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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691964/transition-to-adult-diabetes-care-in-germany-high-risk-for-acute-complications-and-declining-metabolic-control-during-the-transition-phase
#1
T M Kapellen, S Müther, A Schwandt, J Grulich-Henn, B Schenk, K O Schwab, W Marg, R W Holl
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence that transition from pediatric to adult health care is frequently associated with deterioration of health in youths with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this study was to compare metabolic control, acute complications and microvascular complications in adolescents and young adults before and after transfer to an adult treatment center with respect to the time between first visit in the adult center and last visit in pediatric treatment. METHODS: All data were collected during routine care and retrieved from the German/Austrian DPV database...
April 25, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691937/testing-associations-between-cannabis-use-and-subcortical-volumes-in-two-large-population-based-samples
#2
Nathan A Gillespie, Michael C Neale, Timothy C Bates, Lisa T Eyler, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Jasmin Vassileva, Michael J Lyons, Elizabeth C Prom-Wormley, Katie L McMahon, Paul M Thompson, Greig de Zubicaray, Ian B Hickie, John J McGrath, Lachlan T Strike, Miguel E Rentería, Matthew S Panizzon, Nicholas G Martin, Carol E Franz, William S Kremen, Margaret J Wright
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Disentangling the putative impact of cannabis on brain morphology from other comorbid substance use is critical. After controlling for the effects of nicotine, alcohol and multi-substance use, this study aimed to determine whether frequent cannabis use is associated with significantly smaller subcortical grey matter volumes. DESIGN: Exploratory analyses using mixed linear models, one per region of interest (ROI), were performed whereby individual differences in volume (outcome) at seven subcortical ROIs were regressed onto cannabis and comorbid substance use (predictors)...
April 24, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691929/optical-dampening-of-the-refractive-error-to-axial-length-ratio-implications-for-outcome-measures-in-myopia-control-studies
#3
Fiona E Cruickshank, Nicola S Logan
PURPOSE: To gauge the extent to which differences in the refractive error axial length relationship predicted by geometrical optics are observed in actual refractive/biometric data. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of existing data. Right eye refractive error [RX] and axial length [AXL] data were collected on 343 6-to-7-year-old children [mean 7.18 years (S.D. 0.35)], 294 12-to-13-year-old children [mean 13.12 years (S.D. 0.32)] and 123 young adults aged 18-to-25-years [mean 20...
May 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691923/the-interaction-between-homatropine-and-optical-blur-on-choroidal-thickness
#4
Beata P Sander, Michael J Collins, Scott A Read
PURPOSE: To analyse the short-term interaction between a short period of myopic and hyperopic defocus and the muscarinic antagonist homatropine upon the choroidal thickness and ocular biometrics of healthy subjects. METHODS: Thirty young adults (15 myopes and 15 emmetropes) aged 18-35 years had subfoveal choroidal thickness (ChT) and ocular biometry measurements taken before, 30 min, and 60 min following the introduction of monocular optical blur (0.00 D, +3...
May 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691791/does-religiosity-reduce-narcissistic-personality-disorder-examining-the-case-of-muslim-university-students
#5
Muhammad Ayub Buzdar, Riaz Ul Haq Tariq, Hina Jalal, Mohammad Nadeem
The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of religiousness on the prevalence of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) among young adults. Prevalence of three forms of Allportian religious orientation, three forms of quest religious orientation and seven symptoms of NPD were examined through self-reported measures. 618 randomly selected Muslim students from the four public sector Pakistani universities participated in the study. Three research instruments comprising Religious Orientation Scale developed by Gorsuch and McPherson, Quest Scale developed by Batson and Schoenrade and Narcissistic Personality Inventory developed by Raskin and Terry were used to collect the data...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691789/impact-of-cancer-on-romantic-relationships-among-young-adults-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Carolyn Rabin
The aim of this review was to determine the impact of a cancer diagnosis and history on young adults' ability to initiate and maintain romantic relationships. MedLine and PsycInfo databases were used to identify articles that address dating, romantic relationships, or marriage among 18- to 45-year-old cancer survivors. Twenty-one relevant articles were identified. Findings indicate that young adult cancer survivors struggle with when/how to disclose their cancer history to potential partners, are delayed in initiating their first romantic relationships, have fewer romantic relationships than peers, and are less likely than peers to marry...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691758/gastric-adenocarcinoma-in-young-adult-patients-patterns-of-care-and-survival-in-the-united-states
#7
Brian De, Ryan Rhome, Vikram Jairam, Umut Özbek, Randall F Holcombe, Michael Buckstein, Celina Ang
BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding gastric cancer patients < 40 years old is limited. This study examines young adults with gastric adenocarcinoma in the National Cancer Database to describe demographics and treatment practices, and to develop a nomogram to predict survival. METHODS: The database was queried for adult patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma from 2004 to 2013. Patients were stratified into two age groups: <40 and ≥ 40 years. The database was analyzed to compare demographics, clinical characteristics, and treatments used for each group...
