genetics, muscle imaging, and pathophysiology of the congenital myopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: Congenital myopathies refer to a heterogeneous group of genetic neuromuscular disorders characterized by early-onset muscle weakness, hypotonia, and developmental delay. Congenital myopathies are further classified into core myopathies, centronuclear myopathies, nemaline myopathies, and congenital fiber-type disproportion based on the key pathologic features found in muscle biopsies...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921029/nanoscale-structure-and-spectroscopic-probing-of-a%C3%AE-1-40-fibril-bundle-formation
#11
Katarzyna M Psonka-Antonczyk, Per Hammarström, Leif B G Johansson, Mikael Lindgren, Bjørn T Stokke, K Peter R Nilsson, Sofie Nyström
Amyloid plaques composed of fibrillar Amyloid-β (Aβ) are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. However, Aβ fibrils are morphologically heterogeneous. Conformation sensitive luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs) are versatile tools for monitoring such fibril polymorphism in vivo and in vitro. Biophysical methods applied on in vitro generated Aβ fibrils, stained with LCOs with different binding and fluorescence properties, can be used to characterize the Aβ fibrillation in depth, far beyond that possible for in vivo generated amyloid plaques...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920057/acropora-digitifera-encodes-the-largest-known-family-of-fluorescent-proteins-that-has-persisted-during-the-evolution-of-acropora-species
#12
Shiho Takahashi-Kariyazono, Jun Gojobori, Yoko Satta, Kazuhiko Sakai, Yohey Terai
Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are well known and broadly used as bio-imaging markers in molecular biology research. Many FP genes were cloned from anthozoan species and it was suggested that multi-copies of these genes are present in their genomes. However, the full complement of FP genes in any single coral species remained unidentified. In this study, we analyzed the FP genes in two stony coral species. FP cDNA sequences from Acropora digitifera and Acropora tenuis revealed the presence of a multi-gene family with an unexpectedly large number of genes, separated into short-/middle-wavelength emission (S/MWE), middle-/long-wavelength emission (M/LWE), and chromoprotein (CP) clades...
December 5, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919665/three-dimensional-visualization-of-membrane-phospholipid-distributions-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-seeds-a-spatial-perspective-of-molecular-heterogeneity
#13
Drew Sturtevant, Maria Emilia Dueñas, Young-Jin Lee, Kent D Chapman
Arabidopsis thaliana has been widely used as a model plant to study acyl lipid metabolism. Seeds of A. thaliana are quite small (approximately 500×300μm and weigh ~20μg), making lipid compositional analyses of single seeds difficult to achieve. Here we have used matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to map and visualize the three-dimensional spatial distributions of two common membrane phospholipid classes, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), in single A...
December 2, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918636/4d-printing-of-shape-memory-based-personalized-endoluminal-medical-devices
#14
Matt Zarek, Nicola Mansour, Shir Shapira, Daniel Cohn
The convergence of additive manufacturing and shape-morphing materials is promising for the advancement of personalized medical devices. The capability to transform 3D objects from one shape to another, right off the print bed, is known as 4D printing. Shape memory thermosets can be tailored to have a range of thermomechanical properties favorable to medical devices, but processing them is a challenge because they are insoluble and do not flow at any temperature. This study presents here a strategy to capitalize on a series of medical imaging modalities to construct a printable shape memory endoluminal device, exemplified by a tracheal stent...
December 5, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918032/a-metal-free-fluorescence-turn-on-molecular-probe-for-detection-of-nucleoside-triphosphates
#15
Debabrata Maity, Mao Li, Martin Ehlers, Carsten Schmuck
We report a fluorescence probe 1, which contains a naphthalimide fluorophore with two symmetric peptidic arms equipped with a tailor-made anion-binding motif, the guanidiniocarbonyl pyrrole moiety, for the detection of nucleoside triphosphates. Upon binding to nucleoside triphosphates, especially ATP, 1 shows significant turn-on fluorescence response. Probe 1 can also be applied for the imaging of ATP in cells.
