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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214389/synthesis-of-lacto-n-tetraose
#1
Kelly M Craft, Steven D Townsend
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third largest macromolecular component of breast milk and offer infants numerous health benefits, most of which stem from the development of a healthy microbiome. Characterization, quantification, and chemical derivatization of HMOs remains a frontier issue in glycobiology due to the challenge of isolating appreciable quantities of homogenous HMOs from breast milk. Herein, we report the synthesis of the human milk tetrasaccharide lacto-N-tetraose (LNT). LNT is ubiquitous in human breast milk as it is a core structure common to longer-chain HMOs and many glycolipids...
February 11, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214100/nlrp6-a-multifaceted-innate-immune-sensor
#2
REVIEW
Maayan Levy, Hagit Shapiro, Christoph A Thaiss, Eran Elinav
NLRP6, a member of the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR) innate immune receptor family, regulates inflammation and host defense against microorganisms. Similar to other NLRs, NLRP6 not only participates in inflammasome formation, but is also involved in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling regulation and facilitation of gastrointestinal antiviral effector functions. Additionally, NLRP6 contributes to the regulation of mucus secretion and antimicrobial peptide production, thereby impacting intestinal microbial colonization and associated microbiome-related infectious, autoinflammatory, metabolic, and neoplastic diseases...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213609/gut-microbial-profile-is-altered-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis-and-partially-restored-after-udca-therapy
#3
Ruqi Tang, Yiran Wei, Yanmei Li, Weihua Chen, Haoyan Chen, Qixia Wang, Fan Yang, Qi Miao, Xiao Xiao, Haiyan Zhang, Min Lian, Xiang Jiang, Jun Zhang, Qin Cao, Zhuping Fan, Maoying Wu, Dekai Qiu, Jing-Yuan Fang, Aftab Ansari, M Eric Gershwin, Xiong Ma
OBJECTIVE: A close relationship between gut microbiota and some chronic liver disorders has recently been described. Herein, we systematically performed a comparative analysis of the gut microbiome in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and healthy controls. DESIGN: We first conducted a cross-sectional study of 60 ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment-naïve patients with PBC and 80 matched healthy controls. Second, an independent cohort composed of 19 treatment-naïve patients and 34 controls was used to validate the results...
February 17, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212659/erratum-to-ancient-bacteria-of-the-%C3%A3-tzi-s-microbiome-a-genomic-tale-from-the-copper-age
#4
Gabriele Andrea Lugli, Christian Milani, Leonardo Mancabelli, Francesca Turroni, Chiara Ferrario, Sabrina Duranti, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212267/effects-of-dietary-yogurt-on-the-healthy-human-gastrointestinal-gi-microbiome
#5
Daniel J Lisko, G Patricia Johnston, Carl G Johnston
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract performs key functions that regulate the relationship between the host and the microbiota. Research has shown numerous benefits of probiotic intake in the modulation of immune responses and human metabolic processes. However, unfavorable attention has been paid to temporal changes of the microbial composition and diversity of the GI tract. This study aimed to investigate the effects of yogurt consumption on the GI microbiome bacteria community composition, structure and diversity during and after a short-term period (42 days)...
February 15, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212158/an-integrated-understanding-of-the-immunology-of-allograft-inflammation
#6
Brenna Houlihan, Priscilla Cha, Michael Zasloff, Thomas M Fishbein, Alexander Kroemer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in our understanding of the complex immunology of intestinal transplantation and allograft rejection. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings highlight the importance of the intestinal microbiome for intestinal homeostasis and the role of newly discovered innate lymphoid cells in intestinal transplantation. In addition, the role of host antimicrobial Th17 responses in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal allograft rejection has been further elucidated...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211847/syntrophic-linkage-between-predatory-carpediemonas-and-specific-prokaryotic-populations
#7
Emmo Hamann, Halina E Tegetmeyer, Dietmar Riedel, Sten Littmann, Soeren Ahmerkamp, Jianwei Chen, Philipp F Hach, Marc Strous
Most anoxic environments are populated by small (<10 μm) heterotrophic eukaryotes that prey on different microbial community members. How predatory eukaryotes engage in beneficial interactions with other microbes has rarely been investigated so far. Here, we studied an example of such an interaction by cultivating the anerobic marine flagellate, Carpediemonas frisia sp. nov. (supergroup Excavata), with parts of its naturally associated microbiome. This microbiome consisted of so far uncultivated members of the Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia and Nanoarchaeota...
