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Vascular calcification

Eva Jover, Ana Silvente, Francisco Marín, José Martínez-González, Mar Orriols, Carlos M Martinez, Carmen María Puche, Mariano Valdés, Cristina Rodriguez, Diana Hernández-Romero
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) transdifferentiate into osteoblast-like cells during vascular calcification, inducing active remodeling and calcification of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Intracellular and extracellular enzymes, such as lysyl hydroxylase 1 (PLOD1) and lysyl oxidase (LOX), contribute to ECM maturation and stabilization. We assessed the contribution of these enzymes to hyperphosphatemia (HPM)-induced calcification. Human and murine VSMCs were differentiated into functional osteoblast-like cells by HPM conditioning...
March 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Alexandros Mallios, William Jennings, Benoit Boura, Alessandro Costanzo, Myriam Combes
Skin necrosis overlying an arteriovenous fistula at the cannulation site is a common and potentially life-threatening problem, often associated with underlying aneurysm formation. Arteriovenous fistula-skin necrosis generally requires resection of surrounding skin margins and the underlying aneurysmal vessel wall, allowing repair with healthy tissue of the arteriovenous fistula in addition to closure of soft tissue and skin. In patients with insufficient fistula length, salvage of these arteriovenous fistulas may result in difficult or insurmountable cannulation issues leading to attempts at one-needle cannulation dialysis or, most often, catheter placement...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Z Y Jia, L B Zhao, D H Lee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Segmental intracranial dolichoectasia of the distal ICA is a feature of PHACE syndrome or a sporadic phenomenon. We evaluated the relationship between intracranial dolichoectasia of the distal ICA and PHACE syndrome and illustrated the characteristic radiologic findings of the lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intracranial dolichoectasia of the distal ICA was identified in 20 patients at our institution from 2005 to 2016 through a review of diagnostic cerebral angiography results...
March 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Xuanliang Pan, Guoxian Chen, Pan Wu, Chunmao Han, Jon Kee Ho
Skin perfusion pressure (SPP) is the blood pressure that is the requisite for the restoration of microcirculatory or capillary flow following controlled occlusion and subsequent flow return. The purpose of the current review was to evaluate the value of SPP for the prediction of wound healing in patients with limb ischemia. Articles published up to January 31, 2017 were searched in the PubMed database and Chinese database CNKI, using the keywords of 'skin perfusion pressure', 'limb ischemia' and 'wound healing'...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
Yoshitaka Isaka, Hideki Fujii, Yoshihiro Tsujimoto, Satoshi Teramukai, Takayuki Hamano
BACKGROUND: In dialysis patients, mortality risk due to cardiovascular diseases is remarkably high and prognosis is poor; coronary artery calcification is considered one of the major contributing factors. It is known that hyperphosphatemia is associated with coronary artery calcification. Therefore, controlling serum phosphate level and thereby mitigating vascular calcification could improve the poor prognosis of dialysis patients. However, the optimal phosphate level in dialysis patients remains unknown; hence, this study was planned to compare the effects of two types of non-calcium-based phosphate binders, and examine the effect of strict control of phosphate on coronary artery calcification...
March 13, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
M Rroji, G Spasovski
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is common among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). SHPT is associated with high-turnover bone disease, interstitial and vascular calcifications, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The pharmacological management of SHPT has progressed in recent years. The introduction of targeted therapies, such as selective vitamin D receptors activators and calcium-sensing receptor modulators, offers an increased opportunity to adequately control elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH), especially in patients with chronic kidney disease under dialysis treatment...
March 12, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Panagiotis I Georgianos, Maria I Pikilidou, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Elias V Balaskas, Pantelis E Zebekakis
Arterial stiffness is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Arterial stiffness aggravates cardiovascular risk via multiple pathways, such as augmentation of aortic systolic pressure, subendocardial hypoperfusion, and excess pulsatile energy transmission from macro- to microcirculation. Pathogenesis of the arteriosclerotic process in ESRD is complex and not yet fully understood. Several factors unique to ESRD, such as mineral metabolism disturbances, vascular calcifications, formation of advanced glycation end-products, and acute and chronic volume overload, are proposed to play a particular role in the progression of arteriosclerosis in ESRD...
