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Margret Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur A Thorsteinsdottir, Finnur F Eiriksson, Hrafnhildur L Runolfsdottir, Inger M Sch Agustsdottir, Steinunn Oddsdottir, Baldur B Sigurdsson, Hordur K Hardarson, Nilesh R Kamble, Snorri Th Sigurdsson, Vidar O Edvardsson, Runolfur Palsson
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder that leads to excessive urinary excretion of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA), causing nephrolithiasis and chronic kidney disease. Treatment with allopurinol or febuxostat reduces DHA production and attenuates the renal manifestations. Assessment of DHA crystalluria by urine microscopy is used for therapeutic monitoring, but lacks sensitivity. We report a high-throughput assay based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for quantification of urinary DHA...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Suwanna Chaorattanakawee, Chanthap Lon, Krisada Jongsakul, Jariyanart Gawee, Somethy Sok, Siratchana Sundrakes, Nareth Kong, Chatchadaporn Thamnurak, Soklyda Chann, Sorayut Chattrakarn, Chantida Praditpol, Nillawan Buathong, Nichapat Uthaimongkol, Philip Smith, Narongrid Sirisopana, Rekol Huy, Satharath Prom, Mark M Fukuda, Delia Bethell, Douglas S Walsh, Charlotte Lanteri, David Saunders
BACKGROUND: The recent dramatic decline in dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ) efficacy in northwestern Cambodia has raised concerns about the rapid spread of piperaquine resistance just as DHA-PPQ is being introduced as first-line therapy in neighbouring countries. METHODS: Ex vivo parasite susceptibilities were tracked to determine the rate of progression of DHA, PPQ and mefloquine (MQ) resistance from sentinel sites on the Thai-Cambodian and Thai-Myanmar borders from 2010 to 2015...
October 21, 2016: Malaria Journal
Wei Shen, Ying Xue, Yiqi Liu, Chuixing Kong, Xiaolong Wang, Mengmeng Huang, Menghao Cai, Xiangshan Zhou, Yuanxing Zhang, Mian Zhou
BACKGROUND: As one of the most popular expression systems, recombinant protein expression in Pichia pastoris relies on the AOX1 promoter (P AOX1 ) which is strongly induced by methanol. However, the toxic and inflammatory nature of methanol restricts its application, especially in edible and medical products. Therefore, constructing a novel methanol-free system becomes necessary. The kinases involved in P AOX1 activation or repression by different carbon sources may be promising targets...
October 21, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Miao Liu, Ling Zhou, Baiyu Zhang, Minhong He, Xiaoying Dong, Xiaojun Lin, Chunhong Jia, Xiaochun Bai, Yifan Dai, Yongchun Su, Zhipeng Zou, Hang Zheng
Although epidemiological and preclinical studies have shown the preventative effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on colorectal cancer (CRC), the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we revealed that elevation of n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio suppress the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and prevent colorectal tumorigenesis. The transgenic expression of fat-1, a desaturase that catalyzes the conversion of n-6 to n-3 PUFAs and produces n-3 PUFAs endogenously, repressed colorectal tumor cell growth and remarkably reduced tumor burden, and alleviated anemia as well as hyperlipidemia in APCMin/+ (adenomatous polyposis coli) mice, a classic CRC model that best simulates most clinical cases...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Laura A Colangelo, Pamela Ouyang, Sherita Hill Golden, Moyses Szklo, Susan M Gapstur, Dhananjay Vaidya, Kiang Liu
INTRODUCTION: Considering that estradiol (E2) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have roles in neurogenesis and in neurotransmission, we examined whether the association of PUFAs with incident depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women is modified by hormone therapy (HT) use or estrogen status. METHODS: Women (N=1616) free of depressive symptoms at baseline (2000-2002) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis were classified by HT usage and quartiles of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and the sum EPA+DHA...
October 14, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Robert K McNamara
Over the past three decades a body of translational evidence has implicated dietary deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids, including eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the pathophysiology and etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Cross-national and cross-sectional data suggest that greater habitual intake of preformed EPA+DHA is associated with reduced risk for developing depressive symptoms and syndromal MDD. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition is highly correlated with habitual fish or fish oil intake, and case-control studies have consistently observed lower erythrocyte EPA and/or DHA levels in patients with MDD...
