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Vascular calcification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775762/aortic-vascular-calcification-is-inversely-associated-with-the-trabecular-bone-score-in-patients-receiving-dialysis
#1
Jasna Aleksova, Samantha Kurniawan, Mirna Vucak-Dzumhur, Peter Kerr, Peter R Ebeling, Frances Milat, Grahame J Elder
INTRODUCTION: Progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) confers a marked increase in risk for vascular calcification, cardiovascular disease, fracture and mortality, with likely contributing factors including dysregulated bone metabolism and mineral homeostasis. In general population studies, increased vascular calcification is directly related to mortality and inversely related to bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In patients with CKD, abnormalities in turnover, mineralization and bone volume, reduce the ability of DXA to predict fracture...
May 15, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770194/clinical-utility-of-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-in-genitourinary-medicine
#2
REVIEW
Jason Gandhi, Omar Seyam, Noel L Smith, Gunjan Joshi, Sohrab Vatsia, Sardar Ali Khan
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is a medical technique which delivers oxygen at ambient pressures to increase the amount of dissolved oxygen in the blood and oxygen distribution to tissues. There are several beneficial properties of HBOT concomitant with elevated oxygen distribution in tissue including anti-inflammation, angiogenesis through vascular endothelial growth factor proliferation, augmented fibroblast activity through fibroblast growth factor proliferation, tissue and wound repair, enhancement of lymphocyte and macrophage activity, increased male testosterone secretion, and bactericidal activity...
January 2018: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764395/longitudinal-changes-in-bone-and-mineral-metabolism-after-cessation-of-cinacalcet-in-dialysis-patients-with-secondary-hyperparathyroidism
#3
Irene Ruderman, Edward R Smith, Nigel D Toussaint, Tim D Hewitson, Stephen G Holt
BACKGROUND: The calcimimetic agent cinacalcet is effective for the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in dialysis patients. Changes to reimbursement of cinacalcet in Australia provided an opportunity to assess effects of medication cessation on biochemical and clinical outcomes in dialysis patients, including changes to novel biomarkers such as calciprotein particles (CPP). CPP are nanoparticles of mineral and protein in the circulation associated with increased vascular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease...
May 15, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763365/effect-of-cross-linked-chitosan-iron-iii-on-vascular-calcification-in-uremic-rats
#4
Barbara Bruna Abreu de Castro, Wander Barros do Carmo, Paulo Giovani de Albuquerque Suassuna, Moises Carminatti, Julia Bianchi Brito, Wagner Vasques Dominguez, Ivone Braga de Oliveira, Vanda Jorgetti, Melani Ribeiro Custodio, Helady Sanders-Pinheiro
Cross-linked chitosan iron (III) is a chitin-derived polymer with a chelating effect on phosphorus, but it is untested in vascular calcification. We evaluated this compound's ability to reduce hyperphosphatemia and its effect on vascular calcification in uremic rats using an adenine-based, phosphorus-rich diet for seven weeks. We used a control group to characterize the uremia. Uremic rats were divided according the treatment into chronic kidney disease, CKD-Ch-Fe(III)CL (CKD-Ch), CKD-calcium carbonate, or CKD-sevelamer groups...
May 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761287/activation-of-the-mtorc1-pathway-by-inflammation-contributes-to-vascular-calcification-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#5
Jing Liu, Wei Zhu, Chun Ming Jiang, Yuan Feng, Yang Yang Xia, Qing Yan Zhang, Miao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation plays an important role in the progression of vascular calcification (VC). This study was designed to explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of inflammation on VC in the radial arteries of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with arteriovenostomy. METHODS: Forty-eight ESRD patients were divided into control (n = 25) and inflammation groups (n = 23) according to plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) level. Surgically removed tissues from the radial arteries of patients receiving arteriovenostomy were used in this study...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761090/the-role-of-vascular-calcification-in-heart-failure-and-cognitive-decline
#6
REVIEW
Hao-Min Cheng, Jiun-Jr Wang, Chen-Huan Chen
Vascular calcification is heterogeneous and triggered by multiple mechanisms. It has been implicated in the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and cognitive function impairment. Understanding the pathophysiology of vascular calcification may help us improve the management of HFpEF, atherosclerosis, accelerated arterial stiffness, hypertension, and cognitive dysfunction. Currently, there are no effective strategies for treating accelerated arterial stiffness. This may indicate that once arterial stiffness or vascular calcification has developed, it may be less likely to stop the ongoing pathophysiology...
March 2018: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753654/correlation-of-arterial-stiffness-with-left-atrial-volume-index-and-left-ventricular-mass-index-in-young-adults-evaluation-by-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography
#7
Kazuhiro Osawa, Rine Nakanishi, Toru Miyoshi, Sina Rahmani, Indre Ceponiene, Negin Nezarat, Mitsuru Kanisawa, Hong Qi, Eranthi Jayawardena, Nicholas Kim, Hiroshi Ito, Matthew J Budoff
BACKGROUND: Increased arterial stiffness is reportedly associated with cardiac remodelling, including the left atrium and left ventricle, in middle-aged and older adults. However, little is known about this association in young adults. METHODS: In total, 73 patients (44 (60%) men) aged 25 to 45 years with suspected coronary artery disease were included in the analysis. The left atrial volume index (LAVI), left ventricular volume index (LVVI), and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were measured using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)...
