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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454198/long-term-exposure-to-air-pollution-and-the-risk-of-suicide-death-a-population-based-cohort-study
#1
Jin-Young Min, Hye-Jin Kim, Kyoung-Bok Min
Suicide is a major public health problem. Previous studies have reported a significant association between acute exposure to air pollution and suicide; little attention has been paid to the long-term effects of air pollution on risk of suicide. We investigated whether long-term exposure to particulate matter of ≤10μm in diameter (PM 10 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) would be associated with a greater risk of death by suicide. The study sample comprised 265,749 adults enrolled in the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (2002-2013) in South Korea...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454177/tobacco-harm-perceptions-and-use-among-sexual-and-gender-minorities-findings-from-a-national-sample-of-young-adults-in-the-united-states
#2
Ollie Ganz, Amanda L Johnson, Amy M Cohn, Jessica Rath, Kimberly Horn, Donna Vallone, Andrea C Villanti
INTRODUCTION: In the United States, the prevalence of tobacco use among sexual and gender minorities (SGM) is higher compared to their non-SGM counterparts. Tobacco harm perceptions have gone largely unexamined as a potential mechanism supporting disproportionate tobacco use among this population. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between SGM and non-SGM young adults in harm perceptions of various tobacco products and tobacco use behavior and whether low tobacco-related harm perceptions moderate the relationship between identifying as a SGM and tobacco use behavior...
January 31, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454154/age-related-functional-changes-in-domain-specific-medial-temporal-lobe-pathways
#3
David Berron, Katja Neumann, Anne Maass, Hartmut Schütze, Klaus Fliessbach, Verena Kiven, Frank Jessen, Magdalena Sauvage, Dharshan Kumaran, Emrah Düzel
There is now converging evidence from studies in animals and humans that the medial temporal lobes (MTLs) harbor anatomically distinct processing pathways for object and scene information. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans suggest that this domain-specific organization may be associated with a functional preference of the anterior-lateral part of the entorhinal cortex (alErC) for objects and the posterior-medial entorhinal cortex (pmErC) for scenes. As MTL subregions are differentially affected by aging and neurodegenerative diseases, the question was raised whether aging may affect the 2 pathways differentially...
January 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453448/the-gastrointestinal-tract-microbiota-of-northern-white-cheeked-gibbons-nomascus-leucogenys-varies-with-age-and-captive-condition
#4
Ting Jia, Sufen Zhao, Katrina Knott, Xiaoguang Li, Yan Liu, Ying Li, Yuefei Chen, Minghai Yang, Yanping Lu, Junyi Wu, Chenglin Zhang
Nutrition and health of northern white-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus leucogenys) are considered to be primarily influenced by the diversity of their gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota. However, the precise composition, structure, and role of the gibbon GIT microbiota remain unclear. Microbial communities from the GITs of gibbons from Nanning (NN, n = 36) and Beijing (BJ, n = 20) Zoos were examined through 16S rRNA sequencing. Gibbon's GITs microbiomes contained bacteria from 30 phyla, dominated by human-associated microbial signatures: Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453399/association-of-sleep-and-circadian-activity-rhythm-with-emotional-face-processing-among-12-month-old-infants
#5
Wanqi Sun, Shirley Xin Li, Guanghai Wang, Shumei Dong, Yanrui Jiang, Karen Spruyt, Jiefan Ling, Qi Zhu, Tatia Mei-Chun Lee, Fan Jiang
Sleep and circadian rhythmicity both play an important role in human's cognitive functioning, yet the way in which early development of sleep and circadian rhythm affects cognitive processes and social learning in infants remains less understood. We examined the association of sleep and circadian activity rhythm (CAR) with face and emotional information processing in 12-month old infants. Face processing was measured by eye tracking, whereby infants' scanning patterns and pupil dilations were calculated when they were presented with neutral, pleasant and unpleasant faces...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453191/a-text-message-intervention-with-adaptive-goal-support-to-reduce-alcohol-consumption-among-non-treatment-seeking-young-adults-non-randomized-clinical-trial-with-voluntary-length-of-enrollment
#6
Brian Suffoletto, Tammy Chung, Frederick Muench, Peter Monti, Duncan B Clark
BACKGROUND: Stand-alone text message-based interventions can reduce binge drinking episodes (≥4 drinks for women and ≥5 drinks for men) among nontreatment-seeking young adults, but may not be optimized. Adaptive text message support could enhance effectiveness by assisting context-specific goal setting and striving, but it remains unknown how to best integrate it into text message interventions. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate young adults' engagement with a text message intervention, Texting to Reduce Alcohol Consumption 2 (TRAC2), which focuses on reducing weekend alcohol consumption...
