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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922509/molecular-switching-in-confined-spaces-effects-of-encapsulating-the-dha-vhf-photo-switch-in-cucurbiturils
#1
Michael Å Petersen, Brian Rasmussen, Nicolaj N Andersen, Stephan P A Sauer, Mogens Brøndsted Nielsen, Sophie R Beeren, Michael Pittelkow
Confinement of reactive chemical species uniquely affects chemical reactivity by restricting the physical space available and by restricting access to interactions with the solvent. In Nature, for example, confined protein binding pockets govern processes following photoisomerization reactions and the isomerizations themselves. Here we describe the first example of a dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) photo-switch functioning in water, and we show how its switching behavior is strongly influenced by supramolecular interactions with a series of cucurbit[n]uril (CB) host molecules...
September 18, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919754/preparation-of-coffee-oil-algae-oil-based-nanoemulsions-and-the-study-of-their-inhibition-effect-on-uva-induced-skin-damage-in-mice-and-melanoma-cell-growth
#2
Chu-Ching Yang, Chi-Feng Hung, Bing-Huei Chen
Coffee grounds, a waste by-product generated after making coffee, contains approximately 15% coffee oil which can be used as a raw material in cosmetics. Algae oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been demonstrated to possess anticancer and anti-inflammation functions. The objectives of this study were to develop a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the determination of fatty acids in coffee oil and algae oil and prepare a nanoemulsion for studying its inhibition effect on ultraviolet A-induced skin damage in mice and growth of melanoma cells B16-F10...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918543/dietary-docosahexaenoic-acid-decreased-lipid-accumulation-via-inducing-adipocytes-apoptosis-of-grass-carp-ctenopharygodon-idella
#3
Ai Jin, Cai-Xia Lei, Jing-Jing Tian, Jian Sun, Hong Ji
The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism of by which docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) inhibit the accumulation of adipose tissue lipid in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). We therefore designed two semi-purified diets, namely DHA-free (control) and DHA-supplemented, and fed them to grass carp (22.19 ± 1.76 g) for 3 and 6 weeks. DHA supplementation led to a significantly lower intraperitoneal fat index (IPFI) than that in the control group by reducing the number of adipocytes but significantly higher adipocyte size (P < 0...
September 17, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917610/low-dose-dha-induced-astrocyte-proliferation-can-be-attenuated-by-insufficient-expression-of-blbp-in-vitro
#4
Haoming Li, Qingqing Yang, Xiao Han, Xuefeng Tan, Jianbing Qin, Guohua Jin
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that is involved in a wide range of cellular processes in human cells. Brain lipid binding protein (BLBP) exhibits a high affinity for n-3 PUFAs, especially DHA, but the precise functional contributions of DHA and BLBP in astrocytes are not clear. We analyzed cell viability and the ratio of Ki67 positive cells after manipulating DHA and/or BLBP levels in cultured astrocytes, and found that low-dose DHA stimulated proliferation of astrocytes, whereas this proliferative effect could be attenuated by downregulation of BLBP...
September 13, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915388/epa-and-dha-but-not-ala-have-antidepressant-effects-with-17%C3%AE-estradiol-injection-via-regulation-of-a-neurobiological-system-in-ovariectomized-rats
#5
Jeong-Eun Choi, Yongsoon Park
Our previous studies found that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and estrogen had synergistic antidepressant-like effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that three major n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), individually had antidepressant effects combined with 17β-estradiol-3-benzoate (E) through a neurobiological pathway in ovariectomized rats. Rats were fed a modified American Institute of Nutrition-93G diet with 0% n-3 PUFAs and 1% ALA, EPA and DHA relative to total energy intake for 12 weeks and were injected with corn oil or E every 4 days during the last 3 weeks...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912452/endogenous-%C3%AF-3-fatty-acid-production-by-fat-1-transgene-and-topically-applied-docosahexaenoic-acid-protect-against-uvb-induced-mouse-skin-carcinogenesis
#6
Hye-Won Yum, Jin Park, Hyun-Jung Park, Jun Wan Shin, Yong-Yeon Cho, Su-Jung Kim, Jing X Kang, Young-Joon Surh
The present study was intended to explore the effects of endogenously produced ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin inflammation and photocarcinogenesis using hairless fat-1 transgenic mice harboring ω-3 desaturase gene capable of converting ω-6 to ω-3 PUFAs. Upon exposure to UVB irradiation, fat-1 transgenic mice exhibited a significantly reduced epidermal hyperplasia, oxidative skin damage, and photocarcinogenesis as compared to wild type mice. The transcription factor, Nrf2 is a master regulator of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant gene expression...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912100/influence-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-bovine-luteal-cell-plasma-membrane-dynamics
#7
Michele R Plewes, Patrick D Burns, Richard M Hyslop, B George Barisas
Fish oil is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids which disrupt lipid microdomain structure and affect mobility of the prostaglandin F2α (FP) receptor in bovine luteal cells. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of individual omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on 1) membrane fatty acid composition, 2) lipid microdomain structure, and 3) lateral mobility of the FP receptor in bovine luteal cells. Ovaries were collected from a local abattoir (n=5/experiment)...
