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Molecular imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656235/effective-cancer-immunotherapy-in-mice-by-polyic-imiquimod-complexes-and-engineered-magnetic-nanoparticles
#1
Ana Isabel Bocanegra Gondan, Ane Ruiz-de-Angulo, Aintzane Zabaleta, Nina Gómez Blanco, Beatriz Macarena Cobaleda-Siles, María Jesús García-Granda, Daniel Padro, Jordi Llop, Blanca Arnaiz, María Gato, David Escors, Juan C Mareque-Rivas
Encouraging results are emerging from systems that exploit Toll like receptor (TLR) signaling, nanotechnology, checkpoint inhibition and molecular imaging for cancer immunotherapy. A major remaining challenge is developing effective, durable and tumour-specific immune responses without systemic toxicity. Here, we report a simple and versatile system based on synergistic activation of immune responses and direct cancer cell killing by combined TLR ligation using polyIC as TLR3 and imiquimod (R837) as TLR7 agonist, in combination with the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and phospholipid micelles loaded with zinc-doped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs)...
April 3, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656141/wnt5a-suppresses-inflammation-driven-intervertebral-disc-degeneration-via-a-tnf-%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-wnt5a-negative-feedback-loop
#2
Zemin Li, Kuibo Zhang, Xiang Li, Hehai Pan, Sibei Li, Fan Chen, Jian Zhang, Zhaomin Zheng, Jianru Wang, Hui Liu
OBJECTIVE: This study was to investigate the molecular role of Wnt5a on inflammation-driven intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). METHODS: The expression of Wnt5a was analyzed in human nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues with immunohistochemical staining. The effects of Wnt5a on matrix production were assessed by RT-qPCR and western blotting. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), promoter deletion assay, and promoter binding site mutant were used to reveal the molecular role of Wnt5a in TNF-α-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression...
April 12, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655355/kinetic-effects-on-the-morphology-and-stability-of-the-pressure-induced-extended-solid-of-carbon-monoxide
#3
Nhan C Dang, Jennifer A Ciezak-Jenkins
In this work, the dependence of the morphology and stability of the extended solid of carbon monoxide (CO) is correlated to the rate of transformation from the molecular CO to extended solid of CO using optical imaging, photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The analyses show the rate and pressure of the transformation to be strongly controlled by catalytic effects, both chemical and optical. In a larger volume per reaction area, the transformation was found to require either a longer time at an elevated pressure or a higher pressure compared to a sample synthesized in a smaller volume per reaction area, leading to the conclusion that the transformation rate is slower for a sample in a larger volume per reaction area...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653352/online-molecular-image-repository-and-analysis-system-a-multicenter-collaborative-open-source-infrastructure-for-molecular-imaging-research-and-application
#4
Mahabubur Rahman, Hiroshi Watabe
Molecular imaging serves as an important tool for researchers and clinicians to visualize and investigate complex biochemical phenomena using specialized instruments; these instruments are either used individually or in combination with targeted imaging agents to obtain images related to specific diseases with high sensitivity, specificity, and signal-to-noise ratios. However, molecular imaging, which is a multidisciplinary research field, faces several challenges, including the integration of imaging informatics with bioinformatics and medical informatics, requirement of reliable and robust image analysis algorithms, effective quality control of imaging facilities, and those related to individualized disease mapping, data sharing, software architecture, and knowledge management...
April 4, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653276/in-vivo-microscopy-in-neurosurgical-oncology
#5
REVIEW
Hany Osman, Joseph Georges, Deena Elsahy, Eyas Hattab, Steven Yocom, Aaron A Cohen-Gadol
Intraoperative neurosurgical histopathologic diagnoses rely on evaluation of rapid tissue preparations such as frozen sections and smears with conventional light microscopy. Though useful, these techniques are time consuming and therefore unable to provide real-time intraoperative feedback. In vivo molecular imaging techniques are emerging as novel methods for generating real-time diagnostic histopathologic images of tumors and their surrounding tissues. These imaging techniques rely on contrast generated by exogenous fluorescent dyes, autofluorescence of endogenous molecules, fluorescence decay of excited molecules, or light scattering...