February 16, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453161/gamma-irradiation-during-gametogenesis-in-young-adult-zebrafish-causes-persistent-genotoxicity-and-adverse-reproductive-effects
#7
Selma Hurem, Tânia Gomes, Dag A Brede, Ian Mayer, Viola H Lobert, Stephen Mutoloki, Kristine B Gutzkow, Hans-Christian Teien, Deborah Oughton, Peter Aleström, Jan L Lyche
The biological effects of gamma radiation may exert damage beyond that of the individual through its deleterious effects on reproductive function. Impaired reproductive performance can result in reduced population size over consecutive generations. In a continued effort to investigate reproductive and heritable effects of ionizing radiation, we recently demonstrated adverse effects and genomic instability in progeny of parents exposed to gamma radiation. In the present study, genotoxicity and effects on the reproduction following subchronic exposure during a gametogenesis cycle to 60 Co gamma radiation (27 days, 8...
February 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452886/shifting-the-igf-axis-an-age-related-decline-in-human-tear-igf-1-correlates-with-clinical-signs-of-dry-eye
#8
Roshni Patel, Meifang Zhu, Danielle M Robertson
OBJECTIVE: The human corneal epithelium expresses both the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and the IGF-1R/insulin receptor (INSR) hybrid. Despite the previous identification of IGF-1 in human tear fluid, little is known regarding the regulation of IGF-1 in tear fluid and its role in corneal epithelial homeostasis. In the present study, we investigated the impact of biological parameters on the concentration of human tear levels of IGF-1. DESIGN: Tear levels of IGF-1 were measured in 41 healthy, human volunteers without any reported symptoms of dry eye...
February 6, 2018: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452755/machine-learning-algorithms-based-on-signals-from-a-single-wearable-inertial-sensor-can-detect-surface-and-age-related-differences-in-walking
#9
B Hu, P C Dixon, J V Jacobs, J T Dennerlein, J M Schiffman
The aim of this study was to investigate if a machine learning algorithm utilizing triaxial accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer data from an inertial motion unit (IMU) could detect surface- and age-related differences in walking. Seventeen older (71.5 ± 4.2 years) and eighteen young (27.0 ± 4.7 years) healthy adults walked over flat and uneven brick surfaces wearing an inertial measurement unit (IMU) over the L5 vertebra. IMU data were binned into smaller data segments using 4-s sliding windows with 1-s step lengths...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452385/longitudinal-tobacco-use-transitions-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-2014-2016
#10
Elizabeth C Hair, Alexa R Romberg, Raymond Niaura, David B Abrams, Morgane A Bennett, Haijun Xiao, Jessica M Rath, Lindsay Pitzer, Donna Vallone
Introduction: Among youth, the frequency and prevalence of using more than one tobacco (small cigar, cigarette, and hookah) or nicotine-containing product (e-cigarettes-ENDS) are changing. These shifts pose challenges for regulation, intervention, and prevention campaigns because of scant longitudinal data on the stability of use patterns in this changing product landscape. Methods: A nationally representative longitudinal survey of 15- to 21-year olds (n = 15,275) was used to describe transitions between never use, noncurrent use, and past 30-day use of combustible tobacco, e-cigarettes (ENDS), and dual use of both kinds of products...
February 13, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452371/a-bidirectional-association-between-cognitive-ability-in-young-adulthood-and-epilepsy-a-population-based-cohort-study
#11
Merete Osler, Erik L Mortensen, Kaare Christensen, Gunhild T Christensen
Aim: To investigate the bidirectional association between cognitive ability in young adulthood and epilepsy. Methods: This cohort study included 1 159 076 men enrolled in the mandatory conscription board examination from the Danish Conscription Database (DCD; 658 465 men examined 1957-84), the Danish Defence Personnel Organization Database (DPOD; 216 509 men examined 1987-2005) and the Danish Conscription Registry (DCR; 284 102 men examined 2006-15). A supplementary analysis included 14 814 female volunteers...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452208/outcome-of-abo-incompatible-adult-living-donor-liver-transplantation-for-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
Young-In Yoon, Gi-Won Song, Sung-Gyu Lee, Shin Hwang, Ki-Hun Kim, Seok-Hwan Kim, Woo-Hyoung Kang, Hwui-Dong Cho, Eun-Kyoung Jwa, Jae-Hyun Kwon, Eun-Young Tak, Varvara A Kirchner
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) can simultaneously cure hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and underlying liver cirrhosis, improving long-term results in patients with HCC. ABO-incompatible LDLT could expand the living-donor pool, reduce waiting times for deceased-donor liver transplantation, and improve long-term survival for some patients with HCC. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients undergoing LDLT for HCC from November 2008 to December 2015 at a single institution in Korea...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452016/the-effect-of-rap-hip-hop-music-on-young-adult-smoking-an-experimental-study
#13
Zeena Harakeh, Tom F M Ter Bogt
BACKGROUND: Music may influence young people's behavior through its lyrics. Substance use references occur more frequently in rap/hip-hop than in other music genres. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to examine whether the exposure to rap/hip-hop lyrics referring to substance use affected cigarette smoking. METHODS: An experiment with a 3-group between subject design was conducted among 74 daily-smoking young adults ranging in age from 17 to 25 years old...
