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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333890/the-association-between-clinical-features-seen-on-fundus-photographs-and-glaucomatous-damage-detected-on-visual-fields-and-optical-coherence-tomography-scans
#1
Paula A Alhadeff, Carlos G De Moraes, Monica Chen, Ali S Raza, Robert Ritch, Donald C Hood
PURPOSE: To classify the appearance of the optic disc seen on fundus photographs of healthy subjects and patients with or suspected glaucoma whose diagnosis was based upon visual fields (VFs) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (sdOCT) results. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One eye of 100 patients with or suspected glaucoma and 62 healthy subjects were prospectively tested with 24-2 and 10-2 VF and macular and disc sdOCT cube scans. All eyes with or suspected glaucoma had a 24-2 mean deviation better than -6...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332445/dynamic-virtual-simulation-of-the-occurrence-and-severity-of-edge-loading-in-hip-replacements-associated-with-variation-in-the-rotational-and-translational-surgical-position
#2
Joanna Leng, Mazen Al-Hajjar, Ruth Wilcox, Alison Jones, David Barton, John Fisher
Variation in the surgical positioning of total hip replacement can result in edge loading of the femoral head on the rim of the acetabular cup. Previous work has reported the effect of edge loading on the wear of hip replacement bearings with a fixed level of dynamic biomechanical hip separation. Variations in both rotational and translational surgical positioning of the hip joint replacement combine to influence both the biomechanics and the tribology including the severity of edge loading, the amount of dynamic separation, the force acting on the rim of the cup and the resultant wear and torque acting on the cup...
April 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326044/geographical-variations-in-the-interaction-of-relative-age-effects-in-youth-and-adult-elite-soccer
#3
Christina Steingröver, Nick Wattie, Joseph Baker, Werner F Helsen, Jörg Schorer
Selection biases based on the use of cut-off dates and the timing of athletes' birthdates have been termed relative age effects. These effects have been shown to differentially affect individuals involved in sport. For example, young male soccer players born early in their age group are overrepresented in elite teams while studies in adult soccer indicated potential carry-over effects from talent development systems. This two-study approach focuses on the processes within multi-year age groups in youth and adult elite soccer and on the role of players' age position within the age band with regard to players' birth year and birth month...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323444/evaluating-driver-drowsiness-countermeasures
#4
John G Gaspar, Timothy L Brown, Chris W Schwarz, John D Lee, Julie Kang, James S Higgins
Objective Driver drowsiness contributes to a substantial number of fatal and non-fatal crashes, with recent estimates attributing up to 21% of fatal crashes to drowsiness. This paper describes recent NHTSA research on in-vehicle drowsiness countermeasures. Recent advances in technology and state detection algorithms have shown success in detecting drowsiness using a variety of data sources, including camera-based eye tracking, steering wheel position, yaw rate, and vehicle lane position. However, detection is just the first step in reducing drowsy driving crashes...
March 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323248/accuracy-and-reproducibility-of-preoperative-three-dimensional-planning-for-total-hip-arthroplasty-using-biplanar-low-dose-radiographs-a-pilot-study
#5
Didier Mainard, Olivier Barbier, Yohann Knafo, Rémi Belleville, Laurence Mainard-Simard, Jean-Baptiste Gross
BACKGROUND: In total hip arthroplasty (THA), the acetabular cup and femoral stem must be correctly sized and positioned to avoid intraoperative and postoperative complications, achieve good functional outcomes and ensure long-term survival. Current two-dimensional (2D) techniques do not provide sufficient accuracy, while low-dose biplanar X-rays (EOS) had not been assessed in this indication. Therefore we performed a case-control study to: 1) evaluate the prediction of stem and cup size for a new 3D planning technique (stereoradiographic imaging plus 3D modeling) in comparison to 2D templating on film radiographs and 2) evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of this 3D technique for preoperative THA planning...
March 16, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316957/the-evolution-of-computer-assisted-total-hip-arthroplasty-and-relevant-applications
#6
EDITORIAL
Jun-Dong Chang, In-Sung Kim, Atul M Bhardwaj, Ramachandra N Badami
In total hip arthroplasty (THA), the accurate positioning of implants is the key to achieve a good clinical outcome. Computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery (CAOS) has been developed for more accurate positioning of implants during the THA. There are passive, semi-active, and active systems in CAOS for THA. Navigation is a passive system that only provides information and guidance to the surgeon. There are 3 types of navigation: imageless navigation, computed tomography (CT)-based navigation, and fluoroscopy-based navigation...
March 2017: Hip & Pelvis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316949/evaluation-of-the-role-of-probiotics-in-endodontic-treatment-a-preliminary-study
#7
Aarti Bohora, Sharad Kokate
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The principal goal of endodontics is the prevention of periapical infection. Acute and chronic apical periodontitis occur due to the persistence of pathogenic microorganisms such as Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans harboring the root canal systems of the teeth. The concept of the use of probiotics in addressing endodontic disease is new and has not been studied adequately. On the basis of the success of probiotics in periodontal treatment, this preliminary work was performed (a) to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of probiotics against common endodontic pathogens, i...