April 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653224/tumor-uptake-of-pegylated-diabodies-balancing-systemic-clearance-and-vascular-transport
#6
Qing Li, Jason B White, Norman C Peterson, Keith W Rickert, Christopher O Lloyd, Kevin L Allen, Kim Rosenthal, Xizhe Gao, Herren Wu, William F Dall'Acqua, M Jack Borrok, Ping Tsui
The accumulation, dissemination and clearance of monoclonal antibody-based therapeutics or imaging reagents targeting tumor associated antigens is governed by several factors including affinity, size, charge, and valency. Tumor targeting antibody fragments have distinct advantages over intact monoclonal antibodies such as enhanced penetration within the tumor and rapid accumulation but are subject to rapid clearance. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified antibody fragments can provide a way to balance tumor penetration and accumulation with improved serum persistence...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652829/molecular-and-ultrastructural-mechanisms-underlying-yellow-dwarf-symptom-formation-in-wheat-after-infection-of-barley-yellow-dwarf-virus
#7
Wei Rong, Xindong Wang, Xifeng Wang, Sebastien Massart, Zengyan Zhang
Wheat ( Tritium aestivum L.) production is essential for global food security. Infection of barley yellow dwarf virus-GAV (BYDV-GAV) results in wheat showing leaf yellowing and plant dwarfism symptom. To explore the molecular and ultrastructural mechanisms underlying yellow dwarf symptom formation in BYDV-GAV-infected wheat, we investigated the chloroplast ultrastructure via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), examined the contents of the virus, H₂O₂, and chlorophyll in Zhong8601, and studied the comparative transcriptome through microarray analyses in the susceptible wheat line Zhong8601 after virus infection...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652208/age-based-ultrasonographic-criteria-for-diagnosis-of-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-in-persian-cats
#8
Juliana M Guerra, Mariana F Freitas, Alexandre Gt Daniel, Arine Pellegrino, Natália C Cardoso, Isac de Castro, Luiz F Onuchic, Bruno Cogliati
Objectives The aim of this study was to establish ultrasound criteria for the diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in Persian cats. Methods Eighty-two Persian cats were assessed using renal ultrasound and genotyped for the C→A transversion in exon 29 of PKD1. The animals were also submitted to hematological characterization, serum biochemistry analyses and urinalysis. Results Age, sex and neutering status did not differ between ADPKD (n = 12) and non-ADPKD (n = 70) cats. After integrated molecular genetics/ultrasonographic analysis, the presence of at least one renal cyst was sufficient to establish a diagnosis of ADPKD in animals up to 15 months of age...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652178/multi-modal-imaging-for-dose-planning-and-its-benefits-the-paradigm-of-head-and-neck-tumours
#9
V Grégoire
The ultimate goal of any radiotherapy is to eradicate the disease without inflicting damage on the normal tissues surrounding the tumours, which could be responsible for late treatment morbidity. To achieve this objective, the first step is to precisely select and delineate the target volumes to which a given dose will be prescribed. This step requires the use of multi-modal images from clinical examination to anatomical and molecular images. Imaging examination will be used not only to delineate the boundaries of the tumour volume, but also to assess tumour heterogeneity and, possibly, to guide a heterogeneous dose prescription (i...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652128/self-healing-organic-fluorophore-of-cyanine-conjugated-amphiphilic-polypeptide-for-near-infrared-photostable-bioimaging
#10
Tuanwei Li, Le Liu, Titao Jing, Zheng Ruan, Pan Yuan, Lifeng Yan
Photobleaching and bio-toxicity are the main bottlenecks for organic fluorescent dyes applied in real-time dynamic monitoring of living cells. Here, an unnatural amino acid (UAA), 4-nitro-3-phenyl-L-alanine (NPA), was used as a scaffold to covalently link a near infrared (NIR) fluorophore Cy5.5, and an amphiphilic polypeptide Poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate]-block-poly[2-Amino-N4-(2-diisopropylamino-ethyl)-L-Aspartic acid] (P(OEGMA)21-P(Asp)16-iPr) was then conjugated for increasing the photostability and improving the biocompatibility simultaneously...
