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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691748/intestinal-microbiome-of-broiler-chickens-after-use-of-nanoparticles-and-metal-salts
#1
Еlena Yausheva, Sergey Miroshnikov, Еlena Sizova
The research included the study of influence of ultrafine particle preparations (nanoparticles of copper, zinc, iron, CuZn alloy) and metal salts (iron pyrophosphate, copper asparginate, zinc asparginate) on the composition of cecal microbiota of broiler chickens. Before adding the studied nanoparticles and metal salts to the diet, cecal microbiota of broiler chickens was represented by 76% Firmicutes taxon and 16% Bacteroidetes. Numerous among them were the bacteria of the taxa Anaerotruncus spp., Lactobacillus spp...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691482/why-does-the-microbiome-affect-behaviour
#2
REVIEW
Katerina V-A Johnson, Kevin R Foster
Growing evidence indicates that the mammalian microbiome can affect behaviour, and several symbionts even produce neurotransmitters. One common explanation for these observations is that symbionts have evolved to manipulate host behaviour for their benefit. Here, we evaluate the manipulation hypothesis by applying evolutionary theory to recent work on the gut-brain axis. Although the theory predicts manipulation by symbionts under certain conditions, these appear rarely satisfied by the genetically diverse communities of the mammalian microbiome...
April 24, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690923/correction-to-cropping-practices-manipulate-abundance-patterns-of-root-and-soil-microbiome-members-paving-the-way-to-smart-farming
#3
Kyle Hartman, Marcel G A van der Heijden, Raphaël A Wittwer, Samiran Banerjee, Jean-Claude Walser, Klaus Schlaeppi
Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that while the ordination graphs are all correct, the symbols in the legend are wrong.
April 24, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689456/it-s-not-just-the-food-you-eat-environmental-factors-in-the-development-of-food-allergies
#4
REVIEW
Joyce E Yu, Anu Mallapaty, Rachel L Miller
The dramatic rise in the prevalence of food allergy and food allergy-associated anaphylaxis in the past few decades has fueled investigative interest into understanding this puzzling trend. Here, we review the question as to whether important external environmental determinants beyond dietary habits and exposure to food allergens are involved. This review will summarize our current understanding of these environment determinants, derived from the latest experimental and epidemiological research. Specifically, we will review the role of exposures that affect skin barrier function, development of a diverse microbiome, and food processing...
April 21, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689301/distinct-consequences-of-amoxicillin-and-ertapenem-exposure-in-the-porcine-gut-microbiome
#5
Sheila Connelly, Poorani Subramanian, Nur A Hasan, Rita R Colwell, Michael Kaleko
The gut microbiome influences many, if not all, aspects of human health. Antibiotics, while lifesaving, have the unintended consequence of killing commensal microbiota inhabiting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which can lead to overgrowth of opportunistic pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Here, porcine models were developed to evaluate changes to the gut microbiome caused by two distinct types of beta-lactam antibiotics delivered via common administration routes, oral amoxicillin and intravenous ertapenem...
April 21, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689266/alterations-in-enteric-virome-associate-with-colorectal-cancer-and-survival-outcomes
#6
Geicho Nakatsu, Haokui Zhou, William Ka Kei Wu, Sunny Hei Wong, Olabisi Oluwabukola Coker, Zhenwei Dai, Xiangchun Li, Chun-Ho Szeto, Naoki Sugimura, Thomas Yuen-Tung Lam, Allen Chi-Shing Yu, Xiansong Wang, Zigui Chen, Martin Chi-Sang Wong, Siew Chien Ng, Matthew T V Chan, Paul Kay Sheung Chan, Francis Ka Leung Chan, Joseph Jao-Yiu Sung, Jun Yu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) have a different gut microbiome signature than individuals without CRC. Little is known about the viral component of CRC-associated microbiome. We aimed to identify and validate viral taxonomic markers of CRC that might be used in detection of disease or predicting outcome. METHODS: We performed shotgun metagenomic analyses of viromes of fecal samples from 74 patients with CRC (cases) and 92 individuals without CRC (controls) in Hong Kong (discovery cohort)...
April 21, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688473/detection-of-gut-dysbiosis-due-to-reduced-clostridium-subcluster-xiva-using-the-fecal-or-serum-bile-acid-profile
#7
Masashi Murakami, Junichi Iwamoto, Akira Honda, Takeshi Tsuji, Makoto Tamamushi, Hajime Ueda, Tadakuni Monma, Naoki Konishi, Shoichiro Yara, Takeshi Hirayama, Teruo Miyazaki, Yoshifumi Saito, Tadashi Ikegami, Yasushi Matsuzaki
Background: Dysbiosis, especially a reduced Clostridium subcluster XIVa (XIVa), has been reported in several gastrointestinal diseases. Since XIVa is thought to be the main bacterial cluster that metabolizes bile acids (BAs) in the human intestine, we hypothesized that the BA profile in feces, and possibly in serum, could be a convenient biomarker for intestinal XIVa activity. Methods: First, blood and feces were collected from 26 healthy controls and 20 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, and the relationships among fecal microbiomes and fecal and serum BA compositions were studied...