January 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299327/minimum-lateral-bone-coverage-required-for-securing-fixation-of-cementless-acetabular-components-in-hip-dysplasia
#8
Masanori Fujii, Yasuharu Nakashima, Tetsuro Nakamura, Yoshihiro Ito, Toshihiko Hara
Objectives. To determine the minimum lateral bone coverage required for securing stable fixation of the porous-coated acetabular components (cups) in hip dysplasia. Methods. In total, 215 primary total hip arthroplasties in 199 patients were reviewed. The average follow-up period was 49 months (range: 24-77 months). The lateral bone coverage of the cups was assessed by determining the cup center-edge (cup-CE) angle and the bone coverage index (BCI) from anteroposterior pelvic radiographs. Further, cup fixation was determined using the modified DeLee and Charnley classification system...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291650/poor-acetabular-component-orientation-increases-revision-risk-in-metal-on-metal-hip-arthroplasty
#9
Tuomas J T Tauriainen, Tuukka T Niinimäki, Jaakko L Niinimäki, Tomi O P Nousiainen, Juhana I Leppilahti
BACKGROUND: The rate of and the reasons for the failure of metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings have recently been discussed in literature. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of acetabular cup inclination and version angles on revision risk in patients with MoM hip arthroplasty. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 825 patients (976 hips) who underwent a MoM hip arthroplasty between 2000 and 2013. There were 474 men and 351 women, with a mean age of 58 (19-86) years...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290730/qualitative-video-analysis-of-track-cycling-team-pursuit-in-world-class-athletes
#10
Samuel Sigrist, Thomas Maier, Raphael Faiss
PURPOSE: Track cycling team pursuit (TP) is a highly technical effort involving 4 athletes completing 4 km from a standing start often in less than 240 s. Transitions between athletes leading the team are obviously of utmost importance. The aim of this study is to perform qualitative video analyses of transitions of world-class athletes in team pursuit competitions. METHODS: Videos captured at 100 Hz were recorded for 77 races (including 96 different athletes) in 5 international track cycling competitions (e...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287028/technique-analysis-in-elite-athletes-using-principal-component-analysis
#11
Øyvind Gløersen, Håvard Myklebust, Jostein Hallén, Peter Federolf
The aim of this study was to advance current movement analysis methodology to enable a technique analysis in sports facilitating (1) concurrent comparison of the techniques between several athletes; (2) identification of potentially beneficial technique modifications and (3) a visual representation of the findings for feedback to the athletes. Six elite cross-country skiers, three world cup winners and three national elite, roller ski skated using the V2 technique on a treadmill while their movement patterns were recorded using 41 reflective markers...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286463/range-of-movement-for-impingement-and-dislocation-avoidance-in-total-hip-replacement-predicted-by-finite-element-model
#12
Laura Ezquerra, María Paz Quilez, María Ángeles Pérez, Jorge Albareda, Belén Seral
Dislocation is a serious complication in total hip replacement (THR). An inadequate range of movement (ROM) can lead to impingement of the prosthesis neck on the acetabular cup; furthermore, the initiation of subluxation and dislocation may occur. The objective of this study was to generate a parametric three-dimensional finite element (FE) model capable of predicting the dislocation stability for various positions of the prosthetic head, neck, and cup under various activities. Three femoral head sizes (28, 32, and 36 mm) were simulated...
2017: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283823/dietary-blueberry-improves-cognition-among-older-adults-in-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
Marshall G Miller, Derek A Hamilton, James A Joseph, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
PURPOSE: As populations shift to include a larger proportion of older adults, the necessity of research targeting older populations is becoming increasingly apparent. Dietary interventions with blueberry have been associated with positive outcomes in cell and rodent models of aging. We hypothesized that dietary blueberry would improve mobility and cognition among older adults. METHODS: In this study, 13 men and 24 women, between the ages of 60 and 75 years, were recruited into a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which they consumed either freeze-dried blueberry (24 g/day, equivalent to 1 cup of fresh blueberries) or a blueberry placebo for 90 days...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264270/description-of-califorctenus-cteninae-ctenidae-araneae-a-new-spider-genus-from-mexico
#14
María Luisa Jimenez, James Edwin Berrian, Daniele Polotow, Carlos Palacios-Cardiel
Califorctenus gen. nov. (Araneae: Ctenidae) a new genus and a new species (Califorctenus cacachilensis sp. nov.) from the Baja California Peninsula in Mexico are described and illustrated. Califorctenus gen. nov. can be diagnosed by the morphology of the male palp, with embolus cylindrical and elongated, locking lobes of embolus positioned retrolaterally and the cup-shaped and elongated median apophysis.