September 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911809/taxonomy-ecology-and-biotechnological-applications-of-thraustochytrids-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Loris Fossier Marchan, Kim J Lee Chang, Peter D Nichols, Wilfrid J Mitchell, Jane L Polglase, Tony Gutierrez
Thraustochytrids were first discovered in 1934, and since the 1960's they have been increasingly studied for their beneficial and deleterious effects. This review aims to provide an enhanced understanding of these protists with a particular emphasis on their taxonomy, ecology and biotechnology applications. Over the years, thraustochytrid taxonomy has improved with the development of modern molecular techniques and new biochemical markers, resulting in the isolation and description of new strains. In the present work, the taxonomic history of thraustochytrids is reviewed, while providing an up-to-date classification of these organisms...
September 11, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903622/maternal-dietary-n-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-deprivation-does-not-exacerbate-post-weaning-reductions-in-arachidonic-acid-and-its-mediators-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#9
Shoug M Alashmali, Alex P Kitson, Lin Lin, R J Scott Lacombe, Richard P Bazinet
OBJECTIVES: The present study examines how lowering maternal dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (starting from pregnancy) compared to offspring (starting from post-weaning) affect the levels of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in phospholipids (PL) and lipid mediators in the hippocampus of mice. METHODS: Pregnant mice were randomly assigned to consume either a deprived or an adequate n-6 PUFA diet during pregnancy and lactation (maternal exposure). On postnatal day (PND) 21, half of the male pups were weaned onto the same diet as their dams, and the other half were switched to the other diet for 9 weeks (offspring exposure)...
September 13, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900242/dietary-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-as-lysophosphatidylcholine-but-not-as-free-acid-enriches-brain-dha-and-improves-memory-in-adult-mice
#10
Dhavamani Sugasini, Riya Thomas, Poorna C R Yalagala, Leon M Tai, Papasani V Subbaiah
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is uniquely concentrated in the brain, and is essential for its function, but must be mostly acquired from diet. Most of the current supplements of DHA, including fish oil and krill oil, do not significantly increase brain DHA, because they are hydrolyzed to free DHA and are absorbed as triacylglycerol, whereas the transporter at blood brain barrier is specific for phospholipid form of DHA. Here we show that oral administration of DHA to normal adult mice as lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) (40 mg DHA/kg) for 30 days increased DHA content of the brain by >2-fold...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900017/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-inflammatory-processes-from-molecules-to-man
#11
REVIEW
Philip C Calder
Inappropriate, excessive or uncontrolled inflammation contributes to a range of human diseases. Inflammation involves a multitude of cell types, chemical mediators and interactions. The present article will describe nutritional and metabolic aspects of omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and explain the roles of bioactive members of those fatty acid families in inflammatory processes. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are n-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements...
September 12, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898834/cometabolic-degradation-of-low-strength-coking-wastewater-and-the-bacterial-community-revealed-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#12
Jia Zhou, Haisong Li, Xiaolei Chen, Dongjin Wan, Wenning Mai, Changqing Sun
Cometabolism technology was employed to degrade low-strength coking wastewater (CWW) in Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The bacterial community compositions were monitored by high-throughput sequencing. Cometabolic substrate effectively improved the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency in glucose-added system (A1) compared to glucose-free system (A0). Meanwhile, A1 exhibited larger biomass, better settlement performance, and higher dehydrogenase activity (DHA). More importantly, high-throughput sequencing revealed that dominant populations in A1 were quite different with A0...
August 31, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894110/omega-3-fatty-acids-correlate-with-gut-microbiome-diversity-and-production-of-n-carbamylglutamate-in-middle-aged-and-elderly-women
#13
Cristina Menni, Jonas Zierer, Tess Pallister, Matthew A Jackson, Tao Long, Robert P Mohney, Claire J Steves, Tim D Spector, Ana M Valdes
Omega-3 fatty acids may influence human physiological parameters in part by affecting the gut microbiome. The aim of this study was to investigate the links between omega-3 fatty acids, gut microbiome diversity and composition and faecal metabolomic profiles in middle aged and elderly women. We analysed data from 876 twins with 16S microbiome data and DHA, total omega-3, and other circulating fatty acids. Estimated food intake of omega-3 fatty acids were obtained from food frequency questionnaires. Both total omega-3and DHA serum levels were significantly correlated with microbiome alpha diversity (Shannon index) after adjusting for confounders (DHA Beta(SE) = 0...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893626/low-density-lipoprotein-docosahexaenoic-acid-nanoparticles-induce-ferroptotic-cell-death-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Weijun Ou, Rohit S Mulik, Arnida Anwar, Jeffrey G McDonald, Xiaoshun He, Ian R Corbin
Low-density lipoprotein nanoparticles reconstituted with the natural omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (LDL-DHA), have been reported to selectively kill hepatoma cells and reduce the growth of orthotopic liver tumors in the rat. To date, little is known about the cell death pathways by which LDL-DHA nanoparticles kill tumor cells. Here we show that the LDL-DHA nanoparticles are cytotoxic to both rat hepatoma and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Following LDL-DHA treatment both rat and human HCC cells experience pronounced lipid peroxidation, depletion of glutathione and inactivation of the lipid antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4) prior to cell death...