April 23, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688458/preterm-infants-have-distinct-microbiomes-not-explained-by-mode-of-delivery-breastfeeding-duration-or-antibiotic-exposure
#8
Cecilie Dahl, Hein Stigum, Jørgen Valeur, Nina Iszatt, Virissa Lenters, Shyamal Peddada, Jørgen V Bjørnholt, Tore Midtvedt, Siddhartha Mandal, Merete Eggesbø
Background: Preterm infants have low gut microbial diversity and few anaerobes. It is unclear whether the low diversity pertains to prematurity itself or is due to differences in delivery mode, feeding mode or exposure to antibiotics. Methods: The Norwegian Microbiota Study (NoMIC) was established to examine the colonization of the infant gut and health outcomes. 16S rRNA gene Illumina amplicon-sequenced samples from 519 children (160 preterms), collected at 10 days, 4 months and 1 year postnatally, were used to calculate alpha diversity...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688427/genotypic-variation-in-pinus-radiata-responses-to-nitrogen-source-are-related-to-changes-in-the-root-microbiome
#9
Marta Gallart, Karen L Adair, Jonathan Love, Dean F Meason, Peter W Clinton, Jianming Xue, Matthew H Turnbull
Variation in traits within a plant species contributes to differences in soil physicochemistry and rhizosphere microbial communities. However, how intraspecific variation in plant responses to nitrogen (N) shapes these communities remains unclear. We studied whether plant responses to organic and inorganic N forms vary among genotypes, and if these responses were associated with variation in root-associated communities. We investigated how the root microbiomes of two Pinus radiata genotypes were altered by two years of N-fertilisation in field conditions...
April 23, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687353/gut-microbiome-of-moroccan-colorectal-cancer-patients
#10
Imane Allali, Noureddine Boukhatem, Leila Bouguenouch, Hanaa Hardi, H Abir Boudouaya, M Belen Cadenas, Karim Ouldim, Saaïd Amzazi, M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Hassan Ghazal
Although colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of death in Morocco, there are no studies of the microbiome changes associated with the disease in the Moroccan population. The aim of our study was to compare the stool microbiome of Moroccan cancer patients with healthy individuals. We analyzed the microbiome composition of samples from 11 CRC patients and 12 healthy individuals by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Principal coordinate analysis of samples revealed defined cancer versus healthy clusters. Our findings showed that cancer samples had higher proportions of Firmicutes (T = 50...
April 23, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687212/microbiome-analysis-and-bacterial-isolation-from-lej%C3%A3-a-lake-soil-in-atacama-desert
#11
Dinka Mandakovic, Jonathan Maldonado, Rodrigo Pulgar, Pablo Cabrera, Alexis Gaete, Viviana Urtuvia, Michael Seeger, Verónica Cambiazo, Mauricio González
As a consequence of the severe climatic change affecting our entire world, many lakes in the Andes Cordillera are likely to disappear within a few decades. One of these lakes is Lejía Lake, located in the central Atacama Desert. The objectives of this study were: (1) to characterize the bacterial community from Lejía Lake shore soil (LLS) using 16S rRNA sequencing and (2) to test a culture-based approach using a soil extract medium (SEM) to recover soil bacteria. This extreme ecosystem was dominated by three phyla: Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes with 29...
April 23, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687200/are-probiotics-effective-in-targeting-alcoholic-liver-diseases
#12
Meegun Hong, Dae Hee Han, Jitaek Hong, Dong Joon Kim, Ki Tae Suk
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders including steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Despite intensive research in the last two decades, there is currently no Food and Drug Administration-approved therapy for treating ALD. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of the gut-liver axis and gut microbiome on the pathogenesis of ALD. Alcohol may induce intestinal dysbiosis and increased intestinal permeability, which in turn result in increased levels of pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and translocation of microbial products from the gut to the liver (bacterial translocation)...
April 23, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686981/self-sampling-for-human-papillomavirus-testing-increased-cervical-cancer-screening-participation-and-incorporation-in-international-screening-programs
#13
REVIEW
Sarah Gupta, Christina Palmer, Elisabeth M Bik, Juan P Cardenas, Harold Nuñez, Laurens Kraal, Sara W Bird, Jennie Bowers, Alison Smith, Nathaniel A Walton, Audrey D Goddard, Daniel E Almonacid, Susan Zneimer, Jessica Richman, Zachary S Apte
In most industrialized countries, screening programs for cervical cancer have shifted from cytology (Pap smear or ThinPrep) alone on clinician-obtained samples to the addition of screening for human papillomavirus (HPV), its main causative agent. For HPV testing, self-sampling instead of clinician-sampling has proven to be equally accurate, in particular for assays that use nucleic acid amplification techniques. In addition, HPV testing of self-collected samples in combination with a follow-up Pap smear in case of a positive result is more effective in detecting precancerous lesions than a Pap smear alone...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686799/differential-microbial-communities-of-omnivorous-and-herbivorous-cattle-in-southern-china
#14
Susanna K P Lau, Jade L L Teng, Tsz Ho Chiu, Elaine Chan, Alan K L Tsang, Gianni Panagiotou, Shao-Lun Zhai, Patrick C Y Woo
In Hong Kong, cattle were traditionally raised by farmers as draft animals to plough rice fields. Due to urbanization in the 20th century, they were gradually abandoned and became wild cattle straying in suburban Hong Kong. Recently, these cattle were observed to have become omnivorous by eating leftover barbeque food waste in country parks. Microbiome analysis was performed on fecal samples of the omnivorous cattle using deep sequencing and the resulting microbiome was compared with that of traditional herbivorous cattle in Southern China...
