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Cadherin dendritic

Huanhuan He, Julia J Mack, Esra Güç, Carmen M Warren, Mario Leonardo Squadrito, Witold W Kilarski, Caroline Baer, Ryan D Freshman, Austin I McDonald, Safiyyah Ziyad, Melody A Swartz, Michele De Palma, M Luisa Iruela-Arispe
OBJECTIVE: Perivascular cells, including pericytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and other specialized cell types, like podocytes, participate in various aspects of vascular function. However, aside from the well-established roles of smooth muscle cells and pericytes, the contributions of other vascular-associated cells are poorly understood. Our goal was to ascertain the function of perivascular macrophages in adult tissues under nonpathological conditions. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We combined confocal microscopy, in vivo cell depletion, and in vitro assays to investigate the contribution of perivascular macrophages to vascular function...
September 15, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Zhihui Xie, Kathie L Eagleson, Hsiao-Huei Wu, Pat Levitt
MET, a pleiotropic receptor tyrosine kinase implicated in autism risk, influences multiple neurodevelopmental processes. There is a knowledge gap, however, in the molecular mechanism through which MET mediates developmental events related to disorder risk. In the neocortex, MET is expressed transiently during periods of peak dendritic outgrowth and synaptogenesis, with expression enriched at developing synapses, consistent with demonstrated roles in dendritic morphogenesis, modulation of spine volume, and excitatory synapse development...
July 2016: ENeuro
Wei Dong, Aiguo Lu, Jingkun Zhao, Shuai Yin, Baochi Ou, Hao Feng
Co-cultivation of non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) and tumor cells from the same donor is important for metastatic cancer research. This study aimed to optimize a protocol for liver NPC isolation. Two novel 3D organotypic co‑culture models for hepatocyte, endothelial cell (EC) and Kupffer cell (KC) isolation were used. Long‑term cell co‑culture, density gradient centrifugation and magnetic‑activated cell sorting (MACS) were established. ECs were isolated from the co‑culture system; the purity of the ECs was 92±1...
October 2016: Oncology Reports
Pierre-Olivier Girodet, Daniel Nguyen, John Dominic Mancini, Mandeep Hundal, Xiaobo Zhou, Elliot Israel, Manuela Cernadas
Th2 immune responses play an important role in asthma and promote the differentiation of alternatively activated macrophages (M2). M2 macrophages have been increasingly appreciated to contribute to Th2 immunity. We hypothesized that M2 macrophages are altered in asthma and modulate Th2 responses. The aim of this study is to characterize the phenotype and function of human monocyte-derived M2 and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) macrophages from healthy controls and asthmatics. Phenotypic characteristics and effector function of M2 macrophages were examined using monocyte-derived and BALF macrophages obtained from asthmatics (n=28) and healthy volunteers (n=9) by flow cytometry and qPCR...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Bhavin Shah, Andreas W Püschel
Small GTPases are central regulators of many cellular processes. The highly conserved Rap GTPases perform essential functions in the mammalian nervous system during development and in mature neurons. During neocortical development, Rap1 is required to regulate cadherin- and integrin-mediated adhesion. In the adult nervous system Rap1 and Rap2 regulate the maturation and plasticity of dendritic spine and synapses. Although genetic studies have revealed important roles of Rap GTPases in neurons, their regulation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that activate them and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) that inactivate them by stimulating their intrinsic GTPase activity is just beginning to be explored in vivo...
October 1, 2016: Biological Chemistry
Yasuna Higashiguchi, Kazuhiro Katsuta, Takunori Minegishi, Shigenobu Yonemura, Akihiro Urasaki, Naoyuki Inagaki
Shootin1 is a brain-specific cytoplasmic protein involved in neuronal polarity formation and axon outgrowth. It accumulates at the leading edge of axonal growth cones, where it mediates the mechanical coupling between F-actin retrograde flow and cell adhesions as a clutch molecule, thereby producing force for axon outgrowth. In this study, we report a novel splicing isoform of shootin1 which is expressed not only in the brain but also in peripheral tissues. We have renamed the brain-specific shootin1 as shootin1a and termed the novel isoform as shootin1b...
October 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Alexandra Krol, Steven J Henle, Lisa V Goodrich
Neurons exhibit asymmetric morphologies throughout development - from migration to the elaboration of axons and dendrites - that are correctly oriented for the flow of information. For instance, retinal amacrine cells migrate towards the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and then retract their trailing processes, thereby acquiring a unipolar morphology with a single dendritic arbor restricted to the IPL. Here, we provide evidence that the Fat-like cadherin Fat3 acts during multiple stages of amacrine cell development in mice to orient overall changes in cell shape towards the IPL...
