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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146182/plakophilin3-increases-desmosome-assembly-size-and-stability-by-increasing-expression-of-desmocollin2
#1
Mansa Gurjar, Kumarkrishna Raychaudhuri, Snehal Mahadik, Divya Reddy, Apurva Atak, Trupti Shetty, Kruthi Rao, Mansi S Karkhanis, Prajakta Gosavi, Lalit Sehgal, Sanjay Gupta, Sorab N Dalal
Previous reports show that the desmosomal plaque protein plakophilin3 (PKP3) is essential for desmosome formation. Here, we report that PKP3 over-expression decreases calcium dependency for de novo desmosome formation and makes existing cell-cell adhesion junctions more resilient in low calcium medium due to an increase in desmocollin2 expression. PKP3 overexpression increases the stability of other desmosomal proteins independently of the increase in DSC2 levels and regulates desmosome formation and stability by a multimodal mechanism affecting transcription, protein stability and cell border localization of desmosomal proteins...
November 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111817/structural-ultrastructural-and-morphometric-study-of-the-zebrafish-ocular-surface-a-model-for-human-corneal-diseases
#2
Domenico Puzzolo, Antonina Pisani, Consuelo Malta, Giuseppe Santoro, Alessandro Meduri, Francesco Abbate, Giuseppe Montalbano, Edward Wylegala, Rosa Alba Rana, Fabio Bucchieri, Antonio Ieni, Pasquale Aragona, Antonio Micali
PURPOSE: A morphological and morphometric study of the adult zebrafish ocular surface was performed to provide a comprehensive description of its parts and to evaluate its similarity to the human. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The eyes of adult zebrafish were processed for light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and for immunohistochemical stain of corneal nerves; a morphometric analysis was also performed on several morphological parameters. RESULTS: The corneal epithelium was formed by five layers of cells...
November 7, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092692/characterization-of-multi-layered-tissue-engineered-human-alveolar-bone-and-gingival-mucosa
#3
Thafar Almela, Sarmad Al-Sahaf, Robert Bolt, Ian Brook, K Moharamzadeh
Advances in tissue engineering have permitted assembly of multi-layered composite tissue constructs for potential applications in the treatment of combined hard and soft tissue defects and as an alternative in vitro test model to animal experimental systems. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a novel three-dimensional combined human alveolar bone and gingival mucosal model based on primary cells isolated from the oral tissues. Bone component of the model was engineered by seeding primary human alveolar osteoblasts (HAOBs) into a hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) scaffold and culturing in a spinner bioreactor...
November 1, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062102/arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy-related-dsg2-mutations-affect-desmosomal-cadherin-binding-kinetics
#4
Mareike Dieding, Jana Davina Debus, Raimund Kerkhoff, Anna Gaertner-Rommel, Volker Walhorn, Hendrik Milting, Dario Anselmetti
Cadherins are calcium dependent adhesion proteins that establish the intercellular mechanical contact by bridging the gap to adjacent cells. Desmoglein-2 (Dsg2) is a specific cadherin of the cell-cell contact in cardiac desmosomes. Mutations in the DSG2-gene are regarded to cause arrhythmogenic (right ventricular) cardiomyopathy (ARVC) which is a rare but severe heart muscle disease. The molecular pathomechanisms of the vast majority of DSG2 mutations, however, are unknown. Here, we investigated the homophilic binding of wildtype Dsg2 and two mutations which are associated with ARVC...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051189/klf-5-extends-its-fingers-to-desmosomes-the-next-frontier-for-enteric-epithelial-research
#5
Narek Israelyan, Kara Gross Margolis
n/a.
