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Breast cancer, metabolic disease, ra

Sebastian J Sciegienka, Shane R Solst, Kelly C Falls, Joshua D Schoenfeld, Adrienne R Klinger, Natalie L Ross, Samuel N Rodman, Douglas R Spitz, Melissa A Fath
D-penicillamine (DPEN), a copper chelator, has been used in the treatment of Wilson's disease, cystinuria, and rheumatoid arthritis. Recent evidence suggests that DPEN in combination with biologically relevant copper (Cu) concentrations generates H2 O2 in cancer cell cultures, but the effects of this on cancer cell responses to ionizing radiation and chemotherapy are unknown. Increased steady-state levels of H2 O2 were detected in MB231 breast and H1299 lung cancer cells following treatment with DPEN (100µM) and copper sulfate (15µM)...
July 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Ammar A Chaudhry, Maryam Gul, Abbas A Chaudhry, William Moore
History A 54-year-old white woman with a history of rheumatoid arthritis who was taking glucocorticoids and methotrexate presented to the emergency department in December with worsening shortness of breath and chest heaviness for 1 week. She reported additional symptoms of weakness, headache, and arthralgia primarily involving her bilateral hands, wrist, ankles, and feet. She denied experiencing fevers, syncope or presyncope, focal neurologic deficits, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, unintentional weight loss, or recent trauma...
February 2017: Radiology
Turgay Ebiloglu, Engin Kaya, Sercan Yilmaz, Gökhan Özgür, Yusuf Kibar
Haemorrhagic Cystitis (HC) is defined as diffuse inflammatory bladder bleeding due to many aetiologies. Massive HC often arises from anticancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy for the treatment of pelvic malignancies. Phosphamides are the anti-cancer drugs used for treating breast cancer, B-cell lymphoma, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythaematosis by cross-linking strands of DNA and preventing the cell division. They are also used in bone marrow transplantation for prevention of Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD)...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Aline Lauria P Abrão, Denise Pinheiro Falcao, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista de Amorim, Ana Cristina B Bezerra, Gilson Augusto N M Pombeiro, Luciano Junqueira Guimarães, Felipe Fregni, Luciano Paulino Silva, Licia Maria Henrique da Mota
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory disturbance. Pleomorphic manifestations are present and a potentially progressive and debilitating course can be detected. SLE rarely manifests before age 5, and its onset peaks is around puberty. Although clinical manifestations, immunological alterations and treatment do not differ between juvenile and adult SLE, children tend to present with a more aggressive disease course than adults. Hence, autoimmune rheumatic diseases are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric populations...
April 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Laura Manzi, Lara Costantini, Romina Molinari, Nicolò Merendino
The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) are a class of lipids that has been shown to have beneficial effects on some chronic degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory disorders, diabetes, and cancer. Among ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has received particular attention for its antiproliferative, proapoptotic, antiangiogenetic, anti-invasion, and antimetastatic properties, even though the involved molecular mechanisms are not well understood...
2015: BioMed Research International
Gianni Biolo, Tommy Cederholm, Maurizio Muscaritoli
Skeletal muscle is the most abundant body tissue accounting for many physiological functions. However, muscle mass and functions are not routinely assessed. Sarcopenia is defined as skeletal muscle loss and dysfunction in aging and chronic diseases. Inactivity, inflammation, age-related factors, anorexia and unbalanced nutrition affect changes in skeletal muscle. Mechanisms are difficult to distinguish in individual subjects due to the multifactorial character of the condition. Sarcopenia includes both muscle loss and dysfunction which induce contractile impairment and metabolic and endocrine abnormalities, affecting whole-body metabolism and immune/inflammatory response...
October 2014: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Frank W Booth, Christian K Roberts, Matthew J Laye
Chronic diseases are major killers in the modern era. Physical inactivity is a primary cause of most chronic diseases. The initial third of the article considers: activity and prevention definitions; historical evidence showing physical inactivity is detrimental to health and normal organ functional capacities; cause versus treatment; physical activity and inactivity mechanisms differ; gene-environment interaction (including aerobic training adaptations, personalized medicine, and co-twin physical activity); and specificity of adaptations to type of training...
April 2012: Comprehensive Physiology
Olasunkanmi A J Adegoke, Abdikarim Abdullahi, Pegah Tavajohi-Fini
The mass and integrity of skeletal muscle is vital to whole-body substrate metabolism and health. Indeed, defects in muscle metabolism and functions underlie or exacerbate diseases like diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer. Physical activity and nutrition are the 2 most important environmental factors that can affect muscle health. At the molecular level, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a critical signalling complex that regulates muscle mass. In response to nutrition and resistance exercise, increased muscle mass and activation of mTORC1 occur in parallel...
June 2012: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Maurizio Cutolo, Carmen Pizzorni, Alberto Sulli
Vitamin D is synthesized from cholesterol in the skin (80-90%) under the sunlight and then metabolized into an active D hormone in liver, kidney and peripheral immune/inflammatory cells. These endocrine-immune effects include also the coordinated activities of the vitamin D-activating enzyme, 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) on cells of the immune system in mediating intracrine and paracrine actions. Vitamin D is implicated in prevention and protection from chronic infections (i...