September 2016: J Nutr Intermed Metab
Zhong-Yuan Liu, Da-Yong Zhou, Qi Zhao, Fa-Wen Yin, Xiao-Pei Hu, Liang Song, Lei Qin, Jian-Run Zhang, Bei-Wei Zhu, Fereidoon Shahidi
The molecular species of glycerophosphocholine (GPCho), glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPEtn), glycerophosphoserine (GPSer), lysoglycerophosphocholine (LGPCho) and lysoglycerophosphoethanolamine (LGPEtn) from six species of edible clams were characterized by using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. At least 435, 453, 468, 443, 427 and 444 glycerophospholipid (GP) molecular species were characterized, respectively, from Cyclina sinensis, Mactra chinensis Philippi, Mactra veneriformis Reeve, Meretrix meretrix, Ruditapes philippinarum and Saxidomus purpurata...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Theresia Jumbe, Sarah S Comstock, William S Harris, Joyce Kinabo, Matthew B Pontifex, Jenifer I Fenton
Essential fatty acids (EFA) are PUFA that are metabolised to long-chain PUFA and are important for brain development and cognitive function. The objective of this study was to determine the association between whole-blood EFA and cognitive function in Tanzanian children. A total of 325 2-6-year-old children attempted the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) tasks to assess executive function. Blood samples were collected for fatty acid (FA) analysis by GC. Associations between executive function and FA levels were assessed by regression...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Abdunoor M Kabanywanyi, Rita Baiden, Ali M Ali, Muhidin K Mahende, Bernhards R Ogutu, Abraham Oduro, Halidou Tinto, Margaret Gyapong, Ali Sie, Esperanca Sevene, Eusebio Macete, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Alex Adjei, Guillaume Compaoré, Innocent Valea, Isaac Osei, Abena Yawson, Martin Adjuik, Raymond Akparibo, Mwaka A Kakolwa, Salim Abdulla, Fred Binka
The antimalarial drug piperaquine is associated with delayed ventricular depolarization, causing prolonged QT interval (time taken for ventricular de-polarisation and re-polarisation). There is a lack of safety data regarding dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine (DHA/PPQ) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, which has limited its use. We created a platform where electrocardiograms (ECG) were performed in public hospitals for the safety assessment of DHA/PPQ, at baseline before the use of dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine (Eurartesim®), and on day 3 (before and after administration of the final dose) and day 7 post-administration...
2016: PloS One
Ji-Won Lee, Bill X Huang, HeungSun Kwon, Md Abdur Rashid, Giorgi Kharebava, Abhishek Desai, Samarjit Patnaik, Juan Marugan, Hee-Yong Kim
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is an omega-3 fatty acid essential for proper brain development. N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine (synaptamide), an endogenous metabolite of DHA, potently promotes neurogenesis, neuritogenesis and synaptogenesis; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is not known. Here, we demonstrate orphan G-protein coupled receptor 110 (GPR110, ADGRF1) as the synaptamide receptor, mediating synaptamide-induced bioactivity in a cAMP-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic characterization and cellular fluorescence tracing with chemical analogues of synaptamide reveal specific binding of GPR110 to synaptamide, which triggers cAMP production with low nM potency...
October 19, 2016: Nature Communications
Carlo Barnaba, Maria Teresa Rodríguez-Estrada, Giovanni Lercker, Hugo Sergio García, Ilce Gabriela Medina-Meza
In this work we studied the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) methyl esters on cholesterol photo-induced oxidation. The oxidative routes were modeled with a chemical reaction network (CRN), which represents the first application of CRN to the oxidative degradation of a food-related lipid matrix. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, T-I), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, T-II) and a mixture of both (T-III) were added to cholesterol using hematoporphyrin as sensitizer, and were exposed to a fluorescent lamp for 48h...