October 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044515/the-human-pkp2-plakophilin-2-gene-is-induced-by-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-in-normal-and-colon-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#6
Núria Niell, María Jesús Larriba, Gemma Ferrer-Mayorga, Isabel Sánchez-Pérez, Ramón Cantero, Francisco X Real, Luis Del Peso, Alberto Muñoz, José Manuel González-Sancho
Colorectal cancer results from the malignant transformation of colonic epithelial cells. Stromal fibroblasts are the main component of the tumour microenvironment, and play an important role in the progression of this and other neoplasias. Wnt/β-catenin signalling is essential for colon homeostasis, but aberrant, constitutive activation of this pathway is a hallmark of colorectal cancer. Here we present the first transcriptomic study on the effect of a Wnt factor on human colonic myofibroblasts. Wnt3A regulates the expression of 1,136 genes, of which 662 are upregulated and 474 are downregulated in CCD-18Co cells...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043097/histological-study-on-the-effect-of-nicotine-on-adult-male-guinea-pig-thin-skin
#7
Sohair A Eltony, Safaa S Ali
Tobacco smoking has been identified as an important factor in premature skin aging to detect the histological changes occurred in adult male guinea pig thin skin under the influence of low and high doses of nicotine; which constitutes approximately 0.6%-3.0% of the dry weight of tobacco. Fifteen adult male pigmented guinea pigs were equally divided into three groups: group I, control; group IIA, low dose nicotine treated; 3 mg/kg subcutaneously for 4 weeks; and group IIB, high dose nicotine treated; 6 mg/kg subcutaneously for 4 weeks...
September 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038103/large-genomic-rearrangements-of-desmosomal-genes-in-italian-arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy-patients
#8
Kalliopi Pilichou, Elisabetta Lazzarini, Ilaria Rigato, Rudy Celeghin, Marzia De Bortoli, Marina Perazzolo Marra, Marco Cason, Jan Jongbloed, Martina Calore, Stefania Rizzo, Daniela Regazzo, Giulia Poloni, Sabino Iliceto, Luciano Daliento, Pietro Delise, Domenico Corrado, J Peter Van Tintelen, Gaetano Thiene, Alessandra Rampazzo, Cristina Basso, Barbara Bauce, Alessandra Lorenzon, Gianluca Occhi
BACKGROUND: Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) is an inherited heart muscle disease associated with point mutations in genes encoding for cardiac desmosome proteins. Conventional mutation screening is positive in ≈50% of probands. Copy number variations (CNVs) have recently been linked to AC pointing to the need to determine the prevalence of CNVs in desmosomal genes and to evaluate disease penetrance by cosegregation analysis in family members. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 160 AC genotype-negative probands for 5 AC desmosomal genes by conventional mutation screening underwent multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification...
October 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037765/mechanisms-causing-loss-of-keratinocyte-cohesion-in-pemphigus
#9
REVIEW
Volker Spindler, Rüdiger Eming, Enno Schmidt, Masayuki Amagai, Sergei Grando, Marcel F Jonkman, Andrew P Kowalczyk, Eliane J Müller, Aimee S Payne, Carlo Pincelli, Animesh A Sinha, Eli Sprecher, Detlef Zillikens, Michael Hertl, Jens Waschke
The autoimmune blistering skin disease pemphigus is caused by IgG autoantibodies against desmosomal cadherins, but the precise mechanisms are in part a matter of controversial discussions. This review focuses on the currently existing models of the disease and highlights the relevance of desmoglein-specific versus nondesmoglein autoantibodies, the contribution of nonautoantibody factors, and the mechanisms leading to cell dissociation and blister formation in response to autoantibody binding. As the review brings together the majority of laboratories currently working on pemphigus pathogenesis, it aims to serve as a solid basis for further investigations for the entire field...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032358/a-rim-and-spoke-hypothesis-to-explain-the-biomechanical-roles-for-cytoplasmic-intermediate-filament-networks
#10
REVIEW
Roy A Quinlan, Nicole Schwarz, Reinhard Windoffer, Christine Richardson, Tim Hawkins, Joshua A Broussard, Kathleen J Green, Rudolf E Leube
Textbook images of keratin intermediate filament (IF) networks in epithelial cells and the functional compromization of the epidermis by keratin mutations promulgate a mechanical role for this important cytoskeletal component. In stratified epithelia, keratin filaments form prominent radial spokes that are focused onto cell-cell contact sites, i.e. the desmosomes. In this Hypothesis, we draw attention to a subset of keratin filaments that are apposed to the plasma membrane. They form a rim of filaments interconnecting the desmosomes in a circumferential network...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032336/a-mouse-dry-eye-model-induced-by-topical-administration-of-the-air-pollutant-particulate-matter-10
#11
Juan Li, Gang Tan, Xiaoyan Ding, Yahong Wang, Anhua Wu, Qichen Yang, Lei Ye, Yi Shao
AIM: To introduce a novel dry eye mouse model induced by topical administration of the air pollutant particulate matter 10 (PM10). METHOD: A total of 60 male BALB/c mice were used in this study and divided into two groups: group A (PBS eye drops, n=30) and group B (PM10 eye drop group, n=30). Each treatment was dosed four times a day, every time 50ul with the concentration of 5mg/ml PM10, for 14 consecutive days in the right eye. The clinical manifestations of dry eye were measured before therapy and 4, 7 and 14days post-treatment respectively, which included the tear volume, tear break-up (BUT) time, corneal fluorescein staining, rose bengal staining, Lissamine Green staining and inflammatory index...