June 15, 2016: Development
Gaëlle Picarda, Coraline Chéneau, Jean-Marc Humbert, Gaëlle Bériou, Paul Pilet, Jérôme Martin, Franck Duteille, Pierre Perrot, Frédérique Bellier-Waast, Michèle Heslan, Fabienne Haspot, Fabien Guillon, Regis Josien, Franck Albert Halary
Langerhans cells (LCs) are epithelial APCs that sense danger signals and in turn trigger specific immune responses. In steady-state, they participate in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance to self-antigens whereas under inflammation LCs efficiently trigger immune responses in secondary lymphoid organs. It has been demonstrated in mice that LC-deprived epithelia are rapidly replenished by short half-life langerin-expressing monocyte-derived LCs (MDLCs). These surrogate LCs are thought to be progressively replaced by langerin(high) LCs arising from self-renewing epithelial precursors of hematopoietic origin...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Tadahiro Nagaoka, Masashi Kishi
The excitatory postsynaptic region of the vertebrate hippocampus is usually compartmentalized into the postsynaptic density (PSD) and N-cadherin-rich domain, which is important for synaptic adhesion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the compartment formation are unknown. In the present report, we show that the planar cell polarity (PCP) protein Van Gogh-like 2 (Vangl2) plays a role in this regionalization. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons that were subjected to Vangl2 expression silencing, the formed clusters of PSD-95, one of the major scaffolding proteins in PSD, tended to overlap with those of N-cadherin...
January 26, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Li Ma, Ying Chen, Xiaoqin Song, Lu Wang, Bing Zhao, Zhitao Yang, Huiqiu Sheng, Jian Fei, Erzhen Chen, En-Qiang Mao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the roles of epithelial-dendritic cell transformation (EDT) characterized by the expression of dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) in the occurrence of tissue inflammation induced by hemorrhagic hypotension (HH), the protective effect of vitamin C (VitC), and the potential mechanisms. METHODS: We conducted an in vitro study using the rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6). After hypoxic culture with or without VitC for 2, 6, 24, and 48 h (n = 3 per group), the expression levels of DC-SIGN, E-cadherin, and Glycogen synthase kinase-3β-S9 (GSK-3β-S9) in IEC-6 cells, IL-1β, and IL-6 concentrations in the cell culture medium were measured...
January 2016: Shock
Li-Min Mao, John Q Wang
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are expressed in postmitotic neurons and act as important regulators in intracellular signaling. In addition to their nuclear distribution and roles in regulating gene expression, MAPKs, especially the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) subclass, reside in peripheral dendritic spines and synapses, including the postsynaptic density (PSD) microdomain. This peripheral pool of MAPKs/ERKs is either constitutively active or sensitive to changing synaptic input. Active MAPKs directly interact with and phosphorylate local substrates to alter their trafficking and subcellular/subsynaptic distributions, through which MAPKs regulate function of substrates and contribute to long-lasting synaptic plasticity...
November 14, 2015: Molecular Neurobiology
Chundi Xu, Yasuhiro Funahashi, Takashi Watanabe, Tetsuya Takano, Shinichi Nakamuta, Takashi Namba, Kozo Kaibuchi
How extracellular cues direct axon-dendrite polarization in mouse developing neurons is not fully understood. Here, we report that the radial glial cell (RGC)-cortical neuron interaction directs axon formation at the opposite side of the neuron from the contact site. N-cadherin accumulates at the contact site between the RGC and cortical neuron. Inhibition of the N-cadherin-mediated adhesion decreases this oriented axon formation in vitro, and disrupts the axon-dendrite polarization in vivo. Furthermore, the RGC-neuron interaction induces the polarized distribution of active RhoA at the contacting neurite and active Rac1 at the opposite neurite...
October 28, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Rotem Rubinstein, Chan Aye Thu, Kerry Marie Goodman, Holly Noelle Wolcott, Fabiana Bahna, Seetha Mannepalli, Goran Ahlsen, Maxime Chevee, Adnan Halim, Henrik Clausen, Tom Maniatis, Lawrence Shapiro, Barry Honig
Self-avoidance, a process preventing interactions of axons and dendrites from the same neuron during development, is mediated in vertebrates through the stochastic single-neuron expression of clustered protocadherin protein isoforms. Extracellular cadherin (EC) domains mediate isoform-specific homophilic binding between cells, conferring cell recognition through a poorly understood mechanism. Here, we report crystal structures for the EC1-EC3 domain regions from four protocadherin isoforms representing the α, β, and γ subfamilies...
