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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822970/estimating-the-effects-of-novel-on-pack-warnings-on-young-adult-smokers-and-susceptible-non-smokers
#1
Philip Gendall, Christine Eckert, Janet Hoek, Jordan Louviere
BACKGROUND: On-pack tobacco warnings can deter smoking initiation and provide powerful cessation cues. However, these warnings typically feature graphic health images, which many young adults dismiss as irrelevant. We estimated responses to more diverse warnings and examined how these performed relative to each other. METHODS: We conducted a behavioural likelihood experiment and a choice modelling experiment in which 474 smokers and 476 susceptible non-smokers aged between 16 and 30 years evaluated 12 warnings featuring health, social, financial and cosmetic themes...
August 19, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822880/children-s-developing-metaethical-judgments
#2
Marco F H Schmidt, Ivan Gonzalez-Cabrera, Michael Tomasello
Human adults incline toward moral objectivism but may approach things more relativistically if different cultures are involved. In this study, 4-, 6-, and 9-year-old children (N=136) witnessed two parties who disagreed about moral matters: a normative judge (e.g., judging that it is wrong to do X) and an antinormative judge (e.g., judging that it is okay to do X). We assessed children's metaethical judgment, that is, whether they judged that only one party (objectivism) or both parties (relativism) could be right...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822810/post-stress-metabolic-trajectories-in-young-and-old-flies
#3
Hervé Colinet, David Renault
Hallmarks of aging and age-related mortality (actuarial senescence) have received major focus in the published literature, while fewer studies have investigated functional senescence. Age-related decline in the performance of organism is particularly important for organisms exposed to environmental stress, as the range of conditions allowing physiological equilibria narrows with age (homeostenosis concept). During aging, compensatory metabolic responses might occur to maintain the redox potential and homeostasis...
August 16, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822807/spontaneous-activation-of-a-mavs-dependent-antiviral-signaling-pathway-determines-high-basal-interferon-%C3%AE-expression-in-cardiac-myocytes
#4
Efraín E Rivera-Serrano, Nicole DeAngelis, Barbara Sherry
Viral myocarditis is a leading cause of sudden death in young adults as the limited turnover of cardiac myocytes renders the heart particularly vulnerable to viral damage. Viruses induce an antiviral type I interferon (IFN-α/β) response in essentially all cell types, providing an immediate innate protection. Cardiac myocytes express high basal levels of IFN-β to help pre-arm them against viral infections, however the mechanism underlying this expression remains unclear. Using primary cultures of murine cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, we demonstrate here that the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) pathway is spontaneously activated in unstimulated cardiac myocytes but not cardiac fibroblasts or skeletal muscle cells...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822322/caffeine-s-influence-on-gambling-behavior-and-other-types-of-impulsivity
#5
Jon E Grant, Samuel R Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: Young adulthood is a developmental period frequently associated with occurrence of impulsive behaviors including gambling. It is estimated that 73% of children and 87% of adults in the United States regularly use caffeine. Questions remain, however, concerning the role of caffeine in the development and maintenance of impulsive behaviors such as gambling. METHODS: Sixty-one young adults with at least some degree of disordered gambling were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements...
August 12, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822310/gastroblastoma-a-biphasic-neoplasm-of-stomach-a-case-report
#6
Omar Toumi, Houssem Ammar, Ibtissem Korbi, Mariem Ayed, Rahul Gupta, Mohamed Nasr, Randa Salem, Rim Hadhri, Sonia Zayed, Faouzi Noomen, Abdelfatteh Zakhama, Khadija Zouari
INTRODUCTION: Gastroblastoma is a rare gastric biphasic tumor with both epithelial and mesenchymal components. To the best of our knowledge only eight cases have been reported in the English literature till date. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of a 29-year-old female, hospitalized for epigastric pain with poor general condition. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a polypoid mass in the stomach near the gastric cardia suspicious of gastrointestinal stromal tumor...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822214/risk-perception-and-perceived-self-efficacy-of-deaf-and-hard-of-hearing-seniors-and-young-adults-in-emergencies
#7
Alina Engelman, Susan L Ivey, Winston Tseng, Linda Neuhauser
OBJECTIVES: The authors explored the factors influencing risk perception and perceived self-efficacy before and during an emergency for deaf and hard-of-hearing (Deaf/HH) seniors and young adults. METHODS: The authors collected demographic survey data and conducted four focus groups with 38 Deaf/HH residents of the San Francisco Bay Area; two groups were with young adults (ages 18-35), including one group of college students and one group of young professionals, and two were with older adults (ages 50-90)...