April 24, 2018: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691649/training-and-transfer-effects-of-interference-control-training-in-children-and-young-adults
#8
Xin Zhao, Lina Jia
Many studies have examined transfer of working memory (WM) training improvements to non-trained cognitive tasks, with largely disappointing results. Interference control has been suggested to be a central feature of WM. However, studies examining transfer effects of a training program exclusively and directly targeting interference control are lacking. Forty-one 10‒12 year-old children and 47 19‒24 year-old adults were assigned to an adaptive interference control training or active control condition. Transfer of training effects to tasks measuring interference control, response inhibition, WM updating, task-switching, and non-verbal fluid intelligence were assessed during a 3-month follow-up session and/or an immediate post-training session...
April 24, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691465/longitudinal-two-photon-imaging-in-somatosensory-cortex-of-behaving-mice-reveals-dendritic-spine-formation-enhancement-by-subchronic-administration-of-low-dose-ketamine
#9
Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Ekaterina Mugantseva, Plinio Casarotto, Julia Kolikova, Senem Merve Fred, Dmytro Toptunov, Ramil Afzalov, Pirta Hotulainen, Vootele Voikar, Ryan Terry-Lorenzo, Sharon Engel, Sergei Kirov, Eero Castren, Leonard Khiroug
Ketamine, a well-known anesthetic, has recently attracted renewed attention as a fast-acting antidepressant. A single dose of ketamine induces rapid synaptogenesis, which may underlie its antidepressant effect. To test whether repeated exposure to ketamine triggers sustained synaptogenesis, we administered a sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine (10 mg/kg i.p.) once-daily for 5 days, and repeatedly imaged dendritic spines of the YFP-expressing pyramidal neurons in somatosensory cortex of awake female mice using in vivo two-photon microscopy...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691328/genetic-ablation-of-all-cerebellins-reveals-synapse-organizer-functions-in-multiple-regions-throughout-the-brain
#10
Erica Seigneur, Thomas C Südhof
Cerebellins are synaptic organizer molecules that bind to presynaptic neurexins and postsynaptic receptors. Cerebellins are well studied in cerebellum, but three of the four cerebellins (Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4) are also broadly expressed outside of the cerebellum, suggesting that they perform general functions throughout the brain. Here we generated male and female single, double, and triple constitutive KO mice of Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4. We found that all constitutive cerebellin-deficient mice are viable and fertile, suggesting that cerebellins are not essential for survival...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691271/unusual-congenital-coronary-artery-anomaly-in-a-young-adult-presenting-as-sudden-cardiac-arrest
#11
Manuel Cortes, Carlos A Roldan, Stacey Clegg
A previously asymptomatic young female with no previous medical or cardiac history collapsed during indoor exercise. A portable automatic external defibrillator showed a shockable rhythm. She received multiple electrical shocks with return to normal sinus rhythm without ischaemic ECG changes. Her troponin level was mildly elevated. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed moderately reduced left ventricular ejection fraction with global hypokinesis. During emergent coronary angiography, the left main coronary artery could not be found...
April 24, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691159/a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-prevalence-of-exercise-induced-hypertension-in-childhood-following-repair-of-coarctation-of-the-aorta
#12
Taryn L Luitingh, Melissa G Y Lee, Bryn Jones, Remi Kowalski, Sofia Weskamp Aguero, Jane Koleff, Diana Zannino, Michael M H Cheung, Yves d'Udekem
BACKGROUND: Exercise-testing may be a more tolerable method of detecting hypertension in children after coarctation repair compared to gold-standard 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM). This study aims to determine the prevalence of exercise-induced hypertension and end-organ damage in children after coarctation repair, and the effectiveness of exercise-testing compared to 24-hour ABPM in this population. METHODS: Exercise-testing (Bruce protocol), transthoracic echocardiogram, 24-hour ABPM, and pulse wave velocity were performed in 41 patients aged 8 to 18 years with previous coarctation repair...