March 12, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Fabian Plank, Christoph Beyer, Guy Friedrich, Markus Stühlinger, Florian Hintringer, Wolfgang Dichtl, Matthias Wildauer, Gudrun Feuchtner
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are associated with increased vascular calcification which may lead to an elevated cardiovascular risk. If the direct anticoagulants (DOACs) have similar negative vascular effects is unknown. We evaluated the influence of different anticoagulation strategies on coronary artery disease (CAD) using coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). METHODS: Overall 702 consecutive patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) who underwent CTA for AF ablation planning were enrolled and stratified according to their anticoagulation into VKA, DOAC (all agents) and a control group without oral anticoagulation...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Wei Ling Lau, Javad Savoj, Michael B Nakata, Nosratola D Vaziri
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), influx of urea and other retained toxins exerts a change in the gut microbiome. There is decreased number of beneficial bacteria that produce short-chain fatty acids, an essential nutrient for the colonic epithelium, concurrent with an increase in bacteria that produce uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulphate, p -cresyl sulphate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Due to intestinal wall inflammation and degradation of intercellular tight junctions, gut-derived uremic toxins translocate into the bloodstream and exert systemic effects...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Wei Ling Lau, Yoshitsugu Obi, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Secondary hyperparathyroidism develops in CKD due to a combination of vitamin D deficiency, hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia, and it exists in nearly all patients at the time of dialysis initiation. There is insufficient data on whether to prefer vitamin D analogs compared with calcimimetics, but the available evidence suggests advantages with combination therapy. Calcium derangements, patient adherence, side effects, and cost limit the use of these agents. When parathyroid hormone level persists >800 pg/ml for >6 months, despite exhaustive medical interventions, monoclonal proliferation with nodular hyperplasia is likely present along with decreased expression of vitamin D and calcium-sensing receptors...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
W Toppen, W Suh, O Aksoy, P Benharash, C Bowles, R J Shemin, M Kwon
OBJECTIVE: With the introduction of the latest generation Sapien 3 transcatheter aortic valve, there has been a reduction in the usage of transapical (TA) approach for TAVRs in many centers. However, despite the smaller sheath size and more stream-lined delivery system, vascular complications continue to occur, especially in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Thus, our institution has maintained a stringent TA protocol aiming to prevent these complications. We hypothesize that this protocol has helped to reduce vascular complications and improve outcomes at our institution even in the Sapien 3 era...
March 6, 2018: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
A Srivastava, S K Sureka, S Prabhakaran, H Lal, M S Ansari, R Kapoor
Radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (RCAVF) is the first choice for native arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Preoperative vessel assessment with ultrasonography (USG) has been reported to enhance the outcome of native AVF, but data regarding its predictive value for functional maturation of RCAVF are scanty. We aimed to determine the role of preoperative duplex USG (DUS) for prediction of functional maturity of radiocephalic fistula in the wrist. The data from 173 patients were analyzed prospectively. The estimated duplex variable included size, patency, and continuity of cephalic vein and size, peak systolic velocity, and wall calcifications in radial artery at the wrist...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Andrew L Durham, Mei Y Speer, Marta Scatena, Cecilia M Giachelli, Catherine M Shanahan
Vascular calcification is associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Calcification has been determined to be an active process driven in part by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) transdifferentiation within the vascular wall. Historically, VSMC phenotype switching has been viewed as binary, with the cells able to adopt a physiological contractile phenotype or an alternate 'synthetic' phenotype in response to injury. More recent work, including lineage tracing has however revealed that VSMCs are able to adopt a number of phenotypes, including calcific (osteogenic, chondrocytic, and osteoclastic), adipogenic, and macrophagic phenotypes...