January 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822062/validation-of-dynamic-risk-stratification-in-pediatric-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#8
Seo Young Sohn, Young Nam Kim, Hye In Kim, Tae Hyuk Kim, Sun Wook Kim, Jae Hoon Chung
PURPOSE: There has been increasing interest in a risk-adopted management strategy known as dynamic risk stratification following the revised American Thyroid Association guidelines for differentiated thyroid cancer. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic risk stratification for predicting structural disease in pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 130 pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer patients (≤19 years) who were treated between 1996 and 2015 at Samsung Medical Center...
August 18, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821959/identifying-cisplatin-induced-kidney-damage-in-paediatric-oncology-patients
#9
REVIEW
Chris D Barton, Barry Pizer, Caroline Jones, Louise Oni, Munir Pirmohamed, Daniel B Hawcutt
Cisplatin is one chemotherapeutic agent used to treat childhood cancer in numerous treatment protocols, including as a single agent. It is likely to remain in clinical use over the long term. However, cisplatin-related toxicities, including neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, are common, affecting treatment, day-to-day life and survival of such children. With one in 700 young adults having survived childhood cancer, patients who have completed chemotherapy that includes cisplatin can experience long-term morbidity due to treatment-related adverse reactions...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821950/the-effects-of-supramaximal-versus-submaximal-intensity-eccentric-training-when-performed-until-volitional-fatigue
#10
Joel R Krentz, Philip D Chilibeck, Jonathan P Farthing
PURPOSE: Our purpose was to compare supramaximal versus submaximal intensity eccentric training performed until volitional fatigue. METHODS: Thirty-two young adults (19 males) were randomized into one of three groups: (1) ECC110 performed eccentric (ECC) only contractions at 110% of concentric (CON) 1-repetition maximum (1RM); (2) ECC80 performed ECC only contractions at 80% of CON 1RM; (3) a control group. Training progressed from 3 to 6 sets of unilateral ECC training of the elbow flexors over 8 weeks, with each set performed until volitional fatigue...
August 18, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821916/relative-social-standing-and-suicide-ideation-among-kenyan-males-the-interpersonal-theory-of-suicide-in-context
#11
M L Goodman, H Serag, P K Keiser, S Gitari, B G Raimer
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between subjective social status and suicide ideation in a sample of young Kenyan men (age 18-34 years). Situating insights from the interpersonal theory of suicide within social determinants of health framework, we consider whether lower subjective social status predicts lower collective self-esteem (CSE), hopelessness, less meaning in life and more loneliness, and whether these characteristics mediate associations between subjective social status and suicide ideation...
August 18, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821895/osteonecrosis-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-on-hong-kong-singapore-acute-lymphocytic-leukaemia-97-protocol
#12
Bryan Mh Keng, Gee Chuan Wong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821746/neural-circuitry-governing-anxious-individuals-mis-allocation-of-working-memory-to-threat
#13
Daniel M Stout, Alexander J Shackman, Walker S Pedersen, Tara A Miskovich, Christine L Larson
Dispositional anxiety is a trait-like phenotype that confers increased risk for a range of debilitating neuropsychiatric disorders. Like many patients with anxiety disorders, individuals with elevated levels of dispositional anxiety are prone to intrusive and distressing thoughts in the absence of immediate threat. Recent electrophysiological research suggests that these symptoms are rooted in the mis-allocation of working memory (WM) resources to threat-related information. Here, functional MRI was used to identify the network of brain regions that support WM for faces and to quantify the allocation of neural resources to threat-related distracters in 81 young adults...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821420/hyperglycemia-in-young-adults-seen-in-the-emergency-department-a-health-records-review
#14
Justin W Yan, Alexandra L Hamelin, Katherine M Gushulak, Kristine Van Aarsen, Melanie P Columbus, Ian G Stiell
Patients with diabetes who are in emerging adulthood, defined as the life stage between 18 and 29 years of age, have unique challenges in managing their illness and are at risk for acute complications and loss to follow up. This study's objective was to describe emergency department (ED) utilization because of hyperglycemia in emerging adults with diabetes and to characterize 30-day outcomes, including return visits and admission for hyperglycemia. This was a health-records review of emerging adults presenting over a 1-year period to 4 tertiary care EDs; the patients had known histories of diabetes and final diagnoses of hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemia...