March 27, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690819/the-influence-of-rightward-and-leftward-spatial-deviations-of-spatial-attention-on-emotional-picture-recognition
#13
Aleksandra Mańkowska, Michał Harciarek, John B Williamson, Kenneth M Heilman
OBJECTIVES: Several studies have reported that positive emotions are primarily mediated by the left hemisphere and negative emotions by the right hemisphere. Since each hemisphere primarily allocates attention toward the contralateral hemispace, we wanted to learn how inducing a spatial attentional orienting bias to right and left egocentric hemispace might influence the recognition and perception of visually presented emotional scenes. METHOD: Participants were 42 healthy, right-handed young adults...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690754/effects-of-adenosine-receptor-agonist-on-the-rocuroniuminduced-neuromuscular-block-and-sugammadex-induced-recovery
#14
Yong Beom Kim, Sangseok Lee, Hey Ran Choi, Junyong In, Young Jin Chang, Ha Jung Kim, Young Jin Ro, Hong-Seuk Yang
Background: Several types of receptors are found at neuromuscular presynaptic membranes. Presynaptic inhibitory A1 and facilitatory A2A receptors mediate different modulatory functions on acetylcholine release. This study investigated whether adenosine A1 receptor agonist contributes to the first twitch tension (T1) of train-of-four (TOF) stimulation depression and TOF fade during rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade, and sugammadex-induced recovery. Methods: Phrenic nerve-diaphragm tissues were obtained from 30 adult Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 25, 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689692/gender-similarities-in-somatic-depression-and-in-dsm-depression-secondary-symptom-profiles-within-the-context-of-severity-and-bereavement
#15
Angus H Thompson, Roger C Bland
BACKGROUND: Most population studies report higher rates of depression among women than men, and some researchers have observed gender differences in depression symptoms overall, or in sub-groupings (e.g. somatic depression). However, gender symptom differences have been inconsistent, prompting this investigation of gender differences in secondary DSM symptom profiles in the context of bereavement status, age, and depression severity. METHODS: Individuals with symptoms of core depression (flat affect or anhedonia) were selected from a large survey of adults in the Alberta, Canada workforce...
February 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689471/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-young-adult-smokers-in-the-u-s-in-the-precontemplation-stage-of-smoking-cessation
#16
Mary E Andrews, Melanie Sabado, Kelvin Choi
INTRODUCTION: The precontemplation stage of smoking cessation refers to having no intention to quit smoking in the next six months. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of and characteristics associated with the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation among U.S. young adult smokers to inform the development of targeted interventions. METHODS: We analyzed data in 2017 from the 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey. Young adult (18-29 years old) daily and non-daily smokers were included (n = 1809)...
April 9, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689352/gastroprotective-and-anti-inflammatory-activities-integrated-to-chemical-composition-of-myracrodruon-urundeuva-allem%C3%A3-o-a-conservationist-proposal-for-the-species
#17
W R Aguiar Galvão, R Braz Filho, K M Canuto, P R V Ribeiro, A R Campos, A C O M Moreira, S O Silva, F A Mesquita Filho, S A A Santos, J M A Melo Junior, N G G Gonçalves, S G C Fonseca, M A M Bandeira
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão (Aroeira-do-Sertão), Anacardiaceae, is one of the most used plants in folk medicine in Northeastern Brazil as an anti-inflammatory, healing and antiulcer. This species is threatened with extinction due to anthropogenic exploitation. The importance of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of a conservationist model of replacement of the M. urundeuva adult tree (inner bark) for its under developing plants (shoots) in order to ensure the preservation of this species, but also to ensure sufficient raw material for pharmaceutical purposes...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689345/visually-fixating-or-tracking-another-person-decreases-balance-control-in-young-and-older-females-walking-in-a-real-world-scenario
#18
Neil M Thomas, Tim Donovan, Susan Dewhurst, Theodoros M Bampouras
Balance control during overground walking was assessed in 10 young (23.6 ± 3.4) and 10 older (71.0 ± 5.5 years) healthy females during free gaze, and when fixating or tracking another person in an everyday use waiting room. Balance control was characterised by medial/lateral sacrum acceleration dispersion, and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with eye tracking equipment. The results showed decreased balance control when fixating a stationary (p = 0.003, gav  = 0.19) and tracking a walking (p = 0...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689319/experiences-of-young-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-while-using-alcohol-and-recreational-drugs-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis-ipa-of-semi-structured-interviews
#19
Adam Pastor, Casey L O'Brien, Jessie Teng, Jennifer Conn, Margaret Loh, Lisa Collins, Richard MacIsaac, Yvonne Bonomo
AIMS: Alcohol and recreational drug use is common in young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and may account for increased morbidity and mortality. This study explores the motivations and experiences unique to this population while using alcohol and recreational drugs. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews focusing on substance use were performed with 16 young adults aged 18-35 with T1DM who drink alcohol (at least 50 grams, 5 Australian standard drinks, in a single session) and/or used recreational drugs...
April 21, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689075/test-retest-reliability-of-the-kinarm-end-point-robot-for-assessment-of-sensory-motor-and-neurocognitive-function-in-young-adult-athletes
#20
Cameron S Mang, Tara A Whitten, Madeline S Cosh, Stephen H Scott, J Preston Wiley, Chantel T Debert, Sean P Dukelow, Brian W Benson
BACKGROUND: Current assessment tools for sport-related concussion are limited by a reliance on subjective interpretation and patient symptom reporting. Robotic assessments may provide more objective and precise measures of neurological function than traditional clinical tests. OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability of assessments of sensory, motor and cognitive function conducted with the KINARM end-point robotic device in young adult elite athletes. METHODS: Sixty-four randomly selected healthy, young adult elite athletes participated...
2018: PloS One
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