April 26, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753400/updates-on-the-mechanisms-and-the-care-of-cardiovascular-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
REVIEW
Lucie Hénaut, Jean-Marc Chillon, Saïd Kamel, Ziad A Massy
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), the progressive decrease in renal function leads to disturbances of mineral metabolism that generally cause secondary hyperparathyroidism. The increase in serum parathyroid hormone is associated with reduced serum calcium and calcitriol levels and/or increased serum fibroblast growth factor-23 and phosphate levels. The resulting CKD-associated disorder of mineral and bone metabolism is associated with various other metabolic dysregulations such as acidosis, malnutrition, inflammation, and accumulation of uremic toxins...
May 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752108/surface-decorated-hydroxyapatite-scaffold-with-on-demand-delivery-of-dexamethasone-and-stromal-cell-derived-factor-1-for-enhanced-osteogenesis
#9
Bingjun Zhang, Hongyu Li, Lei He, Zhiwei Han, Teng Zhou, Wei Zhi, Xiaobo Lu, Xiong Lu, Jie Weng
In the process of bone regeneration, relatively early biological events including inflammatory response, angiogenesis, or stem cell homing, help the accompanying target actions of cell differentiation and calcification. Herein, we proposed a novel cell-guided tissue engineering system based on a surface-functionalized porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds with the ability to recruit cells and accelerate the differentiation of them along the osteoblastic lineage for optimizing large-sized bone defect repair. Inspired by microstructural properties of natural bone, HA scaffolds similar to the trabecular bone structure were prepared via a sugar sphere leaching technique, in which the inter-pore opening size was controllable...
August 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750809/histological-validation-of-calcifications-in-the-human-hippocampus-as-seen-on-computed-tomography
#10
Melissa E M Peters, Remko Kockelkoren, Esther J M de Brouwer, Huiberdina L Koek, Ronald L A W Bleys, Willem P Th M Mali, Jeroen Hendrikse, Annemieke M Rozemuller, Pim A de Jong
BACKGROUND: Calcifications within the hippocampus were recently described for the first time on computed tomography (CT). These calcifications appeared in patients older than 50 years, the prevalence increases with age and they may be associated with cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to determine the histological basis (the presence, severity and location) of these CT-detected hippocampal calcifications of post-mortem brains. METHODS: CT scans of seven post-mortem brains were scored for the presence and severity (mild, moderate, severe) of hippocampal calcification...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749440/vitamin-k%C3%A2-dependent-proteins-involved-in-bone-and-cardiovascular-health-review
#11
Lianpu Wen, Jiepeng Chen, Lili Duan, Shuzhuang Li
In postmenopausal women and elderly men, bone density decreases with age and vascular calcification is aggravated. This condition is closely associated with vitamin K2 deficiency. A total of 17 different vitamin K‑dependent proteins have been identified to date. Vitamin K‑dependent proteins are located within the bone, heart and blood vessels. For instance, carboxylated osteocalcin is beneficial for bone and aids the deposition of calcium into the bone matrix. Carboxylated matrix Gla protein effectively protects blood vessels and may prevent calcification within the vascular wall...
April 27, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744114/calcific-uremic-arteriolopathy
#12
Olanrewaju A Olaoye, Abhilash Koratala
Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) or Calciphylaxis is a rare disease typically seen in end stage renal disease patients on dialysis and is associated with high mortality rates, mainly because of sepsis. Medial calcification of the dermal arterioles is the characteristic histologic finding together with vascular thrombosis and ischemic necrosis. CUA involves legs, abdomen and gluteal region in majority of the patients. Herein, we present a case of CUA of the glans penis in a uremic patient. Unfortunately, the patient died of sepsis in a few weeks after initiating dialysis...