February 16, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451916/awareness-and-attitude-of-the-public-toward-personalized-medicine-in-korea
#14
Iyn-Hyang Lee, Hye-Young Kang, Hae Sun Suh, Sukhyang Lee, Eun Sil Oh, Hotcherl Jeong
OBJECTIVES: As personalized medicine (PM) is expected to greatly improve health outcomes, efforts have recently been made for its clinical implementation in Korea. We aimed to evaluate public awareness and attitude regarding PM. METHODS: We performed a self-administered questionnaire survey to 703 adults, who participated in the survey on a voluntary basis. The primary outcome measures included public knowledge, attitude, and acceptance of PM. We conducted multinomial multivariate logistic analysis for outcome variables with three response categories and performed multivariate logistic regression analyses for dichotomous outcome variables...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451741/non-invasive-optical-method-for-real-time-assessment-of-intracorneal-riboflavin-concentration-and-efficacy-of-corneal-cross-linking
#15
Giuseppe Lombardo, Valentina Villari, Norberto Liborio Micali, Nancy Leone, Cristina Labate, Maria Penelope De Santo, Marco Lombardo
Keratoconus is the primary cause of corneal transplantation in young adults worldwide. Riboflavin/UV-A corneal cross-linking may effectively halt the progression of keratoconus if an adequate amount of riboflavin enriches the corneal stroma and is photo-oxidated by UV-A light for generating additional cross-linking bonds between stromal proteins and strengthening the biomechanics of the weakened cornea. Here we reported a UV-A theranostic prototype device for performing corneal cross-linking with the ability to assess corneal intrastromal concentration of riboflavin and to estimate treatment efficacy in real time...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451590/by-the-book-adhd-prevalence-in-medical-students-varies-with-analogous-methods-of-addressing-dsm-items
#16
Paulo Mattos, Bruno P Nazar, Rosemary Tannock
OBJECTIVE: The marked increase in the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among university students gives rise to questions about how best to diagnose in this setting. The aim of the present study was to calculate ADHD prevalence in a large non-clinical sample of medical students using a stepwise design and to determine whether ADHD diagnosis varies if interviewees use additional probing procedures to obtain examples of positive DSM items. METHODS: A total of 726 students were screened with the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and invited for an interview with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) adapted for adults...
February 15, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451585/psychoactive-substance-abuse-and-dependence-and-its-association-with-anxiety-disorders-a-population-based-study-of-young-adults-in-brazil
#17
Mariana B de Matos, Christian L de Mola, Jéssica P Trettim, Karen Jansen, Ricardo A da Silva, Luciano D de Mattos Souza, Liliane da Costa Ores, Mariane L Molina, Fernanda T Coelho, Ricardo T Pinheiro, Luciana de A Quevedo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between abuse of and dependence on different psychoactive substances and the presence of anxiety disorders in a sample of young adults from a city in southern Brazil. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2009, we carried out a cross-sectional, population-based study of individuals aged 18-24 years who lived in Pelotas, a city in southern Brazil. We evaluated anxiety disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0 (MINI), and use of psychoactive substances with the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST 2...
February 15, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451511/-endovascular-treatment-of-symptomatic-carotid-artery-dissection
#18
Alfredo Fede, Andrea Pacchioni, Carlo Penzo, Riccardo Turri, Giuseppe Marchese, Daniela Benedetto, Salvatore Saccà
Internal carotid artery dissection is one of the possible causes of stroke in young adults. The effectiveness of medical therapy alone is often limited and endovascular strategy should be considered, particularly in the presence of persisting neurological symptoms. Currently, there is no general consensus on the most appropriate therapeutic strategy to follow in symptomatic carotid artery dissection. We here report a case of symptomatic carotid artery dissection treated with an endovascular approach, and we review the recent literature regarding this therapeutic strategy...
January 2018: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451318/effective-management-of-severe-cutaneous-mastocytosis-in-young-children-with-omalizumab-xolair-%C3%A2
#19
J D M Hughes, T Olynyc, H Chapdelaine, L Segal, B Miedzybrodzki, M Ben-Shoshan
Omalizumab (Xolair ® ) is an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, which may benefit adults with systemic mastocytosis. We report effective treatment with omalizumab in two toddlers with severe diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis. Our cases offer preliminary evidence to support the safe use of omalizumab in paediatric patients with cutaneous mastocytosis.
February 16, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451226/final-adult-height-and-endocrine-complications-in-young-adults-with-%C3%AE-thalassemia-major-tm-who-received-oral-iron-chelation-oic-in-comparison-with-those-who-did-not-use-oic
#20
Ashraf T Soliman, Mohamed A Yassin, Vincenzo De Sanctis
BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about endocrine function, bone mineral health, and growth during oral iron chelation therapy in β-thalassemia major patients (TM) on treatment with deferasirox. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To study the frequency of endocrine complications, IGF-1 levels and final adult standing height (FA-Ht) in patients with BTM in two groups of adult patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The first group (Group A; 15 patients, 6 females and 9 males) received oral iron chelation therapy (OIC) with deferasirox for 6 years before puberty; the second group (Group B;40 patients) attained the FA-Ht before the use of OIC (iron chelation therapy with deferoxamine (DFO) given subcutaneously, since the age of 2 years)...
February 16, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
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