August 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821269/age-exacerbates-microglial-activation-oxidative-stress-inflammatory-and-nox2-gene-expression-and-delays-functional-recovery-in-a-middle-aged-rodent-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Ramona E von Leden, Guzal Khayrullina, Kasey E Moritz, Kimberly R Byrnes
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) among people over age 40 has been steadily increasing since the 1980s and is associated with worsened outcome than injuries in young people. Age-related increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) are suggested to lead to chronic inflammation. The NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) enzyme is expressed by microglia and is a primary source of ROS. This study aimed to determine the effect of age on inflammation, oxidative damage, NOX2 gene expression, and functional performance with and without SCI in young adult (3 months) and middle-aged (12 months) male rats...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820970/utility-of-the-comprehensive-marijuana-motives-questionnaire-among-medical-cannabis-patients
#16
Kipling M Bohnert, Erin E Bonar, J Todd Arnedt, Deirdre A Conroy, Maureen A Walton, Mark A Ilgen
BACKGROUND: Little is known about motives for cannabis use among the population of adults using cannabis medically. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of the 12 factor, 36-item Comprehensive Marijuana Motives Questionnaire (CMMQ) among a sample of medical cannabis patients. METHODS: Study participants were adults ages 21years or older with scheduled appointments to obtain new or renewed medical cannabis certification from clinics in one Midwestern state (n=1116)...
August 3, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820847/effectiveness-of-a-16-week-high-intensity-cardioresistance-training-program-in-adults
#17
Tina A Greenlee, Daniel R Greene, Nathan J Ward, Ginger E Reeser, Courtney M Allen, Nicholas W Baumgartner, Neal J Cohen, Arthur F Kramer, Charles H Hillman, Aron K Barbey
Greenlee, TA, Greene, DR, Ward, NJ, Reeser, GE, Allen, CM, Baumgartner, NW, Cohen, NJ, Kramer, AF, Hillman, CH, and Barbey, AK. Effectiveness of a 16-week high-intensity cardioresistance training program in adults. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2528-2541, 2017-The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a novel, 16-week high-intensity cardioresistance training (HICRT) program on measures of aerobic fitness, agility, aerobic power, muscular endurance, lower-body explosive power, and self-reported activity level...
September 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820667/helping-young-people-stay-afloat-a-qualitative-study-of-community-resources-and-supports-for-lgbtq-adolescents-in-the-us-and-canada
#18
Marla E Eisenberg, Christopher J Mehus, Elizabeth M Saewyc, Heather L Corliss, Amy L Gower, Richard Sullivan, Carolyn M Porta
LGBTQ youth are at increased risk of poor health outcomes. This qualitative study gathered data from LGBTQ adolescents regarding their communities and describes the resources they draw upon for support. We conducted 66 go-along interviews with diverse LGBTQ adolescents (mean age = 16.6) in Minnesota, Massachusetts and British Columbia in 2014-2015, in which interviewers accompanied participants in their communities to better understand those contexts. Their responses were systematically organized and coded for common themes, reflecting levels of the social ecological model...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820188/stroke-twist-in-artery-linked-to-stroke-in-young-adults
#19
Mitesh Patel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820187/cerebral-venous-thrombosis
#20
REVIEW
Suzanne M Silvis, Diana Aguiar de Sousa, José M Ferro, Jonathan M Coutinho
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an important cause of stroke in young adults. Data from large international registries published in the past two decades have greatly improved our knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and prognosis of CVT. The presentation of symptoms is highly variable in this disease, and can range from a patient seen at the clinic with a 1-month history of headache, to a comatose patient admitted to the emergency room. Consequently, the diagnosis of CVT is often delayed or overlooked...
August 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
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