March 2, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259279/volar-anatomy-of-the-proximal-phalanx-implications-for-screw-length-selection-for-fixation-of-shaft-fractures
#15
P Barrett Honeycutt, Edward W Jernigan, Wayne A Rummings, Peter J Stern, Reid W Draeger
PURPOSE: To investigate the anatomy of the volar surface of the proximal phalanx of the hand, specifically the longitudinal groove running along the volar phalangeal shaft. METHODS: We measured skeletonized proximal phalanges from 10 embalmed human cadaver hands at 5 equidistant points along the shaft. The difference between the maximum dorsal-palmar thickness of the shaft and thickness measured from the center of the volar groove to the most dorsal aspect of the phalanx indicated the depth of the groove at each point...
March 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255945/prediction-of-polyethylene-wear-rates-from-gait-biomechanics-and-implant-positioning-in-total-hip-replacement
#16
Marzieh M Ardestani, Pedro P Amenábar Edwards, Markus A Wimmer
BACKGROUND: Patient-specific gait and surgical variables are known to play an important role in wear of total hip replacements (THR). However a rigorous model, capable of predicting wear rate based on a comprehensive set of subject-specific gait and component-positioning variables, has to our knowledge, not been reported. QUESTIONS/PURPOSE: (1) Are there any differences between patients with high, moderate, and low wear rate in terms of gait and/or positioning variables? (2) Can we design a model to predict the wear rate based on gait and positioning variables? (3) Which group of wear factors (gait or positioning) contributes more to the wear rate? PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data on patients undergoing primary unilateral THR who performed a postoperative gait test were screened for inclusion...
March 2, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249654/transoral-robotic-surgery-for-management-of-cervical-unknown-primary-squamous-cell-carcinoma-updates-on-efficacy-surgical-technique-and-margin-status
#17
Mathew Geltzeiler, Sean Doerfler, Meghan Turner, William Greer Albergotti, Mark Kubik, Seungwon Kim, Robert Ferris, Umamaheswar Duvvuri
IMPORTANCE: Management of cervical unknown primary squamous cell carcinoma (CUP) has evolved with the introduction of transoral robotic surgery (TORS). OBJECTIVES: 1. To describe the efficacy of TORS lingual and palatine tonsillectomy in identifying the primary site of malignancy. 2. To explore how the extent of surgery affects diagnostic yield. 3. To report margin status of TORS resections. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective, single-center cohort study utilizing a prospectively collected database of CUP patients in a high-volume tertiary referral center...
March 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249473/edge-shadow-projection-method-for-measuring-the-brightness-of-electron-guns
#18
Cheolsu Han, Inho Sul, Boklae Cho
The performance of an electron gun is evaluated in terms of the gun brightness. The brightness of an electron gun is typically measured by dividing the angular current density by the virtual source area. An electron gun brightness measurement system was constructed without an electron lens. The system consists of movable apertures (∅ 30, 50, 100, 200 μm), a Faraday cup, and a phosphor screen. The Faraday cup is employed to measure the angular current density. The electron beam passes through an aperture and its shade is projected onto the phosphor screen...
February 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238188/microglia-activation-and-phagocytosis-relationship-with-aging-and-cognitive-impairment-in-the-rhesus-monkey
#19
Eli Shobin, Michael P Bowley, Larissa I Estrada, Nadine C Heyworth, Mary E Orczykowski, Sherri A Eldridge, Samantha M Calderazzo, Farzad Mortazavi, Tara L Moore, Douglas L Rosene
While cognitive decline is observed in the normal aging monkey, neurons are not lost with age. Instead, frontal white matter is lost as myelin degenerates and both correlate with age-related cognitive decline. As age-related myelin damage increases, there should be an increase in clearance of damaged myelin by microglial phagocytosis. In this study, brains of behaviorally tested rhesus monkeys were assessed using unbiased stereology to quantify the density of activated microglia (LN3 antibody positive) and phagocytic microglia (galectin-3 (Gal-3) antibody positive) in three white matter regions: the corpus callosum, cingulum bundle (CGB), and frontal white matter (FWM)...
February 25, 2017: Geroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236546/five-cases-of-early-dissociation-between-the-bipolar-hip-endoprosthesis-cup-components-either-spontaneously-or-during-reduction-maneuvers
#20
Vedat Uruç, Raif Özden, İbrahim Gökhan Duman, Aydıner Kalacı
Bipolar hemiarthroplasty is frequently used in the treatment of intracapsular hip fractures. Dissociation of the bipolar components can happen during the hip dislocation, the reduction maneuvers, or spontaneously without any dislocation. Here we report early dissociation between bipolar components in two cases during the attempt of closed reduction maneuvers and three cases with spontaneous dissociation without any trauma. To prevent or minimize this complication; the reduction of dislocated hips must be achieved very gently under general anesthesia with fluoroscopic control...
February 21, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
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