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follicular atresia

Sheena L P Regan, Phil G Knight, John L Yovich, Yee Leung, Frank Arfuso, Arun Dharmarajan
Primordial germ cells migrate to the fetal gonads and proliferate during gestation to generate a fixed complement of primordial follicles, the so-called ovarian reserve. Primordial follicles comprise an oocyte arrested at the diplotene stage of meiosis, surrounded by a layer of pregranulosa cells. Activation of primordial follicles to grow beyond this arrested stage is of particular interest because, once activated, they are subjected to regulatory mechanisms involved in growth, selection, maturation, and ultimately, ovulation or atresia...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Jing Cao, Xiao-Ming Liu, Li-Lin Huang, Li Wang, Xiao-Fei Jiao, Li-Jun Huo
In the mammalian ovary, >99% follicles fail to ovulate due to apoptosis in granulosa cells. Aurora B, a core subunit enzyme of the chromosomal passenger complex, exerts a crucial role in microtubule‑kinetochore attachment, and has been reported to be modified by small ubiquitin‑related modifier (SUMO) proteins. However, the details of how Aurora B and its SUMOylation impact on follicular development have yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to explore the roles, and possible molecular mechanism, of Aurora B and its SUMOylation in the granulosa cells of the mouse follicle...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Pengfei Li, Jinzhu Meng, Jiongjie Jing, Qingling Hao, Zhiwei Zhu, Jianbo Yao, Lihua Lyu
BACKGROUND: Cocaine-and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) is an endogenous neuropeptide, which is widespread in animals, plays a key role in regulation of follicular atresia in cattle and sheep. Among animal ovaries, CART mRNA was firstly found in the cattle ovaries. CART was localized in the antral follicles oocytes, granulosa and cumulus cells by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Further research found that secretion of E2 was inhibited in granulosa cells with a certain dose of CART, the effect depends on the stage of cell differentiation, suggesting that CART could play a crucial role in regulating follicle atresia...
February 26, 2018: Biological Research
Xiaomei Wang, Pengda Zou, Yuanyuan He, Kai Meng, Fusheng Quan, Yong Zhang
Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein that regulates the function of ovarian follicular cells. Theca cells (TCs) also have a key role in follicular growth and atresia. The effects and intracellular signaling mechanisms were investigated of LH on apoptosis and steroidogenesis in goat gonadotropin-independent follicular (1.0-4.0 mm) TCs. The results indicated that LH increased androstenedione secretion and relative abundance of CYP17A1 and BCL2 mRNA in the TCs, whereas LH in combination with LY294002, a PI3K/AKT inhibitor, decreased LH-induced function...
March 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Jian Wang, Bo Xu, Geng G Tian, Tao Sun, Ji Wu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Oogenesis is a highly complex process that is intricately regulated by interactions of multiple genes and signaling molecules. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. There is emerging evidence that microRNAs contribute to oogenesis. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-17-92 cluster in regulating oogenesis. METHODS: The miR-17-92 cluster was genetically ablated in germ cells of female mice by applying the Cre-loxp system for conditional gene knockout...
January 25, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Hongqin Zhang, Qianqian Luo, Xueyan Lu, Na Yin, Dongli Zhou, Lianshuang Zhang, Wei Zhao, Dong Wang, Pengchao Du, Yun Hou, Yan Zhang, Wendan Yuan
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to determine the effects of human placenta mesenchymal stem cell (hPMSC) transplantation on granulosa cell apoptosis and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) expression in autoimmune drug-induced premature ovarian failure (POF) mice. The aim of this research is to investigate the mechanisms of hPMSCs on ovarian reserve capacity. METHODS: The POF mice model was established by injection of zona pellucida 3 peptide (pZP3)...
January 31, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Xiaoqin Zhu, Geng G Tian, Baoli Yu, Yanzhou Yang, Ji Wu
Bisphenol A (BPA), one of the most frequently detected emerging pollutants in the environment, has been implicated in adverse effects in male and female reproduction at extremely low concentrations. This study aimed to investigate the effects and potential mechanism of BPA on mouse ovarian follicular development and female germline stem cells (FGSCs). Female CD-1 adult mice were administered gradient concentrations of BPA (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg/day) by intraperitoneal injection. We found that the number of atretic ovarian follicles was significantly increased at high BPA concentrations...