October 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029831/transmission-electron-microscopy-of-the-presbylarynx-in-the-process-of-voice-aging
#12
Tatiana Maria Gonçalves, Regina Helena Garcia Martins, Bueno Benito Pessin Adriana
INTRODUCTION: Microscopy studies of presbylarynx have identified epithelial atrophy, as well as vocal muscle atrophy, increased collagen, and decreased nonfibrous proteins of the extracellular matrix. Studies on the ultrastructure of presbylarynx are rare and can help us understand the pathophysiology of presbyphonia. OBJECTIVE: To describe details on the ultrastructure of presbylarynx by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Sixteen human larynges were removed and distributed in two groups: control (n = 8; 30-50 years; six females, two males) and seniors (n = 8; 75-92 years; six females, two males)...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018034/a-distinct-cellular-basis-for-early-cardiac-arrhythmias-the-cardinal-manifestation-of-arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy-and-the-skin-phenotype-of-cardiocutaneous-syndromes
#13
Jennifer Karmouch, Qiong Q Zhou, Christina Y Miyake, Raffaella Lombardi, Kai Kretzschmar, Marie Bannier-Hélaouët, Hans Clevers, Xander H Wehrens, James T Willerson, Ali J Marian
Rationale: Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is caused primarily by mutations in genes encoding desmosome proteins. Ventricular arrhythmias are the cardinal and typically early manifestations, whereas myocardial fibroadiposis is the pathological hallmark. Homozygous DSP (desmoplakin) and JUP (plakoglobin) mutations are responsible for a subset of ACM patients that exhibit cardiac arrhythmias and dysfunction, palmo-planter keratosis, and hair abnormalities (cardiocutaneous syndromes). Objective: To determine phenotypic consequences of deletion of Dsp in a subset of cells common to the heart and skin...
October 10, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979685/the-injection-of-discovisc-into-the-anterior-chamber-improved-corneal-preservation-and-transplantation-for-cornea-blind-patients
#14
Bing Li, Li Chen, Yihui Chen, Jiajun Lu, Hao Liu, Yu Liu, Panpan Yao, Rui Liu, Minjie Sheng
PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to provide a new method of corneal preservation by injecting DisCoVisc into the anterior chamber of eyeballs and evaluate its efficiency for corneal transplantation. METHODS: Three pairs of eyeballs (n=6) were preserved by DisCoVisc viscoelastic agent, and the corneas were stored for 1 to 6 days. Then, the structure and morphology of cornea were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970591/consecutive-entosis-stages-in-human-substrate-dependent-cultured-cells
#15
Anastasiia S Garanina, Olga P Kisurina-Evgenieva, Maria V Erokhina, Elena A Smirnova, Valentina M Factor, Galina E Onishchenko
Entosis, or cell death by invading another cell, is typical for tumor epithelial cells. The formation of cell-in-cell structures is extensively studied in suspension cultures, but remains poorly understood in substrate-dependent cells. Here, we used electron, confocal and time-lapse microscopy in combination with pharmacological inhibition of intracellular components to study the kinetics of entosis using two human substrate-dependent tumor cultures, A431 and MCF7. In total, we identified and characterized five consecutive stages of entosis, which were common for both examined cell lines...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957532/arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy-pathology-genetics-and-concepts-in-pathogenesis
#16
Edgar T Hoorntje, Wouter P Te Rijdt, Cynthia A James, Kalliopi Pilichou, Cristina Basso, Daniel P Judge, Connie R Bezzina, J Peter van Tintelen
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a rare, heritable heart disease characterized by fibro-fatty replacement of the myocardium and a high degree of electric instability. It was first thought to be a congenital disorder, but is now regarded as a dystrophic heart muscle disease that develops over time. There is no curative treatment and current treatment strategies focus on attenuating the symptoms, slowing disease progression, and preventing life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Identification of mutations in genes encoding desmosomal proteins and in other genes has led to insights into the disease pathogenesis and greatly facilitated identification of family members at risk...
