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Young adult

Sarah Foster, Paula Hooper, Matthew Knuiman, Leanne Lester, Georgina Trapp
The prevalence of warehouse-style liquor stores has prompted alarm from local communities and public health advocates. To increase local government control over liquor stores, one proposed planning response is to distinguish between 'small' (i.e., ≤ 300 m2 ) and 'large' (i.e., > 300 m2 ) liquor stores. We mapped the size and location of liquor stores in Perth, Western Australia, and tested associations between liquor store exposure and alcohol consumption (grams ethanol/day) in young adults (n = 990)...
June 15, 2018: Health & Place
Samantha Gualtieri, Stephanie Denison
In classic examinations of the representativeness heuristic, Kahneman and Tversky (1973) presented adult participants with a description of an individual who fit their stereotype of a typical engineer. Importantly, even when participants were told that the individual was drawn from a sample of 70 lawyers and 30 engineers, they estimated that the individual was an engineer at very high levels, showing that they relied almost exclusively on the personality description. Relying on the representativeness heuristic can lead to base-rate neglect and, thus, biased judgments...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
A Silva-Palacios, M Ostolga-Chavarría, C Zazueta, M Königsberg
Increase in life-span is commonly related with age-related diseases and with gradual loss of genomic, proteomic and metabolic integrity. Nrf2 (Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-p45 derived factor 2) controls the expression of genes whose products include antioxidant proteins, detoxifying enzymes, drug transporters and numerous cytoprotective proteins. Several experimental approaches have evaluated the potential regulation of the transcription factor Nrf2 to enhance the expression of genes that contend against accumulative oxidative stress and promote healthy aging...
June 15, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Denis M Nyaga, Mark H Vickers, Craig Jefferies, Jo K Perry, Justin M O'Sullivan
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a complex autoimmune disorder characterised by loss of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells in genetically predisposed individuals, ultimately resulting in insulin deficiency and hyperglycaemia. T1D is most common among children and young adults, and the incidence is on the rise across the world. The aetiology of T1D is hypothesized to involve genetic and environmental factors that result in the T-cell mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells. There is a strong genetic risk to T1D; with genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identifying over 60 susceptibility regions within the human genome which are marked by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
June 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Cheryl Geisthardt, Adam Kloha
Results of a pilot study examining young adults' beliefs about what factors contribute to physical and mental health are reported. Existing research and the results of the pilot study are used to argue for the need for improved education on the connection between physical and mental health, the impact of social determinants on physical and mental health, and the potential for social policies that better the lives of children and families to improve health outcomes. Benefits of and suggestions for increasing understanding of social determinants and social policies on physical and mental health are explored...
June 18, 2018: Social Work in Public Health
Erin L Robinson, Becky Hart, Sara Sanders
Young adults (N = 80) participated in advance care planning (ACP) as part of a death and dying course and submitted reflection papers on their experiences. These papers were analyzed using directed qualitative content analysis methods. Among the findings, participants almost exclusively chose a parent or other family member as a Health Care Agent. Twenty-five percent expressed concern about placing burden on their agent, but felt their advance directives (AD) would ease that burden. For many, previous experiences with death helped shape their wishes...
June 18, 2018: Death Studies
Seulggie Choi, Kyuwoong Kim, Sung Min Kim, Gyeongsil Lee, Su-Min Jeong, Seong Yong Park, Yeon-Yong Kim, Joung Sik Son, Jae-Moon Yun, Sang Min Park
Importance: Previous studies have shown a U- or J-shaped association of body mass index (BMI) or change in BMI with coronary heart disease (CHD) among middle-aged and elderly adults. However, whether a similar association exists among young adults is unclear. Objective: To determine whether an association exists between BMI or BMI change with CHD among young adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based longitudinal study used data obtained by the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2002 to 2015...
June 18, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Páraic S O'Súilleabháin, Siobhán Howard, Brian M Hughes
The personality trait openness to experience has been implicated in health, and in particular cardiovascular wellbeing. In a sample of 62 healthy young female adults, the role of openness in cardiovascular responsivity during a stress exposure was examined. Traditionally, methodologies have averaged a stress exposure into a single reading. This may be limited in that it does not consider patterns of cardiovascular adaptation within a stress exposure. Continuous cardiovascular data were reduced to mean 10 second readings, with phases determined through examinations of shifts in responsivity between each 10 second pairing...
2018: PloS One
Anna Peng, Natasha Z Kirkham, Denis Mareschal
Developmental research on flexible attentional control in young children has often focused on the role of attention in task-switching in a unimodal context. In real life, children must master the art of switching attention not only between task demands, but also between sensory modalities. Previous study has shown that young children can be efficient at switching between unimodal tasks when the situation allows, incurring no greater task-switching costs than adults. However, young children may still experience a greater demand to shift attention between modalities than older participants...
2018: PloS One
Eva Reindl, Claudio Tennie
The ratchet effect-the gradual accumulation of changes within a cultural trait beyond a level that individuals can achieve on their own-arguably rests on two key cognitive abilities: high-fidelity social learning and innovation. Researchers have started to simulate the ratchet effect in the laboratory to identify its underlying social learning mechanisms, but studies on the developmental origins of the ratchet effect remain sparse. We used the transmission chain method and a tower construction task that had previously been used with adults to investigate whether "generations" of children between 4 and 6 years were able to make a technological product that individual children could not yet achieve...