December 2011: Autoimmunity Reviews
Chee-Seng Ku, Shu-Mei Teo, Nasheen Naidoo, Xueling Sim, Yik-Ying Teo, Yudi Pawitan, Mark Seielstad, Kee-Seng Chia, Agus Salim
Copy number variations can be identified using newer genotyping arrays with higher single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) density and copy number probes accompanied by newer algorithms. McCarroll et al. (2008) applied these to the HapMap II samples and identified 1316 copy number polymorphisms (CNPs). In our study, we applied the same approach to 859 samples from three Singapore populations and seven HapMap III populations. Approximately 50% of the 1291 autosomal CNPs were found to be polymorphic only in populations of non-African ancestry...
August 2011: Journal of Human Genetics
M Osanai, N Sawada, G-H Lee
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is associated with increased susceptibility to carcinogenesis in animal models and elevated risk for a number of human cancers. Here, we found that CYP26A1, the gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme specifically involved in metabolic inactivation of retinoic acid (RA), the most active vitamin A derivative, is highly expressed in 42% (27/65) of primary breast cancers. We also showed that enhanced expression of CYP26A1 suppresses cellular responses to anoikis and consequently promotes anchorage-independent growth...
February 25, 2010: Oncogene
Jill S Burkiewicz, Sarah L Scarpace, Susan P Bruce
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, efficacy, and use of denosumab in osteoporosis, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and multiple myeloma. DATA SOURCES: Studies and abstracts were identified through MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1966-July 2009). Key search terms include denosumab, AMG-162, and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand system. Information available in abstract form was retrieved from major oncology and bone metabolism meetings...
September 2009: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Michael F Holick
Vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin, is important for childhood bone health. Over the past two decades, it is now recognized that vitamin D not only is important for calcium metabolism and maintenance of bone health throughout life, but also plays an important role in reducing risk of many chronic diseases including type I diabetes, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, deadly cancers, heart disease and infectious diseases. How vitamin D is able to play such an important role in health is based on observation that all tissues and cells in the body have a vitamin D receptor, and, thus, respond to its active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D...
December 2008: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Beate Fossum Løland, Anne B Baerug, Gro Nylander
BACKGROUND: Besides providing optimal nutrition to infants, human milk contains a multitude of immunological components. These components are important for protection against infections and also support the development and maturation of the infant's own immune system. This review focuses on the function of some classical immunocomponents of human milk. Relevant studies are presented that describe health benefits of human milk for the child and of lactation for the mother. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Relevant articles were found mainly by searching PubMed...
September 20, 2007: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
Ioannis Delimaris, Elsa Faviou, Georgios Antonakos, Eleni Stathopoulou, Ariadni Zachari, Amalia Dionyssiou-Asteriou
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of oxidative stress in patients with breast or ovarian cancer by analyzing the magnitude of serum oxidizability and the involvement of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) in the disease. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 32 patients diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer but who had not undergone any kind of treatment and 30 healthy individuals of similar age. The evaluation of oxidative stress was assessed by: (a) the ex-vivo susceptibility of serum lipids to oxidation and (b) the detection of oxLDL and anti-oxLDL autoantibodies...
October 2007: Clinical Biochemistry
Daniele Santini, Maria E Fratto, Bruno Vincenzi, Annalisa La Cesa, Caterina Dianzani, Giuseppe Tonini
Bisphosphonates are endogenous pyrophosphate analogs in which a carbon atom replaces the central atom of oxygen. They are indicated in non-neoplastic diseases including osteoporosis, corticosteroid-induced bone loss, Paget disease, and in cancer-related diseases such as neoplastic hypercalcemia, multiple myeloma and bone metastases secondary to breast and prostate cancer. There is now extensive in vitro evidence suggesting a direct antitumor effect of bisphosphonates at different levels of action. Some new in vitro and in vivo studies support the cytostatic effects of bisphosphonates on tumor cells, and the effects on the regulation of cell growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, cell adhesion, and invasion, with particular attention to biological properties...
2004: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
Kiyoshi Nakatsuka
Bisphosphonates (BPs), antiresorptive agents, have been established as first line drugs for treatment of osteoporosis and widely used all over the worlds. In Japan alendronate and risedronate, newer generation of BPs have been developed according to a evidence-based guideline and approved for clinical use in 2001 and in 2002, respectively. Although these BPs have been shown to have antifractures efficacy, great efforts have been made to explore convenient administration routes and schedules of BPs for individual patients...
February 2003: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
(no author information available yet)
Oral contraceptive (OC) labeling disclosure of possible benefits from use of the products, was recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Fertility and Maternal Health Drugs Advisory Committee at its February 11 meeting. Committee member Howard Orr, Centers for Disease Control, noting the emphasis on cautionary and warning statements contained in current OC labeling maintained: "Women should make informed decisions and this is the other half. The package insert must include the benefits information...
February 17, 1982: Blue Sheet
T B Woutersz
A brief overview is presented of some benefits derived during 30 years of oral contraceptive use. Many benefits are significant improvements, and those women desiring to use oral contraceptives have benefited indirectly from lowered doses. Benefits include lowered incidence of endometrial and ovarian cancer, reduced cardiovascular risks, and a decreased incidence of rheumatoid arthritis. It is hoped that such an overview may prove useful during counseling of prospective users for whom oral contraceptives are recommended...
1991: International Journal of Fertility
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