October 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743160/microbiome-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-ckd
#13
REVIEW
Anna Jovanovich, Tamara Isakova, Jason Stubbs
Patients with CKD exhibit a disproportionate burden of cardiovascular mortality, which likely stems from the presence of unique, nontraditional risk factors that accompany deteriorating kidney function. Mounting evidence suggests that alterations to the intestinal microbiome in CKD may serve as one such risk factor. The human intestinal tract is home to >100 trillion micro-organisms made up of a collection of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic species. These species along with their local environment constitute the intestinal microbiome...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742957/abnormalities-of-vascular-histology-and-collagen-fiber-configuration-in-patients-with-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease
#14
Michael Allon, Silvio H Litovsky, Jason Chieh Sheng Tey, Chad A Sundberg, Yingying Zhang, Zhen Chen, Yun Fang, Alfred K Cheung, Yan-Ting Shiu
INTRODUCTION: Several histologic features have been identified in the upper-extremity arteries and veins of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, which may affect arteriovenous fistula maturation. However, it is unclear whether these chronic kidney disease vascular features are abnormal. METHODS: We obtained upper-extremity arterial and venous specimens from 125 advanced chronic kidney disease patients undergoing arteriovenous fistula creation and from 15 control subjects...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738375/magnesium-citrate-protects-against-vascular-calcification-in-an-adenine-induced-crf-rat-model
#15
PhD Zhihui-Yao, M D Yang-Xu, M D Weidong-Ma, Xin-Yuan Sun, PhD Shan-Jia, M D Yang-Zheng, M D Xiaohuan-Liu, M D Yajie-Fan, M D Congxia-Wang
BACKGROUND: Hypomagnemia was identified as a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). However, the effects of magnesium (Mg) on vascular calcification (VC) have not been fully elucidated. Thus we aim to determine the effects of Mg citrate (MgCit) on VC in CRF rats. METHODS: Rats were divided into 5 groups: group 1 (normal diet); group 2 (normal diet with MgCit); group 3 (VC model of CRF induced by 0.75% adenine and 0...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734173/soluble-urokinase-plasminogen-activator-receptor-is-associated-with-coronary-artery-calcification-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-patients-undergoing-hemodialysis
#16
Wenjuan Wu, Yanhai Cui, Juan Hu, Ruyi Liao, Sijia Li, Liyi Mo, Lixia Xu, Yuanhan Chen, Zhiwen Lian, Xiulan Tian, Zhuo Li, Ruizhao Li, Li Zhang, Huaban Liang, Jianchao Ma, Ting Lin, Zhonglin Feng, Wei Dong, Guibao Ke, Pingjiang Ge, Zhiming Ye, Wenjiang Wang, Bing Zhang, Wei Shi, Xinling Liang, Shuangxin Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Vascular calcification is thought to play an important role in causing CVD. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a biomarker strongly predictive of cardiovascular outcomes in the pathogenesis of diabetic patients with renal disease treated with hemodialysis. We investigated the relationship between suPAR and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis...
May 3, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733462/current-and-potential-therapeutic-strategies-for-the-management-of-vascular-calcification-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-including-those-on-dialysis
#17
REVIEW
Irene Ruderman, Stephen G Holt, Tim D Hewitson, Edward R Smith, Nigel D Toussaint
Patients with CKD have accelerated vascular stiffening contributing significantly to excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Much of the arterial stiffening is thought to involve vascular calcification (VC), but the pathogenesis of this phenomenon is complex, resulting from a disruption of the balance between promoters and inhibitors of calcification in a uremic milieu, along with derangements in calcium and phosphate metabolic pathways. Management of traditional cardiovascular risk factors to reduce VC may be influential but has not been shown to significantly improve mortality...
May 7, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729223/cortistatin-can-it-or-can-it-not-prevent-vascular-calcification-by-modulation-of-wnt-signalling
#18
EDITORIAL
Jacqueline K Phillips
In this issue of Acta Physiologica, a paper by Liu et al1 examines the mechanisms by which the neuropeptide cortistatin ameliorates calcification in animal and cell based models of vascular calcification. Previous work by the authors established that cortistatin was able to inhibit medial vascular calcification and associated disease pathology, and the current work goes on to show a strong association between the beneficial effects of cortistatin and modulation of Wnt signalling pathways. This article is protected by copyright...
May 5, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725245/vascular-calcification-and-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-in-hemodialysis-patients-interrelationship-and-clinical-impacts
#19
Hyeon Seok Hwang, Jung Sun Cho, Yu Ah Hong, Yoon Kyung Chang, Suk Young Kim, Seok Joon Shin, Hye Eun Yoon
Background: We examined the relationship and combined effect of vascular calcification (VC) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) on deaths and cardiovascular events (CVEs) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: Maintenance HD patients (n=341) were included. Echocardiography data and plain chest radiographs were used to assess LVH and aortic arch VC. Results: VC was found in 100 patients (29.3%). LVH was more prevalent in patients with VC compared with those without VC (70% vs. 50.2%, P =0.001). VC was independently associated with a 2...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721920/acquired-peripheral-pulmonary-artery-aneurysms-morphological-spectrum-of-disease-and-multidetector-computed-tomography-angiography-findings-cases-series-and-literature-review
#20
REVIEW
Tullio Valente, Ahmad Abu-Omar, Giacomo Sica, Alfredo Clemente, Massimo Muto, Giorgio Bocchini, Salvatore Cappabianca, Gaetano Rea
BACKGROUND: Acquired peripheral or intraparenchymal pulmonary artery aneurysms (PPAA) are rare entities but are important to recognize because of the associated morbidity. Hemoptysis is their principal complication and is a potentially fatal condition. PURPOSE: To illustrate the causes, multidetector CT angiography (MDCTA) findings and differential diagnosis of acquired PPAA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The institutional review boards approved this study...
May 2, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
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