February 17, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211545/the-effect-of-gut-microbiome-on-tolerance-to-morphine-mediated-antinociception-in-mice
#8
Minho Kang, Ryan A Mischel, Sukhada Bhave, Essie Komla, Alvin Cho, Charity Huang, William L Dewey, Hamid I Akbarali
There is growing appreciation for the importance of gastrointestinal microbiota in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. While morphine and other narcotics are the most widely prescribed therapy for moderate to severe pain clinically, they have been noted to alter microbial composition and promote bacterial translocation to other tissues. Here we examined the pharmacodynamic properties of chronic morphine in mice following bacterial depletion with oral gavage of an antibiotic cocktail (ABX). ABX significantly reduced gut bacteria and prevented chronic morphine induced increases in gut permeability, colonic mucosal destruction, and colonic IL-1β expression...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211537/ambient-ultrafine-particle-ingestion-alters-gut-microbiota-in-association-with-increased-atherogenic-lipid-metabolites
#9
Rongsong Li, Jieping Yang, Arian Saffari, Jonathan Jacobs, Kyung In Baek, Greg Hough, Muriel H Larauche, Jianguo Ma, Nelson Jen, Nabila Moussaoui, Bill Zhou, Hanul Kang, Srinivasa Reddy, Susanne M Henning, Matthew J Campen, Joseph Pisegna, Zhaoping Li, Alan M Fogelman, Constantinos Sioutas, Mohamad Navab, Tzung K Hsiai
Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is associated with atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Ultrafine particles (UFP, dp < 0.1-0.2 μm) are redox active components of PM. We hypothesized that orally ingested UFP promoted atherogenic lipid metabolites in both the intestine and plasma via altered gut microbiota composition. Low density lipoprotein receptor-null (Ldlr(-/-)) mice on a high-fat diet were orally administered with vehicle control or UFP (40 μg/mouse/day) for 3 days a week...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210979/the-skin-as-a-route-of-allergen-exposure-part-ii-allergens-and-role-of-the-microbiome-and-environmental-exposures
#10
REVIEW
George Knaysi, Anna R Smith, Jeffrey M Wilson, Julia A Wisniewski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This second part of the article aims to highlight recent contributions in the literature that enhance our understanding of the cutaneous immune response to allergen. RECENT FINDINGS: Several properties of allergens facilitate barrier disruption and cutaneous sensitization. There is a strong epidemiologic relationship between the microbiome, both the gut and skin, and atopic dermatitis (AD). The mechanisms connecting these two entities remain enigmatic; however, recent murine models show that commensal skin bacteria play an active role in supporting skin barrier homeostasis and defense against microbial penetration...
January 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210076/potential-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-synthetic-torpor-and-therapeutic-hypothermia
#11
REVIEW
Claudia Sisa, Silvia Turroni, Roberto Amici, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela, Matteo Cerri
Therapeutic hypothermia is today used in several clinical settings, among them the gut related diseases that are influenced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. This perspective paved the way to the study of hibernation physiology, in natural hibernators, highlighting an unexpected importance of the gut microbial ecosystem in hibernation and torpor. In natural hibernators, intestinal microbes adaptively reorganize their structural configuration during torpor, and maintain a mutualistic configuration regardless of long periods of fasting and cold temperatures...
January 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209760/glucoraphanin-ameliorates-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-through-adipose-tissue-browning-and-reduction-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-mice
#12
Naoto Nagata, Liang Xu, Susumu Kohno, Yusuke Ushida, Yudai Aoki, Ryohei Umeda, Nobuo Fuke, Fen Zhuge, Yinhua Ni, Mayumi Nagashimada, Chiaki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Shuichi Kaneko, Tsuguhito Ota
Low-grade sustained inflammation links obesity to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, therapeutic approaches to improve systemic energy balance and chronic inflammation in obesity are limited. Pharmacological activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) alleviates obesity and insulin resistance in mice; however, Nrf2 inducers are not clinically available owing to safety concerns. Thus, we examined whether dietary glucoraphanin, a stable precursor of the Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane, ameliorates systemic energy balance, chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 16, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207943/the-role-of-the-skin-microbiome-in-atopic-dermatitis-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
R Dybboe, J Bandier, L Skov, L Engstrand, J D Johansen
BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis is a hallmark of atopic dermatitis. The composition of skin microbiome communities and the causality of dysbiosis in eczema have not been well established. OBJECTIVE: To describe the skin microbiome profile in atopic dermatitis and address if there is a causal relationship between dysbiosis and atopic dermatitis. METHODS: The protocol is registered in PROSPERO (CRD42016035813). We searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus and ClinicalTrials...