2018: PloS One
Ting Li, Su-Wei Wang, Jing-Jing Zhou, Qing-Zhuo Ren, Yu-Lin Gao
BACKGROUND: The Texas Revised Inventory of Grief-Present Scale (TRIG-Present) is a widely used tool to measure grief. Most existing research related to the assessment and characteristics of grief has been conducted sampling bereaved Western subjects and, as such, limited information is available on the experience of grief in Chinese samples. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to validate the Chinese version of the TRIG-Present (TRIG-Present-C) and explore the predictors of grief among bereaved adults in China...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Jean-Baptiste Gourraud, Paul Khairy, Sylvia Abadir, Rafik Tadros, Julia Cadrin-Tourigny, Laurent Macle, Katia Dyrda, Blandine Mondesert, Marc Dubuc, Peter G Guerra, Bernard Thibault, Denis Roy, Mario Talajic, Lena Rivard
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent arrhythmia worldwide. While mostly seen in elderly, it can also affect young adults (≤45 years of age), older adolescent and children. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current management of AF in young patients. Specific issues arise over diagnostic workup as well as antiarrhythmic and anticoagulation therapies. The future management and diagnostic strategies are also discussed. Expert commentary: Management of AF in the young adult is largely extrapolated from adult studies and guidelines...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Amie L Haas, Robert E Wickham, Byron L Zamboanga, Jennifer P Read, Brian Borsari
BACKGROUND: Pregaming is a common, high-risk drinking activity among college students that has been largely unchangeable despite targeted intervention approaches. Therefore, identifying profiles of pregamers could enhance understanding of the risks associated with this practice and inform intervention development. METHODS: This study identified subtypes of pregamers in undergraduates (N = 911; 60% female, 42.9% White) attending 3 U.S. universities in 2012. Self-report data assessed recent alcohol use (overall, heavy, and pregaming), pregaming motives, and demographics...
June 18, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Nicole Le-Corre, Sebastián Barría, Tania López, Constanza Martínez-Valdebenito, Ana M Contreras, Marcela Ferrés
Mumps virus usually produces a benign infection characterized by increased parotid volume which, prior to vaccination, mainly affected children and adolescents. After the introduction of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine, mumps incidence decreased dramatically. This intervention also produced a change in its clinical presentation, moving to young adult patients, with an increased risk of complications. We report two clinical mumps cases in young adults with different clinical presentations. In both cases, serologic assays were assessed and, in one case, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed in order to confirm the diagnosis...
April 2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Quyen Tt Bui, Lan Th Vu, Dien M Tran
OBJECTIVES: This paper investigates the trajectories of depression symptoms in adolescents and young adults, and explores factors associated with their depression. METHOD: For each respondent, three waves of data were collected in 2006, 2009 and 2013 from adolescents and young adults aged 10 to 24 years. The modified Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale was used to interview participants, while the generalised estimating equation (GEE) model was used to identify whether certain factors were associated with depression...
May 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Matthis Morgenstern, Barbara Isensee, Reiner Hanewinkel
Prediction of binge drinking in young adults: a cohort study over nine years Abstract. OBJECTIVE: Which person characteristics and environmental factors predict binge drinking at age 21? METHOD: A longitudinal observational study with a nine-year follow-up. A total of 5,176 adolescents from the German states Schleswig-Holstein and Saxony-Anhalt were surveyed in 2006 with paper-pencil questionnaires (mean age 12.6 years, SD = 0.6). A follow-up assessment was conducted in the year 2015...
June 18, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
Lobna Ben Mahmoud, Moez Mdhaffar, Rim Frikha, Hanen Ghozzi, Ahmed Hakim, Zouheir Sahnoun, Moez Elloumi, Khaled Zeghal
BACKGROUND: Methotrexate (MTX) is a key component of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy, but it is associated with serious toxicities in a considerable number of patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to determine which variables were associated with MTX toxicity in children, adolescents and young adults with ALL. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 35 patients with newly diagnosed ALL, treated according to the 58951 European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer - Children's Leukemia Group (EORTC-CLG) protocol, were prospectively enrolled...
June 18, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Lars Arendt-Nielsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Robert Waller, Leon Straker, Peter O'Sullivan, Michele Sterling, Anne Smith
Background and aims Investigation of the multidimensional correlates of pressure pain threshold (PPT) requires the study of large cohorts, and thus the use of multiple raters, for sufficient statistical power. Although PPT testing has previously been shown to be reliable, the reliability of multiple raters and investigation for systematic bias between raters has not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intrarater and interrater reliability of PPT measurement by handheld algometer at the wrist, leg, cervical spine and lumbar spine...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Elizabeth C Fung, Mariana G R Santos, Zila M Sanchez, Pamela J Surkan
Violence among young adults is an increasing public health concern, especially in the context of nightlife, such as around nightclubs and bars. Nightlife is associated with alcohol, drugs, and increased violence, but little is known about personal and environmental factors related to physical aggression and sexual violence in nightclubs. This study aimed to determine personal and environmental risk factors for physical and sexual aggression in nightclubs in São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected among nightclub patrons through use of a portal survey at the entrances and exits of 31 nightclubs...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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