October 15, 2016: Steroids
L De Rooy, H Hamdallah, S C Dyall
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adequate supply of arachidonic (ARA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids is essential for brain development, and extremely preterm infants may be at risk of deficiency. Current levels of ARA and DHA given to extremely preterm infants and the amounts available for accretion have not been established, although recent evidence suggests DHA intake is at a level likely to lead to severe deficits. This study quantified the omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intakes from all sources in the first six weeks of life of preterm infants in standard care...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Franca Marangoni, Irene Cetin, Elvira Verduci, Giuseppe Canzone, Marcello Giovannini, Paolo Scollo, Giovanni Corsello, Andrea Poli
The importance of lifestyle and dietary habits during pregnancy and breastfeeding, for health of mothers and their offspring, is widely supported by the most recent scientific literature. The consumption of a varied and balanced diet from the preconceptional period is essential to ensure both maternal well-being and pregnancy outcomes. However, the risk of inadequate intakes of specific micronutrients in pregnancy and lactation is high even in the most industrialized countries. This particularly applies to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), iron, iodine, calcium, folic acid, and vitamin D, also in the Italian population...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
Malleswarapu Mahesh, Munugala Bharathi, Mooli Raja Gopal Reddy, Manchiryala Sravan Kumar, Uday Kumar Putcha, Ayyalasomayajula Vajreswari, Shanmugam M Jeyakumar
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases associated with an altered lifestyle, besides genetic factors. The control and management of NAFLD mostly depend on lifestyle modifications, due to the lack of a specific therapeutic approach. In this context, we assessed the effect of carrot juice on the development of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, fed either a control (Con) or high fructose (HFr) diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice (CJ) for 8 weeks...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Mariane Curado Borges, Fabiana de Miranda Moura Dos Santos, Rosa Weiss Telles, Marcus Vinícius Melo de Andrade, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson Correia, Cristina Costa Duarte Lanna
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids reduce the concentrations of eicosanoids, cytokines, chemokines, C-reactive protein (CRP) and other inflammatory mediators. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on circulating levels of inflammatory mediators and biochemical markers in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Experimental clinical study (clinical trial: NCT02524795); 49 women with SLE (ACR1982/1997) were randomized: 22 to the omega-3 group (daily intake of 1080mg EPA+200mg DHA, for 12 weeks) and 27 to the control group...
September 22, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
Ke Liao, Bruce D McCandliss, Susan E Carlson, John Colombo, D Jill Shaddy, Elizabeth H Kerling, Rebecca J Lepping, Wichian Sittiprapaporn, Carol L Cheatham, Kathleen M Gustafson
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) have been shown to be necessary for early retinal and brain development, but long-term cognitive benefits of LCPUFA in infancy have not been definitively established. The present study sought to determine whether LCPUFA supplementation during the first year of life would result in group differences in behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) while performing a task requiring response inhibition (Go/No-Go) at 5.5 years of age. As newborns, 69 children were randomly assigned to infant formulas containing either no LCPUFA (control) or formula with 0...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
T Komprda, V Rozíková, N Zamazalová, O Škultéty, M Vícenová, M Trčková, M Faldyna
The objective of the present study was to compare hepatic fatty acid deposition, plasma lipid level and expression of cholesterol homeostasis controlling genes in the liver of rats (Wistar Albino; n = 32) and pigs (Large White × Landrace; n = 32) randomly assigned into two groups of 16 animals each and fed 10 weeks the diet with either 2.5% of fish oil (F; source of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid, EPA+DHA) or 2.5% of palm oil (P; high content of saturated fatty acids; control). F-rats deposited in the liver three times less EPA, but 1...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Shengli Yang, Hui Zhang
BACKGROUND: Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and soybean meal were used as the substrates for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in solid-state fermentation (SSF) by Mortierella alpine. These fermented products were fed to laying hens. PUFA enrichment from chicken breasts was studied. METHODS: The maximum productivity of PUFA was achieved under optimized process condition, including 1% w/w yeast extract as additive, an incubation period of 5 days at 12°C, 10% v/w inoculum level, 75% moisture content, and pH 6...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Akira Takashima, Daiju Fukuda, Kimie Tanaka, Yasutomi Higashikuni, Yoichiro Hirata, Sachiko Nishimoto, Shusuke Yagi, Hirotsugu Yamada, Takeshi Soeki, Tetsuzo Wakatsuki, Yutaka Taketani, Michio Shimabukuro, Masataka Sata
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are major components of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) which inhibit atherogenesis, although few studies have examined the effects of the combination of EPA and DHA on atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DHA has additional anti-atherosclerotic effects when combined with EPA. METHODS: Male 8-week-old apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice were fed a western-type diet supplemented with different amounts of EPA and DHA; EPA (2...
October 5, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Graham Mazereeuw, Nathan Herrmann, Ana C Andreazza, Gustavo Scola, David W L Ma, Paul I Oh, Krista L Lanctôt
BACKGROUND: Antidepressant efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) treatment in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients remains unpredictable. N-3 PUFA can mitigate oxidative stress, which is common in CAD and may contribute to depressive symptoms. This study investigated whether greater pre-treatment oxidative stress, measured by the ratios of late-stage lipid peroxidation markers (malondialdehyde [MDA], 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE], and 8-isoprostane [8-ISO]) to an early-stage marker (lipid hydroperoxides [LPH]), predicted n-3 PUFA antidepressant benefits in CAD...
October 11, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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