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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906522/educating-executive-function
#1
REVIEW
Clancy Blair
Executive functions are thinking skills that assist with reasoning, planning, problem solving, and managing one's life. The brain areas that underlie these skills are interconnected with and influenced by activity in many different brain areas, some of which are associated with emotion and stress. One consequence of the stress-specific connections is that executive functions, which help us to organize our thinking, tend to be disrupted when stimulation is too high and we are stressed out, or too low when we are bored and lethargic...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906499/individual-differences-in-human-brain-development
#2
REVIEW
Timothy T Brown
This article discusses recent scientific advances in the study of individual differences in human brain development. Focusing on structural neuroimaging measures of brain morphology and tissue properties, two kinds of variability are related and explored: differences across individuals of the same age and differences across age as a result of development. A recent multidimensional modeling study is explained, which was able to use brain measures to predict an individual's chronological age within about one year on average, in children, adolescents, and young adults between 3 and 20 years old...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906430/recurrent-acute-pancreatitis-in-bowel-malrotation
#3
G Alessandri, A Amodio, L Landoni, N De' Liguori Carino, C Bassi
OBJECTIVE: Recurrent acute pancreatitis is an uncommon diagnosis in teenagers. Excluded alcohol and biliary stones, more prevalent aetiologies in these group of patients are genetic pancreatitis, pancreatic duct system abnormalities, neoplasia, traumas and congenital abnormalities of the duodenum such as duodenal duplication or diverticulum. Two reported cases of recurrent pancreatitis associated to midgut malrotation were described in English literature. Bowel malrotation is a difficult diagnosis in a teenager or a young adult and a common delay is documented...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906029/trends-in-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pre-art-care-at-a-large-hiv-clinic-in-nairobi-kenya-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#4
Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Immaculate N Mutisya, Justine J Odionyi, Syokau C Ilovi, Mary Wambui, Christopher Githu, Richard Ngethe, Elizabeth M Obimbo, Zipporah W Ngumi
BACKGROUND: The success of antiretroviral therapy in resource-scarce settings is an illustration that complex healthcare interventions can be successfully delivered even in fragile health systems. Documenting the success factors in the scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource constrained settings will enable health systems to prepare for changing population health needs. This study describes changing demographic and clinical characteristics of adult pre-ART cohorts, and identifies predictors of pre-ART attrition at a large urban HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya...
November 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905981/correlates-of-meal-skipping-in-young-adults-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Felicity J Pendergast, Katherine M Livingstone, Anthony Worsley, Sarah A McNaughton
BACKGROUND: Meal skipping rates may be highest during young adulthood, a period of transition and development. Although these dietary behaviours may increase future risk of chronic disease, limited research has investigated correlates of meal skipping in young adults. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies that investigated correlates of meal skipping behaviours in young adults (aged 18-30 years). EBSCO host, MEDLINE Complete, Global Health, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science and Informit platforms were searched for eligible articles...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905972/a-new-parametric-model-to-assess-delay-and-compression-of-mortality
#6
Joop de Beer, Fanny Janssen
BACKGROUND: A decrease in mortality across all ages causes a shift of the age pattern of mortality, or mortality delay, while differences in the rate of decrease across ages cause a change in the shape of the age-at-death distribution, mortality compression or expansion. Evidence exists for both compression and delay of mortality. Existing parametric models to describe the full age pattern of mortality are not able to capture mortality delay versus mortality compression. More recent models that assess delay versus compression mostly focused on the adult or old ages alone and did not distinguish mortality compression below and above the modal age at death, although they represent different mechanisms...
December 1, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905954/measuring-and-tracking-obesity-inequality-in-the-united-states-evidence-from-nhanes-1971-2014
#7
Tae-Young Pak, Susana Ferreira, Gregory Colson
BACKGROUND: Because people care about their weight relative to peers and society, obesity inequality plays a role in explaining obesity incidence and the impacts of being obese on subjective well-being. While the increase in obesity prevalence and mean body mass index (BMI) is well documented, the measurement of distributional changes and corresponding obesity inequality is yet to be fully explored. METHODS: The present study analyzed BMI data for adults aged 20 to 74 from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) I (1971-1974), II (1976-1980), III (1988-1994), and continuous NHANES (1999-2014)...