December 5, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917892/optical-imaging-of-mmp-12-active-form-in-inflammation-and-aneurysm
#16
Mahmoud Razavian, Thomas Bordenave, Dimitris Georgiadis, Fabrice Beau, Jiasheng Zhang, Reza Golestani, Jakub Toczek, Jae-Joon Jung, Yunpeng Ye, Hye-Yeong Kim, Jinah Han, Vincent Dive, Laurent Devel, Mehran M Sadeghi
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 plays a key role in the development of aneurysm. Like other members of MMP family, MMP-12 is produced as a proenzyme, mainly by macrophages, and undergoes proteolytic activation to generate an active form. Accordingly, molecular imaging of the MMP-12 active form can inform of the pathogenic process in aneurysm. Here, we developed a novel family of fluorescent probes based on a selective MMP-12 inhibitor, RXP470.1 to target the active form of MMP-12. These probes were stable in complex media and retained the high affinity and selectivity of RXP470...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917611/high-mass-and-spatial-resolution-mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-nicolas-poussin-painting-cross-section-by-cluster-tof-sims
#17
M Noun, E Van Elslande, D Touboul, H Glanville, S Bucklow, P Walter, A Brunelle
The painting Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well, which hangs in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, UK, is possibly one of the last figure painting executed by Nicolas Poussin at the very end of his life and is usually dated to the early 1660s. In this perspective special feature, Philippe Walter, Alain Brunelle and colleagues give new insights on the artist's working methods by a careful stateof-the-art imaging ToF-SIMS study of one sample taken on the edge of the painting. This approach allowed for the identification of the pigments used in the painting, their nature and components and those of the ground and preparatory layers, with the identification of the binder(s) and possible other additions of organic materials such as glue...
December 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917428/ftir-imaging-of-the-molecular-burden-around-a%C3%AE-deposits-in-an-early-stage-3-tg-app-psp1-tau-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Artur Dawid Surowka, Michael Pilling, Alex Henderson, Herve Boutin, Lidan Christie, Magdalena Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Peter Gardner
Alzheimer's disease is one of the major causes of dementia in the elderly. The disease is caused by the misfolding of water soluble alpha-helical proteins, which leads to the accumulation of β-sheets in the form of amyloid plaques, which can subsequently affect surrounding tissue areas by oxidative stress neurotoxicity. The aim of the present study was to design a novel methodology to analyze the extent to the neuronal burden around protein-rich Aβ plaques suspected to affect molecular components by oxidative stress induced by inflammatory states...
December 5, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917409/gadolinium-functionalized-peptide-amphiphile-micelles-for-multimodal-imaging-of-atherosclerotic-lesions
#19
Sang Pil Yoo, Federico Pineda, John C Barrett, Christopher Poon, Matthew Tirrell, Eun Ji Chung
The leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally are cardiovascular diseases, and nanomedicine can provide many improvements including disease-specific targeting, early detection, and local delivery of diagnostic agents. To this end, we designed fibrin-binding, peptide amphiphile micelles (PAMs), achieved by incorporating the targeting peptide cysteine-arginine-glutamic acid-lysine-alanine (CREKA), with two types of amphiphilic molecules containing the gadoliniuim (Gd) chelator diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), DTPA-bis(stearylamide)(Gd), and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[(poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG))-2000]-DTPA(Gd) (DSPE-PEG2000-DTPA(Gd))...
November 30, 2016: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916608/functional-properties-of-hepatocytes-in-vitro-are-correlated-with-cell-polarity-maintenance
#20
Anja Zeigerer, Anne Wuttke, Giovanni Marsico, Sarah Seifert, Yannis Kalaidzidis, Marino Zerial
Exploring the cell biology of hepatocytes in vitro could be a powerful strategy to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying the structure and function of the liver in vivo. However, this approach relies on appropriate in vitro cell culture systems that can recapitulate the cell biological and metabolic features of the hepatocytes in the liver whilst being accessible to experimental manipulations. Here, we adapted protocols for high-resolution fluorescence microscopy and quantitative image analysis to compare two primary hepatocyte culture systems, monolayer and collagen sandwich, with respect to the distribution of two distinct populations of early endosomes (APPL1 and EEA1-positive), endocytic capacity, metabolic and signaling activities...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
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