January 29, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Jiying Liu, Xinyu Li, Yong Yao, Qiqi Li, Zenxiang Pan, Qifa Li
miR-1275 is one of the microRNAs (miRNAs) that are differentially expressed during follicular atresia in pig ovaries, as identified by a miRNA microarray assay in our previous study. However, its functions in follicular atresia remain unknown. In this study, we showed that miR-1275 promoted early apoptosis of porcine granulosa cells (pGCs) and the initiation of follicular atresia and inhibited E2 release and mRNA and protein expression of CYP19A1, the key gene in E2 production. Bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assays revealed that LRH-1, not CYP19A1, is a direct functional target of miR-1275...
January 26, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yan Cao, Ming Shen, Yi Jiang, Shao-Chen Sun, Hong-Lin Liu
Oxidative stress-induced granulosa cell (GCs) injury is believed a common trigger for follicular atresia. Emerging evidence indicates that excessive autophagy occurs in mammalian cells with oxidative damage. N-acetyl-5-methoxytrypamine (Melatonin) has been shown to prevent GCs from oxidative injury, although the exact mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we first demonstrated that the suppression of autophagy through the JNK/BCL-2/BECN1 signaling is engaged in melatonin-mediated GCs protection against oxidative damage...
January 23, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Nayara Pestana-Oliveira, Bruna Kalil, Cristiane Mota Leite, Ruither Oliveira Gomes Carolino, Lucas Kniess Debarba, Lucila Leico Kagohara Elias, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Janete A Anselmo-Franci
Chronic exposure to 4-vinylcycloxene diepoxide (VCD) in rodents accelerates the natural process of ovarian follicular atresia modelling perimenopause in women. We investigated why estrogen therapy is beneficial for symptomatic women despite normal or high estrogen levels during perimenopause. Female rats (28 d) were injected daily with VCD or oil for 15 d; 55-65 d after the first injection, pellets of 17β-estradiol or oil were inserted subcutaneously. Around 20 d after, the rats were euthanized (control rats on diestrus and estradiol-treated 21 d after pellets implants)...
January 2018: ENeuro
Yan Ma, Mingkun Zhu, Liping Miao, Xiaoyun Zhang, Xinyang Dong, Xiaoting Zou
The present study evaluated the effects of mercury chloride (HgCl2) on follicular atresia rate, sex hormone secretion, and ovarian oxidative stress in laying hens. Antioxidant enzyme genes and the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) signal pathway were further studied to uncover the molecular mechanism. A total of 768 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly allocated to four treatments with eight pens per treatment and 24 hens of each pen...
January 18, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Dina Zohrabi, Kazem Parivar, Mohammad Hossein Sanati, Nasim Hayati Roodbari
Background: Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has been traditionally used as a spice for coloring and flavoring in some countries cuisine. One of the main components of saffron is Crocin. Recent research have shown that crocin has various pharmacological effects. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of crocin on the Pituitary-Gonadal axis and Kiss-1 gene expression in hypothalamus and ovarian tissue organization in female Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, 18 adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups...
April 2018: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
Wang Yao, Zengxiang Pan, Xing Du, Jinbi Zhang, Qifa Li
SMAD7 disrupts the TGF-β signaling pathway by influencing TGFBR1 stability and by blocking the binding of TGFBR1 to SMAD2/3. In this study, we showed that SMAD7 attenuated the TGF-β signaling pathway in ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) by regulating TGFBR1 transcriptional activity. To function as a transcription factor, SMAD7 downregulated the mRNA levels of TGFBR1 via direct binding to the SMAD-binding elements (SBEs) within the promoter region of pig TGFBR1. We also showed that SMAD7 enhanced porcine GC apoptosis by interrupting TGFBR1 and the TGF-β signaling pathway...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yu Tanaka, Akira Kuwahara, Kenjiro Ushigoe, Yuya Yano, Yuka Taniguchi, Yuri Yamamoto, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki Yasui, Minoru Irahara
Aim: Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC/gro) is a CXC family chemokine, similar to interleukin-8 in rats, and is one of the factors that regulates ovulation. However, the mechanism that regulates atresia of the ovaries postovulation is not clearly defined. Methods: Whether antibody-blocking of CINC/gro can alter the number of ovulated oocytes and modulate neutrophil infiltration was investigated. The effect of the antibody on the level of inflammatory cytokine production and follicular atresia was examined...