April 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652127/optical-probes-for-neurobiological-sensing-and-imaging
#11
Eric H Kim, Gregory Chin, Guoxin Rong, Kira E Poskanzer, Heather A Clark
Fluorescent nanosensors and molecular probes are next-generation tools for imaging chemical signaling inside and between cells. Electrophysiology has long been considered the gold standard in elucidating neural dynamics with high temporal resolution and precision, particularly on the single-cell level. However, electrode-based techniques face challenges in illuminating the specific chemicals involved in neural cell activation with adequate spatial information. Measuring chemical dynamics is of fundamental importance to better understand synergistic interactions between neurons as well as interactions between neurons and non-neuronal cells...
April 13, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652061/bevacizumab-and-near-infrared-probe-conjugated-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-for-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-targeted-mr-and-optical-imaging
#12
Run Lin, Jing Huang, Liya Wang, Yuancheng Li, Malgorzata Lipowska, Hui Wu, Jianyong Yang, Hui Mao
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in the cascade of development and progression of cancers. Targeting this cancer hallmark is a logical strategy for imaging based cancer detection and monitoring the anti-angiogenesis treatment. Using Bevacizumab (Avastin®), which is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody directly against VEGF and an angiogenesis inhibitor, as a targeting ligand, a multimodal VEGF targeted molecular imaging probe was developed by conjugating near infrared dye (NIR830) labeled bevacizumab to magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) for optical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of cancers over-expressing VEGF...
April 13, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651576/fluorescence-molecular-imaging-and-tomography-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-activatable-near-infrared-fluorescence-probe-and-image-guided-orthotopic-glioma-resection
#13
Li Li, Yang Du, Xinjian Chen, Jie Tian
PURPOSE: Malignant gliomas are major causes of cancer-related mortality and morbidity. Traditional surgery usually leads to incomplete resection of gliomas resulting in the high incidence of tumor recurrence. Advanced medical imaging technology, such as fluorescence imaging-guided surgery, combined with tumor-specific imaging probes allows the identification of tumor margins and improved surgery. However, there are two pressing issues that need to be addressed: first, few fluorescence imaging probes can specifically target gliomas; second, fluorescence molecular imaging (FMI) cannot get the in-depth information of deep-seated gliomas; both of which affect the complete removal of the gliomas...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651565/synthesis-and-preclinical-evaluation-of-novel-18-f-labeled-glu-urea-glu-based-psma-inhibitors-for-prostate-cancer-imaging-a-comparison-with-18-f-dcfpyl-and-18-f-psma-1007
#14
Stephanie Robu, Alexander Schmidt, Matthias Eiber, Margret Schottelius, Thomas Günther, Behrooz Hooshyar Yousefi, Markus Schwaiger, Hans-Jürgen Wester
BACKGROUND: Due to its high and consistent expression in prostate cancer (PCa), the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) represents an ideal target for molecular imaging and targeted therapy using highly specific radiolabeled PSMA ligands. To address the continuously growing clinical demand for 18 F-labeled PSMA-probes, we developed two novel Glu-urea-Glu-(EuE)-based inhibitors, EuE-k-18 F-FBOA (1) and EuE-k-β-a-18 F-FPyl (2), both with optimized linker structure and different 18 F-labeled aromatic moieties...