September 8, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888048/involvement-of-nutrients-and-nutritional-mediators-in-mitochondrial-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa-synthase-gene-expression
#15
Tania Rescigno, Anna Capasso, Mario Felice Tecce
Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase (HMGCS2) catalyses the first step of ketogenesis and is critical in various metabolic conditions. Several nutrient molecules were able to differentially modulate HMGCS2 expression levels. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3), arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4, n-6) and glucose increased HMGCS2 mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 hepatoma cells, while fructose decreased them. The effect of n-6 AA resulted significantly higher than that of n-3 PUFA, but when combined all these molecules were far less efficient...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887772/fortuitous-detection-of-cmy-2-and-dha-1-from-esbl-producing-escherichia-coli-in-senegal
#16
S Lo, F Robin, A Ba-Diallo, O F Diallo, M L Dia, R Beyrouthy, A Gaye-Diallo, A I Sow, R Bonnet
Cephalosporinases, which are naturally present in some enterobacterial species, can be mobilized by transposons, migrate to plasmids, and spread into other species such as Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to characterize genes responsible for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) in E. coli isolates from urinary origin isolated in two hospitals in Senegal. Thus, a fortuitous discovery of plasmidic cephalosporinase in two isolates was noted. One of the isolates produced dha-1 associated with ESBL CTX-M-14, the other produced cmy-2, ESBL CTXM-15, tem-1 penicillinase, and oxa-1...
September 8, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887275/ffa4-gpr120-as-a-fatty-acid-sensor-involved-in-appetite-control-insulin-sensitivity-and-inflammation-regulation
#17
REVIEW
Dong-Soon Im
Unsaturated long-chain fatty acids have been suggested to be beneficial in the context of cardiovascular disorders based in epidemiologic studies conducted in Greenland and Mediterranean. DHA and EPA are omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are plentiful in fish oil, and oleic acid is an omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acid, rich in olive oil. Dietary intake of these unsaturated long-chain fatty acids have been associated with insulin sensitivity and weight loss, which contrasts with the impairment of insulin sensitivity and weight gain associated with high intakes of saturated long-chain fatty acids...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886690/transcriptome-profiling-of-antiviral-immune-and-dietary-fatty-acid-dependent-responses-of-atlantic-salmon-macrophage-like-cells
#18
Khalil Eslamloo, Xi Xue, Jennifer R Hall, Nicole C Smith, Albert Caballero-Solares, Christopher C Parrish, Richard G Taylor, Matthew L Rise
BACKGROUND: Due to the limited availability and high cost of fish oil in the face of increasing aquaculture production, there is a need to reduce usage of fish oil in aquafeeds without compromising farm fish health. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine if different levels of vegetable and fish oils can alter antiviral responses of salmon macrophage-like cells (MLCs). Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed diets containing 7.4% (FO7) or 5.1% (FO5) fish oil. These diets were designed to be relatively low in EPA + DHA (i...
September 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886129/modulation-of-the-endogenous-omega-3-fatty-acid-and-oxylipin-profile-in-vivo-a-comparison-of-the-fat-1-transgenic-mouse-with-c57bl-6-wildtype-mice-on-an-omega-3-fatty-acid-enriched-diet
#19
Annika I Ostermann, Patrick Waindok, Moritz J Schmidt, Cheng-Ying Chiu, Christopher Smyl, Nadine Rohwer, Karsten-H Weylandt, Nils Helge Schebb
Dietary intervention and genetic fat-1 mice are two models for the investigation of effects associated with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFA). In order to assess their power to modulate the fatty acid and oxylipin pattern, we thoroughly compared fat-1 and wild-type C57BL/6 mice on a sunflower oil diet with wild-type mice on the same diet enriched with 1% EPA and 1% DHA for 0, 7, 14, 30 and 45 days. Feeding led after 14-30 days to a high steady state of n3-PUFA in all tissues at the expense of n6-PUFAs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885568/emotion-based-cognition-in-mice-is-differentially-influenced-by-dose-and-chemical-form-of-dietary-docosahexaenoic-acid
#20
Kevin D Laugero, Yuriko Adkins, Bruce E Mackey, Darshan S Kelley
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a major constituent, and primary omega-3 fatty acid, in the brain. Evidence suggests that DHA consumption may promote cognitive functioning and prevent cognitive decline, and these effects may be particularly relevant in the context of fear or stress. However, the potency and efficacy of dietary DHA may depend on the form of DHA (e.g., phospholipid; PL vs. triglyceride; TG). In this study, we compared in mice the effects of consuming PL and TG forms of DHA on associative, avoidance (fear) based learning and memory...
September 8, 2017: Nutrients
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