October 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948000/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy
#17
REVIEW
Alessandra Lorenzon, Martina Calore, Giulia Poloni, Leon J De Windt, Paola Braghetta, Alessandra Rampazzo
Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays essential roles in heart development as well as cardiac tissue homoeostasis in adults. Abnormal regulation of this signaling pathway is linked to a variety of cardiac disease conditions, including hypertrophy, fibrosis, arrhythmias, and infarction. Recent studies on genetically modified cellular and animal models document a crucial role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the molecular pathogenesis of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC), an inherited disease of intercalated discs, typically characterized by ventricular arrhythmias and progressive substitution of the myocardium with fibrofatty tissue...
September 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945203/mtorc1-loss-impairs-epidermal-adhesion-via-tgf-%C3%AE-rho-kinase-activation
#18
Kaushal Asrani, Akshay Sood, Alba Torres, Dan Georgess, Pornima Phatak, Harsimar Kaur, Amber Dubin, C Conover Talbot, Loubna Elhelu, Andrew J Ewald, Bo Xiao, Paul Worley, Tamara L Lotan
Despite its central position in oncogenic intracellular signaling networks, the role of mTORC1 in epithelial development has not been studied extensively in vivo. Here, we have used the epidermis as a model system to elucidate the cellular effects and signaling feedback sequelae of mTORC1 loss of function in epithelial tissue. In mice with conditional epidermal loss of the mTORC1 components Rheb or Rptor, mTORC1 loss of function unexpectedly resulted in a profound skin barrier defect with epidermal abrasions, blistering, and early postnatal lethality, due to a thinned epidermis with decreased desmosomal protein expression and incomplete biochemical differentiation...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928959/cell-polarity-cell-adhesion-and-spermatogenesis-role-of-cytoskeletons
#19
REVIEW
Linxi Li, Ying Gao, Haiqi Chen, Tito Jesus, Elizabeth Tang, Nan Li, Qingquan Lian, Ren-Shan Ge, C Yan Cheng
In the rat testis, studies have shown that cell polarity, in particular spermatid polarity, to support spermatogenesis is conferred by the coordinated efforts of the Par-, Crumbs-, and Scribble-based polarity complexes in the seminiferous epithelium. Furthermore, planar cell polarity (PCP) is conferred by PCP proteins such as Van Gogh-like 2 (Vangl2) in the testis. On the other hand, cell junctions at the Sertoli cell-spermatid (steps 8-19) interface are exclusively supported by adhesion protein complexes (for example, α6β1-integrin-laminin-α3,β3,γ3 and nectin-3-afadin) at the actin-rich apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES) since the apical ES is the only anchoring device in step 8-19 spermatids...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928733/crosstalk-between-signaling-pathways-in-pemphigus-a-role-for-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-activation
#20
Gabriel A Cipolla, Jong Kook Park, Robert M Lavker, Maria Luiza Petzl-Erler
Pemphigus consists of a group of chronic blistering skin diseases mediated by autoantibodies (autoAbs). The dogma that pemphigus is caused by keratinocyte dissociation (acantholysis) as a distinctive and direct consequence of the presence of autoAb targeting two main proteins of the desmosome-desmoglein (DSG) 1 and/or DSG3-has been put to the test. Several outside-in signaling events elicited by pemphigus autoAb in keratinocytes have been described, among which stands out p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) engagement and its apoptotic effect on keratinocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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