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Nutrition, diet and health, obesity and diet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909562/educating-restaurant-owners-and-cooks-to-lower-their-own-sodium-intake-is-a-potential-strategy-for-reducing-the-sodium-contents-of-restaurant-foods-a-small-scale-pilot-study-in-south-korea
#1
Sohyun Park, Heeseung Lee, Dong-Il Seo, Kwang-Hwan Oh, Taik Gun Hwang, Bo Youl Choi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of a sodium reduction program at local restaurants through nutrition education and examination of the health of restaurant owners and cooks. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study was a single-arm pilot intervention using a pre-post design in one business district with densely populated restaurants in Seoul, South Korea. The intervention focused on improving nutrition behaviors and psychosocial factors through education, health examination, and counseling of restaurant personnel...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908845/design-response-rates-and-population-characteristics-of-a-cross-sectional-study-in-zanzibar-tanzania
#2
Maria Adam Nyangasa, Soerge Kelm, Mohammed Ali Sheikh, Antje Hebestreit
BACKGROUND: Data on nutritional status and correlates of noncommunicable diseases are scarce for resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan countries. With the scope of a project, "Access to Food and Nutrition Status of the Zanzibari Population," data for investigating public health questions were collected using proven measurement and laboratory standards. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims at providing a descriptive overview of recruitment approaches, standardization, quality control measures, and data collection, with special attention to the design, responses, and participant characteristics of the overall project...
December 1, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901033/impact-of-dietary-glycemic-challenge-on-fuel-partitioning
#3
REVIEW
A Bosy-Westphal, F Hägele, A Nas
The 'carbohydrate-insulin theory of obesity' is used to justify popular health claims stating that carbohydrates make you fat or a high glycemic load and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and breakfast skipping increase fat gain. According to this theory, the elevated postprandial insulin secretion to a high glycemic challenge is blamed as a causal mechanism by directing nutrients away from oxidation in muscle towards storage in adipose tissue. Scientific evidence is however largely disagreeing with an adverse effect of postprandial hyperinsulinemia on fuel partitioning...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895819/nutrition-insulin-resistance-and-dysfunctional-adipose-tissue-determine-the-different-components-of-metabolic-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Juan Antonio Paniagua
Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat that may be harmful to health. Today, obesity is a major public health problem, affecting in greater or lesser proportion all demographic groups. Obesity is estimated by body mass index (BMI) in a clinical setting, but BMI reports neither body composition nor the location of excess body fat. Deaths from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes accounted for approximately 65% of all deaths, and adiposity and mainly abdominal adiposity are associated with all these disorders...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894969/the-types-and-aspects-of-front-of-pack-food-labelling-schemes-preferred-by-adults-and-children
#5
Simone Pettigrew, Zenobia Talati, Caroline Miller, Helen Dixon, Bridget Kelly, Kylie Ball
There is strong interest in front-of-pack labels (FoPLs) as a potential mechanism for improving diets, and therefore health, at the population level. The present study examined Australian consumers' preferences for different types and attributes of FoPLs to provide additional insights into optimal methods of presenting nutrition information on the front of food packets. Much research to date has focused on two main types of FoPLs - those expressing daily intake values for specific nutrients and those utilising 'traffic light' colour coding...
November 25, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886704/position-of-the-academy-of-nutrition-and-dietetics-vegetarian-diets
#6
Vesanto Melina, Winston Craig, Susan Levin
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that appropriately planned vegetarian, including vegan, diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits for the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. These diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, older adulthood, and for athletes. Plant-based diets are more environmentally sustainable than diets rich in animal products because they use fewer natural resources and are associated with much less environmental damage...
December 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870305/bad-times-slimmer-children
#7
Cristina Bellés-Obrero, Sergi Jiménez-Martín, Judit Vall-Castello
Although the majority of the literature has confirmed that recessions are beneficial for adults' health and babies' outcomes at delivery, this effect should not necessarily be the same for children. In this paper, we study the effect of business cycle conditions on infant underweight, overweight, and obesity. We exploit eight waves of repeated cross-sectional data (1987-2012) of the Spanish National Health Survey for children aged 2-15 and use the regional unemployment rate of the trimester of the interview as a proxy for the business cycle phase at the local level...