April 12, 2018: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650981/optical-characterization-of-surface-adlayers-and-their-compositional-demixing-at-the-nanoscale
#15
Limin Xiang, Michal Wojcik, Samuel J Kenny, Rui Yan, Seonah Moon, Wan Li, Ke Xu
Under ambient conditions, the behavior of a solid surface is often dominated by a molecularly thin adsorbed layer (adlayer) of small molecules. Here we develop an optical approach to unveil the nanoscale structure and composition of small-molecule adlayers on glass surfaces through spectrally resolved super-resolution microscopy. By recording the images and emission spectra of millions of individual solvatochromic molecules that turn fluorescent in the adlayer phase, we obtain ~30 nm spatial resolution and achieve concurrent measurement of local polarity...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650765/prospective-cardiovascular-genetics-evaluation-in-spontaneous-coronary-artery-dissection
#16
M Ihsan Kaadan, Carolyn MacDonald, Francesca Ponzini, Jessica Duran, Kelsey Newell, Linda Pitler, Angela Lin, Ido Weinberg, Malissa J Wood, Mark E Lindsay
BACKGROUND: Previous studies describing genetics evaluation in spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) have been retrospective in nature or presented as single case reports. As part of a dedicated clinical program, we evaluated patients in cardiovascular genetics clinic to determine the role of genetically triggered vascular disease and genetic testing in SCAD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patient data were entered prospectively into the Massachusetts General Hospital SCAD registry database from July 2013 to September 2017...
April 2018: Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650270/radioiodine-refractory-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Yuchen Jin, Douglas Van Nostrand, Lingxiao Cheng, Min Liu, Libo Chen
Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is usually curable with surgery, radioactive iodine (RAI), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression. However, local recurrence and/or distant metastases occur in approximately 15% of cases during follow-up, and nearly two-thirds of these patients will become RAI-refractory (RR-DTC) with a poor prognosis. This review focuses on the most challenging and rapidly evolving aspects of RR-DTC, and we discuss the considerable improvement in more accurately defining RR-DTC, more effective therapeutic strategies, and describe the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and future prospects of RR-DTC...
May 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650126/myocardial-interstitial-fibrosis-in-heart-failure-biological-and-translational-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Arantxa González, Erik B Schelbert, Javier Díez, Javed Butler
Myocardial interstitial fibrosis contributes to left ventricular dysfunction leading to the development of heart failure. Basic research has provided abundant evidence for the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind this lesion and the pathways by which it imparts a detrimental impact on cardiac function. Translation of this knowledge, however, to improved diagnostics and therapeutics for patients with heart failure has not been as robust. This is partly related to the paucity of biomarkers to accurately identify myocardial interstitial fibrosis and to the lack of personalized antifibrotic strategies to treat it in an effective manner...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649981/in-silico-cancer-research-towards-3r
#19
Claire Jean-Quartier, Fleur Jeanquartier, Igor Jurisica, Andreas Holzinger
BACKGROUND: Improving our understanding of cancer and other complex diseases requires integrating diverse data sets and algorithms. Intertwining in vivo and in vitro data and in silico models are paramount to overcome intrinsic difficulties given by data complexity. Importantly, this approach also helps to uncover underlying molecular mechanisms. Over the years, research has introduced multiple biochemical and computational methods to study the disease, many of which require animal experiments...
April 12, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649765/probing-the-brain-with-molecular-fmri
#20
REVIEW
Souparno Ghosh, Peter Harvey, Jacob C Simon, Alan Jasanoff
One of the greatest challenges of modern neuroscience is to incorporate our growing knowledge of molecular and cellular-scale physiology into integrated, organismic-scale models of brain function in behavior and cognition. Molecular-level functional magnetic resonance imaging (molecular fMRI) is a new technology that can help bridge these scales by mapping defined microscopic phenomena over large, optically inaccessible regions of the living brain. In this review, we explain how MRI-detectable imaging probes can be used to sensitize noninvasive imaging to mechanistically significant components of neural processing...
April 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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