April 4, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905818/predictors-of-sleep-quality-among-young-adults-in-korea-gender-differences
#8
Ae Kyung Chang, Jinyi Choi
This study was performed to identify the factors influencing gender differences in sleep quality between men and women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a convenience sample of 300 young adults from three Korean universities. Participants were 20-40 years of age, used smartphones, and took no sleep medication. Participants completed questionnaires on sleep quality, exercise, stress, depression, and smart phone addiction. The predictors of sleep quality in men were coffee consumption, napping, depression, failure to engage in light exercise at least three times per week, being overweight, being in the potential smart phone addiction group, and being employed, which explained 30...
December 1, 2016: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905689/development-of-quality-indicators-for-transition-from-pediatric-to-adult-care-in-sickle-cell-disease-a-modified-delphi-survey-of-adult-providers
#9
Amy E Sobota, Nishita Shah, Jennifer W Mack
BACKGROUND: Transition from pediatric to adult care is a vulnerable time for young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD); however, improvements in transition are limited by a lack of quality indicators. The purpose of this study was to establish quality indicators for transition in SCD and to determine the optimal timing between the final pediatric visit and the first adult provider visit. PROCEDURE: We conducted a modified Delphi survey to reach a consensus on which quality indicators are most important for a successful transition...
December 1, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905679/care-management-for-foreign-children-adolescents-young-adults-with-cancer-and-their-families
#10
Jérémie Gaudichon, Sandra Toscani, Sarah Cohen-Gogo, Juliette Saulpic, Aurore Surun, Oya Sakiroglu, François Doz, Jean Michon, Daniel Orbach
BACKGROUND: Little is known about care management for foreign patients in pediatric oncology in European centers. We aimed to describe care given to children, adolescents, and young adults who came to France for cancer treatment, and to determine whether their geographical origin had an influence on decision making. PROCEDURE: We conducted a monocentric retrospective study on all foreign patients aged 0-25 years and hospitalized for at least one night in Institut Curie (Paris, France) from 2009 to 2013...
December 1, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905307/oriental-cholangiohepatitis-recurrent-pyogenic-cholangitis-a-case-series-from-the-netherlands-and-brief-review-of-the-literature
#11
K E Verweij, H van Buuren
Oriental cholangiohepatitis is a condition occurring in the Asian population, characterised by recurrent bacterial cholangitis and presence of calculi within the intrahepatic bile ducts, biliary strictures and an increased risk for cholangiocarcinoma. It is an uncommon disease in the West that may not always be considered. The therapeutic approach is multidisciplinary and highly individual, and includes antibiotic therapy, endoscopic and percutaneous biliary drainage with stone removal and dilation of strictures, and in selected cases surgical resection of affected liver segments...
November 2016: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905289/cerebral-alveolar-echinococcosis-concomitant-with-liver-and-lung-lesions-in-a-young-adult-patient-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
Osman Ersegun Batçık, Ahmet Öğrenci, Orkun Koban, Murat Şakir Ekşi, Turgay Bilge
We present the case of a 25-year-old male harboring multiple brain lesions mimicking tumor metastasis that were revealed to be caused by Echinococcus multilocularis. Cerebral echinococcosis with multiple lesions is rare and might be confused with a brain abscess, tuberculoma, or metastatic tumor disease. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and serological studies are helpful in the differential diagnosis. In case of E. multilocularis, cerebral invasion is the late stage of the disease that necessitates an aggressive treatment protocol...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905200/induced-sputum-to-detect-lung-pathogens-in-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#13
Pamela D'Sylva, Daan Caudri, Nicole Shaw, Lidija Turkovic, Tonia Douglas, Jane Bew, Anthony D Keil, Stephen Stick, André Schultz
INTRODUCTION: Induced sputum sampling holds promise as a method for obtaining samples representative of the lower airways in young children. Collection of induced sputum samples in young children differs from older children and adults' as pharyngeal suctioning is often required. Our aim was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of induced sputum with and without airway clearance techniques to detect lower airway pathogens in children less than age 7 with cystic fibrosis. METHODS: Microbiological culture results were compared between 61 paired induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from young children with cystic fibrosis...