November 2016: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868444/-plant-based-diets-a-review
#8
Zoltán Szabó, Attila Erdélyi, Andrea Gubicskóné Kisbenedek, Tamás Ungár, Éva Lászlóné Polyák, Szilvia Szekeresné Szabó, Réka Erika Kovács, László Bence Raposa, Mária Figler
Plant-based diet is an old-new trend in nutrition. In this review based on a historical context, we wish to introduce this popular nutritional trend. Our aim is to present plant-based diet as a primary measure for prevention. We intend to critically analyse some past stereotypes related to plant-based diet - whose main components include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds - according to the literature (e.g. protein, vitamin B12, folic acid, and iron intake) by doing so we wish to create an adequate conceptual basis for its interpretation...
November 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864073/eating-behaviour-of-university-students-in-germany-dietary-intake-barriers-to-healthy-eating-and-changes-in-eating-behaviour-since-the-time-of-matriculation
#9
Jennifer Hilger, Adrian Loerbroks, Katharina Diehl
A healthy diet plays a key role in preventing obesity and non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes. This is true for all age groups, including young adults. While unhealthy eating habits among young adults, in particular university students, have been identified in former studies, this group has been neglected in existing health promotion strategies. Our aim was to explore baseline dietary intake, common barriers to healthy eating, and changes in eating behaviour among university students since the time of matriculation...
November 15, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860347/the-association-between-obesity-and-self-reported-sinus-infection-in-non-smoking-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
R A G Christensen, L Raiber, A K Macpherson, J L Kuk
The aim of this article was to examine the associations between having had a sinus infection (SI) and BMI and physical activity (PA), diet quality, stress and/or sleep. A total of 2915 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 were examined. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between having had an SI with BMI and PA, diet quality, stress or sleep. As these factors are known to influence one another, a fully adjusted model with PA, diet quality, stress and sleep was also constructed to examine their independent associations with having had an SI...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853041/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-hypertension-and-diabetes-in-the-katkari-tribe-of-coastal-maharashtra
#11
M G Deo, P V Pawar, S R Kanetkar, S V Kakade
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Urban and rural India are both going through health epidemiological transition and will soon face huge burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Information on the status of NCDs in tribals is limited. Although the prevalence of hypertension in scheduled tribes (STs) has been studied in several states by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau, tribe-specific data are very scanty. The objective of this study was to generate data on the status of hypertension and diabetes, the two objectively measurable NCDs in Katkaris, the dominant ST in the Raigad district of coastal Maharashtra...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852704/complementary-feeding-and-the-early-origins-of-obesity-risk-a-study-protocol
#12
Naleena Devi Muniandy, Pascale A Allotey, Ireneous N Soyiri, Daniel D Reidpath
INTRODUCTION: The rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity worldwide calls for an intervention earlier in the life cycle. Studies show that nutrition during early infancy may contribute to later obesity. Hence, this study is designed to determine if the variation in complementary feeding practices poses a risk for the development of obesity later in life. A mixed methods approach will be used in conducting this study. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The target participants are infants born from January to June 2015 in the South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO) platform...
November 15, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848939/dietary-diversity-and-adiposity-in-chinese-men-and-women-an-analysis-of-four-waves-of-cross-sectional-survey-data
#13
X Tian, M Wu, J Zang, Y Zhu, H Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Increasing dietary diversity is concurrent with an increasing prevalence of adiposity in China, but the association between these variables remains ambiguous. This study reveals an association between dietary diversity and body mass (underweight, overweight and obesity) in Chinese adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data from 17 825 participants (age, 18-65 years) were pooled from four survey waves (2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011) of the Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829478/demographic-and-lifestyle-factors-associated-with-adherence-to-the-mediterranean-diet-in-relation-to-overweight-obesity-among-israeli-adolescents-findings-from-the-mabat-israeli-national-youth-health-and-nutrition-survey
#14
Wen Peng, Rebecca Goldsmith, Elliot M Berry
OBJECTIVE: To investigate demographic and lifestyle factors associated with adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) in Israeli adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: School-based. SUBJECTS: Schoolchildren (n 5268) aged 11-19 years answered self-administered questionnaires on food consumption, eating habits and lifestyle; a subset (n 578) also completed 24 h food recalls. RESULTS: Using a modified KIDMED index, 25·5 % of the students had poor, 55·2 % had average and 19·3 % had good MD adherence...
November 10, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819216/a-post-weaning-fish-oil-dietary-intervention-reverses-adverse-metabolic-outcomes-and-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-1-expression-in-postnatal-overfed-rats
#15
Yanyan Dai, Fan Yang, Nan Zhou, Lijun Sha, Shanshan Zhou, Junle Wang, Xiaonan Li
Early life is considered a critical period for determining long-term metabolic health. Postnatal over-nutrition may alter glucocorticoid (GC) metabolism and increase the risk of developing obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood. Our aim was to assess the effects of the dose and timing of a fish oil diet on obesity and the expression of GC-activated enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD1) in postnatal overfed rats. Litter sizes were adjusted to three (small litter (SL)) or ten (normal litter) rats on postnatal day 3 to induce overfeeding or normal feeding...