March 15, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Primploy Greeviroj, Thidarat Kitrungphaiboon, Pisut Katavetin, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa, Somchai Eiam-Ong, Bertrand L Jaber, Paweena Susantitaphong
BACKGROUND: Cinacalcet could decrease serum calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in previous meta-analyses. However, the effect of cinacalcet on the new biomarkers such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), bone markers, and vascular calcification are still unestablished. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the effects of cinacalcet on all laboratory and clinical spectrums of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders (CKD-MBD). METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Clinical Trials...
March 7, 2018: Nephron
Luca Bertoglio, Daniele Mascia, Tommaso Cambiaghi, Andrea Kahlberg, Germano Melissano, Roberto Chiesa
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of upper extremity access (UEA) with percutaneous closure of the axillary artery (AxA) during endovascular treatment of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms with fenestrated and branched endografts. METHODS: Between January 2014 and 2017, 34 out of 37 patients (92%) required UEA during a staged branched and fenestrated endovascular approach. A percutaneous AxA (pAxA) approach was used in 14 consecutive patients (41%) with the off-label use of two Perclose ProGlide (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, Calif) devices...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Mathieu van Steenberghe, Thomas Schubert, Caroline Bouzin, Carlo Caravaggio, Yves Guiot, Daela Xhema, Pierre Gianello
BACKGROUND: There is a need for small caliber vascular prosthesis. Synthetic grafts are hindered by thrombogenicity and rapid occlusion. Decellularized matrices could be an alternative. We assessed in vitro and in vivo the biocompatibility of porcine artery treated with a chemical/physical process for decellularization and graft securization with non/conventional pathogens inactivation. METHODS: Porcine carotid arteries (PCA) were treated. First, biopsies (n=4/tissue) were performed before/after treatment to assess decellularization (HE / DAPI / DNA / Miller)...
February 28, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
G Kauffenstein, G G Yegutkin, S Khiati, V Pomozi, O Le Saux, G Leftheriotis, G Lenaers, D Henrion, L Martin
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a rare genetic condition primarily caused by hepatic ABCC6 transporter dysfunction. Most clinical manifestations of PXE are due to premature calcification of elastic fibers. However, the vascular impact of PXE is pleiotropic and remains ill-defined. ABCC6 expression has recently been associated with cellular nucleotide export. We studied the impact of ABCC6 deficiency on blood levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and related metabolites and on soluble nucleotidase activities in PXE patients and Abcc6-/- mice...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Marja Steenman, Olivier Espitia, Blandine Maurel, Beatrice Guyomarch, Marie-Françoise Heymann, Marc-Antoine Pistorius, Benjamin Ory, Dominique Heymann, Rémi Houlgatte, Yann Gouëffic, Thibaut Quillard
Calcification is independently associated with cardiovascular events and morbidity. The calcification burden in atherosclerotic lesions quantitatively and qualitatively differs between arterial beds. Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) differentially affect plaque development between arterial beds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of CVRF on atherosclerotic plaque calcification and to further study the molecular arterial heterogeneity that could account for these differences. Histological analysis was performed on atherosclerotic plaques from 153 carotid, 97 femoral and 28 infrapopliteal arteries...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jijnasa Bordoloi, Anjum Dihingia, Jatin Kalita, Prasenjit Manna
Gla-rich protein (GRP) or unique cartilage matrix-associated protein (Ucma), the newest member of vitamin K dependent proteins, carries exceptionally high number of γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues which contributes to its outstanding capacity of binding with calcium in the extracellular environment indicating its potential role as a global calcium modulator. Recent studies demonstrated a critical function of GRP in the regulation of different pathophysiological conditions associated with vascular and soft tissue calcification including cardiovascular diseases, osteoarthritis, inflammation, and skin and breast carcinomas...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Juan R Muñoz-Castañeda, María V Pendón-Ruiz de Mier, Mariano Rodríguez, María E Rodríguez-Ortiz
Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease exhibit an increase in cardiovascular mortality. Recent works have shown that low levels of magnesium are associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in hemodialysis patients. Epidemiological studies suggest an influence of low levels of magnesium on the occurrence of cardiovascular disease, which is also observed in the normal population. Magnesium is involved in critical cellular events such as apoptosis and oxidative stress. It also participates in a number of enzymatic reactions...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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