2018: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686603/indole-a-signaling-molecule-produced-by-the-gut-microbiota-negatively-impacts-emotional-behaviors-in-rats
#15
Mathilde Jaglin, Moez Rhimi, Catherine Philippe, Nicolas Pons, Aurélia Bruneau, Bénédicte Goustard, Valérie Daugé, Emmanuelle Maguin, Laurent Naudon, Sylvie Rabot
Gut microbiota produces a wide and diverse array of metabolites that are an integral part of the host metabolome. The emergence of the gut microbiome-brain axis concept has prompted investigations on the role of gut microbiota dysbioses in the pathophysiology of brain diseases. Specifically, the search for microbe-related metabolomic signatures in human patients and animal models of psychiatric disorders has pointed out the importance of the microbial metabolism of aromatic amino acids. Here, we investigated the effect of indole on brain and behavior in rats...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686534/the-neurodevelopmental-perspective-of-surgical-necrotizing-enterocolitis-the-role-of-the-gut-brain-axis
#16
REVIEW
Chariton Moschopoulos, Panagiotis Kratimenos, Ioannis Koutroulis, Bhairav V Shah, Anja Mowes, Vineet Bhandari
This state-of-the-art review article aims to highlight the most recent evidence about the therapeutic options of surgical necrotizing enterocolitis, focusing on the molecular basis of the gut-brain axis in relevance to the neurodevelopmental outcomes of primary peritoneal drainage and primary laparotomy. Current evidence favors primary laparotomy over primary peritoneal drainage as regards neurodevelopment in the surgical treatment of necrotizing enterocolitis. The added exposure to inhalational anesthesia in infants undergoing primary laparotomy is an additional confounding variable but requires further study...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686086/myb72-dependent-coumarin-exudation-shapes-root-microbiome-assembly-to-promote-plant-health
#17
Ioannis A Stringlis, Ke Yu, Kirstin Feussner, Ronnie de Jonge, Sietske Van Bentum, Marcel C Van Verk, Roeland L Berendsen, Peter A H M Bakker, Ivo Feussner, Corné M J Pieterse
Plant roots nurture a tremendous diversity of microbes via exudation of photosynthetically fixed carbon sources. In turn, probiotic members of the root microbiome promote plant growth and protect the host plant against pathogens and pests. In the Arabidopsis thaliana - Pseudomonas simiae WCS417 model system the root-specific transcription factor MYB72 and the MYB72-controlled β-glucosidase BGLU42 emerged as important regulators of beneficial rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance (ISR) and iron-uptake responses...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685983/gut-microbiome-analysis-identifies-potential-aetiological-factors-in-acute-gastroenteritis
#18
Natalia Castaño-Rodríguez, Alexander P Underwood, Juan Merif, Stephen M Riordan, William D Rawlinson, Hazel M Mitchell, Nadeem O Kaakoush
The morbidity and mortality resulting from acute gastroenteritis and associated chronic sequelae represent a substantial burden on health care systems worldwide. Few studies have investigated changes in the gut microbiome following an episode of acute gastroenteritis. Using non-directed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, the faecal microbiota of 475 patients with acute gastroenteritis was examined. Patient age was correlated to the overall microbial composition, with a decrease in Faecalibacterium observed in older patients...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685968/impact-of-dietary-gut-microbial-metabolites-on-the-epigenome
#19
REVIEW
Clarissa Gerhauser
Within the past decade, epigenetic mechanisms and their modulation by natural products have gained increasing interest. Dietary bioactive compounds from various sources, including green tea, soya, fruit and berries, cruciferous vegetables, whole grain foods, fish and others, have been shown to target enzymes involved in epigenetic gene regulation, including DNA methyltransferases, histone acetyltransferases, deacetylases and demethylases in vitro and in cell culture. Also, many dietary agents were shown to alter miRNA expression...
June 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685214/microbiomes-associated-with-bovine-periodontitis-and-oral-health
#20
Ana C Borsanelli, David F Lappin, Lorenzo Viora, David Bennett, Iveraldo S Dutra, Bernd W Brandt, Marcello P Riggio
Periodontitis is an infectious polymicrobial, immuno-inflammatory disease of multifactorial aetiology that has an impact on the health, production and welfare of ruminants. The objective of the present study was to determine the microbial profiles present in the gingival sulcus of cattle considered periodontally healthy and in the periodontal pocket of animals with periodontitis lesions using high-throughput bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Subgingival biofilm samples were collected from 40 cattle with periodontitis and 38 periodontally healthy animals...
May 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
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