November 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797736/dietary-fat-guidelines-have-no-evidence-base-where-next-for-public-health-nutritional-advice
#16
Zoë Harcombe
INTRODUCTION: National dietary guidelines were introduced in 1977 and 1983, by the US and UK governments, with the aim of reducing coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. The 2 specific dietary fat recommendations were to reduce total fat and saturated fat consumption to 30% and 10% of total energy intake, respectively. METHODS: 4 systematic reviews (3 with meta-analysis) were undertaken to examine the evidence for these dietary fat guidelines: (1) randomised controlled trial (RCT) and (2) prospective cohort (PC) evidence at the time the guidelines were introduced; and (3) RCT and (4) PC evidence currently available...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794156/association-between-body-mass-index-and-dental-caries-among-anganwadi-children-of-belgaum-city-india
#17
Eby Aluckal, Ksa Anzil, Mathews Baby, Eldhose K George, Sanju Lakshmanan, Shilpa Chikkanna
INTRODUCTION: Body mass index (BMI) is an index that measures height for weight, which is commonly used to categorize underweight, overweight, and obese individuals. Deviation from normal weight results from an imbalance between caloric consumption and energy expenditure. Childhood obesity and childhood dental caries are coincidental in many populations, probably due to common confounding risk factors, such as intake frequency, cariogenic diet, and poor oral hygiene. So the aim of the present study was to assess the BMI status and to corelate between dental caries and BMI among the Anganwadi children of Belgaum city, Karnataka, India...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777606/hormonal-responses-to-non-nutritive-sweeteners-in-water-and-diet-soda
#18
Allison C Sylvetsky, Rebecca J Brown, Jenny E Blau, Mary Walter, Kristina I Rother
BACKGROUND: Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS), especially in form of diet soda, have been linked to metabolic derangements (e.g. obesity and diabetes) in epidemiologic studies. We aimed to test acute metabolic effects of NNS in isolation (water or seltzer) and in diet sodas. METHODS: We conducted a four-period, cross-over study at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (Bethesda, Maryland). Thirty healthy adults consumed 355 mL water with 0 mg, 68 mg, 170 mg, and 250 mg sucralose, and 31 individuals consumed 355 mL caffeine-free Diet Rite Cola™, Diet Mountain Dew™ (18 mg sucralose, 18 mg acesulfame-potassium, 57 mg aspartame), and seltzer water with NNS (68 mg sucralose and 41 mg acesulfame-potassium, equivalent to Diet Rite Cola™) in randomized order, prior to oral glucose tolerance tests...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777128/learning-about-activity-and-understanding-nutrition-for-child-health-launch-rationale-design-and-implementation-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-a-family-based-pediatric-weight-management-program-for-preschoolers
#19
Lori J Stark, Stephanie Spear Filigno, Christopher Bolling, Megan B Ratcliff, Jessica C Kichler, Shannon L Robson, Stacey L Simon, Mary Beth McCullough, Lisa M Clifford, Cathleen O Stough, Cynthia Zion, Richard F Ittenbach
Obesity affects nearly 2 million preschool age children in the United States and is not abating. However, research on interventions for already obese preschoolers is limited. To address this significant gap in the literature, we developed an intervention targeting obesity reduction in 2 to 5year olds, Learning about Activity and Understanding Nutrition for Child Health (LAUNCH). This paper describes the rationale, design, participant enrollment, and implementation of a 3-arm randomized, parallel-group clinical trial comparing LAUNCH to a motivational-interviewing intervention (MI) and standard care (STC), respectively...
October 21, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774255/fast-food-soft-drink-and-candy-intake-is-unrelated-to-body-mass-index-for-95-of-american-adults
#20
David R Just, Brian Wansink
OBJECTIVE: Excessive intake of fast food, soft drinks and candy are considered major factors leading to overweight and obesity. This article examines whether the epidemiological relationship between frequency of intake of these foods and body mass index (BMI) is driven by the extreme tails (+/-2 standard deviations). If so, a clinical recommendation to reduce frequency intake may have little relevance to 95% of the population. METHODS: Using 2007-2008 Centers for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the consumption incidence of targeted foods on two non-continuous days was examined across discrete ranges of BMI...
December 2015: Obesity Science & Practice
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