October 22, 2015: Cell
Saki F Egusa, Yukiko U Inoue, Junko Asami, Youhei W Terakawa, Mikio Hoshino, Takayoshi Inoue
A unique feature of the mammalian cerebral cortex is in its tangential parcellation via anatomical and functional differences. However, the cellular and/or molecular machinery involved in cortical arealization remain largely unknown. Here we map expression profiles of classic cadherins in the postnatal mouse barrel field of the primary somatosensory area (S1BF) and generate a novel bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic (BAC-Tg) mouse line selectively illuminating nuclei of cadherin-6 (Cdh6)-expressing layer IV barrel neurons to confirm that tangential cellular assemblage of S1BF is established by postnatal day 5 (P5)...
April 2016: Neuroscience Research
Sotaro Ichinose, Tadayuki Ogawa, Nobutaka Hirokawa
A regulated mechanism of cargo loading is crucial for intracellular transport. N-cadherin, a synaptic adhesion molecule that is critical for neuronal function, must be precisely transported to dendritic spines in response to synaptic activity and plasticity. However, the mechanism of activity-dependent cargo loading remains unclear. To elucidate this mechanism, we investigated the activity-dependent transport of N-cadherin via its transporter, KIF3A. First, by comparing KIF3A-bound cargo vesicles with unbound KIF3A, we identified critical KIF3A phosphorylation sites and specific kinases, PKA and CaMKIIa, using quantitative phosphoanalyses...
September 2, 2015: Neuron
G Stefano Brigidi, Brendan Santyr, Jordan Shimell, Blair Jovellar, Shernaz X Bamji
Synaptic plasticity is mediated by the dynamic localization of proteins to and from synapses. This is controlled, in part, through activity-induced palmitoylation of synaptic proteins. Here we report that the ability of the palmitoyl-acyl transferase, DHHC5, to palmitoylate substrates in an activity-dependent manner is dependent on changes in its subcellular localization. Under basal conditions, DHHC5 is bound to PSD-95 and Fyn kinase, and is stabilized at the synaptic membrane through Fyn-mediated phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue within the endocytic motif of DHHC5...
2015: Nature Communications
Ayano Hirako, Akihiko Sugiyama, Masashi Sakurai, Kiyokazu Ozaki, Hiroki Sakai, Takashi Takeuchi, Takehito Morita, Peter F Moore
An 11-year-old male neutered Pembroke Welsh Corgi dog displayed a mass measuring 7.5 cm × 6.6 cm × 1.6 cm in the skin. Neoplastic tissue was nonencapsulated, and the neoplastic cells showed infiltrative growth into the surrounding tissue on microscopic examination. The neoplastic tissue was mainly located from the dermis to the subcutis. Epidermotropism of neoplastic cells was not observed. The tissue was composed of irregular, solid nests of round to polygonal cells. Nests were separated by fine fibrovascular stroma...
September 2015: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Patricia Castañeda, Mauricio Muñoz, Gonzalo García-Rojo, José L Ulloa, Javier A Bravo, Ruth Márquez, M Alexandra García-Pérez, Damaris Arancibia, Karina Araneda, Paulina S Rojas, David Mondaca-Ruff, Gabriela Díaz-Véliz, Sergio Mora, Esteban Aliaga, Jenny L Fiedler
Chronic stress promotes cognitive impairment and dendritic spine loss in hippocampal neurons. In this animal model of depression, spine loss probably involves a weakening of the interaction between pre- and postsynaptic cell adhesion molecules, such as N-cadherin, followed by disruption of the cytoskeleton. N-cadherin, in concert with catenin, stabilizes the cytoskeleton through Rho-family GTPases. Via their effector LIM kinase (LIMK), RhoA and ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC) GTPases phosphorylate and inhibit cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing molecule, favoring spine growth...
October 2015: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Yen-Rei A Yu, Danielle F Hotten, Yuryi Malakhau, Ellen Volker, Andrew J Ghio, Paul W Noble, Monica Kraft, John W Hollingsworth, Michael D Gunn, Robert M Tighe
Clear identification of specific cell populations by flow cytometry is important to understand functional roles. A well-defined flow cytometry panel for myeloid cells in human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue is currently lacking. The objective of this study was to develop a flow cytometry-based panel for human BAL and lung tissue. We obtained and performed flow cytometry/sorting on human BAL cells and lung tissue. Confocal images were obtained from lung tissue using antibodies for cluster of differentiation (CD)206, CD169, and E cadherin...
January 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Wen-Jie Bian, Wan-Ying Miao, Shun-Ji He, Zilong Qiu, Xiang Yu
Dendritic spines are postsynaptic compartments of excitatory synapses that undergo dynamic changes during development, including rapid spinogenesis in early postnatal life and significant pruning during adolescence. Spine pruning defects have been implicated in developmental neurological disorders such as autism, yet much remains to be uncovered regarding its molecular mechanism. Here, we show that spine pruning and maturation in the mouse somatosensory cortex are coordinated via the cadherin/catenin cell adhesion complex and bidrectionally regulated by sensory experience...
August 13, 2015: Cell
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