April 2017: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
Ana M Molina, Nieves Abril, Noelia Morales-Prieto, José G Monterde, Antonio J Lora, Nahúm Ayala, Rosario Moyano
Given the importance of bisphenol A (BPA) as a xenoestrogen and its potential effects on human and animal health, we evaluated BPA exposure's short-term effects on follicular development, yolk protein vitellogenin (VTG) production and aromatase expression in female zebrafish. Histological modifications were observed along with increased presence of atretic follicles. Whole-body VTG concentration increased with the dose of BPA exposure. In contrast, expression of Cyp19a mRNA in the ovaries of BPA-exposed fish exhibited an apparent non-monotonic response curve, marked by downregulation at 1 μg/L BPA, upregulation at 10 μg/L BPA, and a return to downregulation at 100 μg/L BPA and higher doses...
December 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Zonghao Tang, Zhenghong Zhang, Yedong Tang, Lingbin Qi, Fafu Yang, Zhengchao Wang
Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is a widely used industrial chemical, which may be increasingly used in the future. However, its toxicity profile remains largely unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of DMC exposure on the ovaries and the effect of autophagy activation on follicular development. Rats were randomly divided into a control group and low, medium and high dose DMC groups (all n=10). Histological analyses identified no marked differences in the rate of apoptosis between the control and low dose groups; however, marked apoptosis occurred in the medium and high dose groups...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
K Denise Apperson, Karyn E Bird, Gita Cherian, Christiane V Löhr
The laying hen ( Gallus domesticus ) is a robust animal model for epithelial ovarian cancer. The use of animal models is critical in identifying early disease markers and developing and testing chemotherapies. We describe the microscopic characteristics of the normally functioning laying hen ovary and proximal oviduct to establish baselines from which lesions associated with ovarian cancer can be more readily identified. Ovaries and oviducts were collected from 18-month-old laying hens ( n = 18) and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin...
December 11, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
Reza Talebi, Ahmad Ahmadi, Fazlollah Afraz, Julien Sarry, Florence Plisson-Petit, Carine Genêt, Stéphane Fabre
Ovarian follicular growth occurs in both the follicular and luteal phases of the estrous cycle but in very different endocrine contexts. In both phases, many small antral follicles with similar morphologic and histologic characteristics are present within the ovaries as a reserve for the terminal folliculogenesis. However, there are several gaps in our molecular knowledge of the gene expression profiles of small antral follicles in the follicular and luteal phases. The aim of the present study was to use RNA sequencing to compare and analyze the global transcriptional profile of ovine granulosa cells collected from small antral follicles (1-3 mm) either during the follicular or the luteal phase of the estrous cycle, with the hypothesis that they should be differential...
March 1, 2018: Theriogenology
Bojiang Li, Qiannan Weng, Zequn Liu, Ming Shen, Jiaqing Zhang, Wangjun Wu, Honglin Liu
Oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in the process of ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis and follicular atresia. The aim of this study was to select antioxidant against OS in ovary tissue. Firstly, we chose the six antioxidants and analyzed the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the ovary tissue. The results showed that proanthocyanidins, gallic acid, curcumin, and carotene decrease the ROS level compared with control group. We further demonstrated that both proanthocyanidins and gallic acid increase the antioxidant enzymes activity...
December 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Manman Shen, Hongyan Sun, Liang Qu, Meng Ma, Taocun Dou, Jian Lu, Jun Guo, Yuping Hu, Xingguo Wang, Yongfeng Li, Kehua Wang, Ning Yang
Follicular development has a major impact on reproductive performance. Most previous researchers focused on molecular mechanisms of follicular development. The genetic architecture underlying the number of follicle, however, has yet not to be thoroughly defined in chicken. Here we report a genome-wide association study for the genetic architecture determining the numbers of follicles in a large F2 resource population. The results showed heritability were low to moderate (0.05-0.28) for number of pre-ovulatory follicles (POF), small yellow follicles (SYF) and atresia follicles (AF)...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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