February 16, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207851/impact-of-levels-of-total-digestible-nutrients-on-microbiome-enzyme-profile-and-degradation-of-feeds-in-buffalo-rumen
#14
Anju Kala, D N Kamra, Avinash Kumar, Neeta Agarwal, L C Chaudhary, C G Joshi
The present study was aimed at understanding a shift in rumen microbiome of buffaloes fed various levels of total digestible nutrients. To understand the process, the metagenomics of rumen microbes, in vivo and in vitro rumen fermentation studies were carried out. Three rumen fistulated adult male Murrah buffaloes were fed three isonitrogenous diets varying in total digestible nutrients (70, 85 and 100% of TDN requirement) in 3X3 switch over design. On dry matter basis, wheat straw/ roughage content were 81, 63 and 51% and that of maize grain was 8, 16 and 21% in three diets respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207825/discovery-of-a-new-family-of-relaxases-in-firmicutes-bacteria
#15
Gayetri Ramachandran, Andrés Miguel-Arribas, David Abia, Praveen K Singh, Isidro Crespo, César Gago-Córdoba, Jian An Hao, Juan Roman Luque-Ortega, Carlos Alfonso, Ling J Wu, D Roeland Boer, Wilfried J J Meijer
Antibiotic resistance is a serious global problem. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARG), which are widespread in environmental bacteria, can be transferred to pathogenic bacteria via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Gut microbiomes are especially apt for the emergence and dissemination of ARG. Conjugation is the HGT route that is predominantly responsible for the spread of ARG. Little is known about conjugative elements of Gram-positive bacteria, including those of the phylum Firmicutes, which are abundantly present in gut microbiomes...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205371/integrating-gut-microbiota-immaturity-and-disease-discriminatory-taxa-to-diagnose-the-initiation-and-severity-of-shrimp-disease
#16
Jinbo Xiong, Jinyong Zhu, Wenfang Dai, Chunming Dong, Qiongfen Qiu, Chenghua Li
Increasing evidence has emerged a tight link among the gut microbiota, host age and health status. This osculating interplay impedes the definition of gut microbiome features associated with host health from that in developmental stages. Consequently, gut microbiota-based prediction of health status is promising yet not well established. Here we firstly tracked shrimp gut microbiota (N = 118) over an entire cycle of culture; shrimp either stayed healthy, or progressively transitioned into severe disease. The results showed that the gut microbiota were significantly distinct over shrimp developmental stages, and disease progression...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203137/comamonas-testosteroni-is-it-still-a-rare-human-pathogen
#17
Shaika Farooq, Rumana Farooq, Nahida Nahvi
Comamonas testosteroni (formally Pseudomonas testosteroni) is common environmental bacterium that is not part of the human microbiome. Since its identification as a human pathogen in 1987, numerous reports have drizzled in, implicating this organism for various infections. Although these organisms are of low virulence, some of their obscurity perhaps is due to the incapability of clinical laboratories to identify them. Most of the reported cases are bloodstream infections. We report a case of gastroenteritis caused by this organism in a 65-year-old female with colostomy in situ...
January 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202164/manipulating-the-gut-microbiome-to-decrease-uremic-toxins
#18
Rabi Yacoub, Christina M Wyatt
The uremic solute indoxyl sulfate has been associated with increased mortality and other adverse outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease. In a recent study published in Cell Host & Microbe, Devlin et al. describe a novel approach to alter the production of indoxyl sulfate through manipulation of the gut microbiota. Although this approach is far from clinical application, it may allow investigators to determine the contribution of uremic solutes to disease pathogenesis.
March 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199845/host-genotype-and-gut-microbiome-modulate-insulin-secretion-and-diet-induced-metabolic-phenotypes
#19
Julia H Kreznar, Mark P Keller, Lindsay L Traeger, Mary E Rabaglia, Kathryn L Schueler, Donald S Stapleton, Wen Zhao, Eugenio I Vivas, Brian S Yandell, Aimee Teo Broman, Bruno Hagenbuch, Alan D Attie, Federico E Rey
Genetic variation drives phenotypic diversity and influences the predisposition to metabolic disease. Here, we characterize the metabolic phenotypes of eight genetically distinct inbred mouse strains in response to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet. We found significant variation in diabetes-related phenotypes and gut microbiota composition among the different mouse strains in response to the dietary challenge and identified taxa associated with these traits. Follow-up microbiota transplant experiments showed that altering the composition of the gut microbiota modifies strain-specific susceptibility to diet-induced metabolic disease...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199766/dysbiosis-of-oral-buccal-mucosa-microbiota-in-patients-with-oral-lichen-planus
#20
Yuan He, Diping Gong, Cong Shi, Fangyang Shao, Jiahao Shi, Jian Fei
OBJECTIVE: The bacterial community structure of buccal mucosa in patients with oral lichen planus was evaluated and compared with healthy control. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Buccal scraping samples have been taken on 43 oral lichen planus patients (21 erosive and 22 non-erosive) and 21 mucosal healthy volunteers. The V3 hypervariable 16S rDNA region were amplified and sequenced by high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. RESULTS: 94.26% of the total buccal bacteria were classified into 15 abundant genera...
February 15, 2017: Oral Diseases
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