November 30, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905151/the-impact-of-intensive-grandchild-care-on-depressive-symptoms-among-older-koreans
#14
Juyeong Kim, Eun-Cheol Park, Young Choi, Hyojeong Lee, Sang Gyu Lee
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of intensive grandchild care on depressive symptoms among grandparents. METHODS: We used data from 2008 to 2012 of the Korea Longitudinal Study of Aging. Using the data from 2008 at baseline, data included 5129 individuals aged 50 years and more without depression with at least one grandchild. A generalized estimating equation was used to investigate the impact of intensive grandchild care on depressive symptoms...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904983/vdbp-cyp27b1-and-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-gene-polymorphism-analyses-in-a-group-of-sicilian-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#15
L Agnello, C Scazzone, B Lo Sasso, C Bellia, G Bivona, S Realmuto, F Brighina, R Schillaci, P Ragonese, G Salemi, Marcello Ciaccio
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of central nervous system regarded as one of the most common causes of neurological disability in young adults. The exact etiology of MS is not yet known, although epidemiological data indicate that both genetic susceptibility and environmental exposure are involved. A poor vitamin D status has been proposed as the most attractive environmental factor. Several evidence have highlighted the importance of mutations in vitamin D-regulating genes for vitamin D status...
November 30, 2016: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904684/ldhb-may-be-a-significant-predictor-of-poor-prognosis-in-osteosarcoma
#16
Chao Li, Yu Chen, Pingping Bai, Jiaqiang Wang, Zhenhui Liu, Tao Wang, Qiqing Cai
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and young adults. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is considered as the key glycolytic enzyme and involved in tumor initiation and metabolism. Here, we firstly found that LDHB was highly expressed in osteosarcoma cell lines. Expression profiling indicated that LDHB mRNA was elevated in osteosarcoma tissues with metastasis versus without metastasis, and LDHB high expression predicted a poor prognosis in patients. After LDHB knockdown by siRNA transfection, cell growth and proliferation were inhibited and presented a dose-dependent cell death via MTT assay...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904546/cured-transudative-pleural-effusion-a-case-report
#17
Mohsen Shafipoor, Arda Kiani, Kambiz Sheikhy, Atefeh Abedini, Majid Golestani Eraghi
Echinococcosis or hydatid disease is a helminthic infection caused by larvae of tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. While the cysts can involve all organs, liver is the most common site of infection and the lungs are the second most commonly involved organ in young adults. In addition to endemic areas its incidence is growing all around the world due to the ease of transcontinental travel. Disease presentation varies and usually is due to mass effect or dysfunction of the involved organ and surgical resection is the recommended treatment...
2016: Tanaffos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904272/awareness-of-atopic-dermatitis-and-attitudes-toward-different-types-of-medical-institutions-for-its-treatment-among-adult-patients-and-the-parents-of-pediatric-patients-a-survey-of-500-participants
#18
Nam Kyung Roh, Song Hee Han, Min Jung Kim, Gyeong-Hun Park, Bark-Lynn Lew, Eung Ho Choi, Hyun Chang Ko, Young Lip Park, Sang Wook Son, Young Jun Seo, Yang Won Lee, Sang Hyun Cho, Chun Wook Park
BACKGROUND: Physicians can play a crucial role in the knowledge that patients have about a disease and its prognosis. Recently, patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are increasingly turning from western medicine to oriental herbal medicine. However, their awareness of AD and attitude toward Western medicine and oriental herbal medicine clinics are scarcely reported. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the understanding of AD among patients and their parents and to identify their awareness of and attitude toward Western medicine and oriental herbal medicine as treatments for AD...
December 2016: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904181/comparative-evaluation-of-topical-10-potassium-hydroxide-and-30-trichloroacetic-acid-in-the-treatment-of-plane-warts
#19
Sandhaya Jayaprasad, Radhakrishnan Subramaniyan, Shalini Devgan
BACKGROUND: Warts are benign proliferations of skin and mucosa caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Plane warts are caused by HPV types 3, 10, 28, and 41, occurring mostly in children and young adults. Among the treatment modalities, topical application of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is age old. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) has a keratolytic effect on virus-infected cells. It is less irritating, less painful, less scar forming, and can be safely used in children too. Hence, it could be a better topical agent in the treatment of plane warts...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903954/gender-policing-during-childhood-and-the-psychological-well-being-of-young-adult-sexual-minority-men-in-the-united-states
#20
José A Bauermeister, Daniel Connochie, Laura Jadwin-Cakmak, Steven Meanley
Hegemonic masculinities (i.e., sets of socially accepted masculine behaviors and beliefs within a given time and culture) may affect the well-being of sexual minority men, yet quantitative relationships between these masculinities and well-being remain largely unexplored. Using data from a national cross-sectional survey of young sexual minority men (N = 1,484; ages 18-24 years), the current study examined the relationship between parental gender policing during childhood and adolescence and subsequent substance use and psychological distress...
November 29, 2016: American Journal of Men's Health
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