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Nutrition, diet and health, obesity and diet

Ekta Agarwal, Maree Ferguson, Merrilyn Banks, Angela Vivanti, Marijka Batterham, Judy Bauer, Sandra Capra, Elisabeth Isenring
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity, defined as a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 , has demonstrated protective associations with mortality in some diseases. However, recent evidence demonstrates that poor nutritional status in critically ill obese patients confounds this relationship. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate if poor nutritional status, poor food intake and adverse health-related outcomes have a demonstrated association in non-critically ill obese acute care hospital patients. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of the Australasian Nutrition Care Day Survey dataset (N = 3122), a prospective cohort study conducted in hospitals from Australia and New Zealand in 2010...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Daniela Metro, Mattia Papa, Luigi Manasseri, Teresa Gervasi, Luca Campone, Vito Pellizzeri, Roberta Tardugno, Giacomo Dugo
Breakfast habits affect the nutritional status and health of people, in particular children and adolescents. This is the second part a previous study about the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in a Sicilian (Italy) student population. The investigation analysed both normal weight and overweight subjects in order to understand how eating habits, number of meals and daily calorie intakes could affect their body mass indexes (BMI). The aim of this second part was to analyse the breakfast nutritional profiles of this student population...
March 19, 2018: Natural Product Research
Heather R Gilbertson, Kristen Reed, Sarah Clark, Kate L Francis, Fergus J Cameron
To understand what children with type 1 diabetes in a representative tertiary hospital clinic are eating compared to their peers and explore dietary intake impact on HbA1c outcome. An open cross-sectional dietary audit of children and adolescents with diabetes aged 2-17 years attending the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne was conducted using an age-appropriate validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Total energy, macronutrient intake and diet quality were calculated and compared to dietary advice provided and national intake data...
March 9, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Hayley A Young, David Benton
As the influence of diet on health may take place over a period of decades, there is a need for biomarkers that help to identify those aspects of nutrition that have either a positive or a negative influence. The evidence is considered that heart-rate variability (HRV) (the time differences between one beat and the next) can be used to indicate the potential health benefits of food items. Reduced HRV is associated with the development of numerous conditions for example, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, obesity and psychiatric disorders...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Hannah Padda, Amy Niedbalski, Erin Tate, Sharon L Deem
Zoological institutions play an important role in promoting the goals of the One Health movement. We launched the Institute for Conservation Medicine (ICM) at the Saint Louis Zoo in 2011 to advance the goals of One Health. In 2016, we distributed a survey to Zoo members to evaluate member awareness and understanding of One Health and to provide direction for future communication and actions from the ICM. We hypothesized that Zoo members would be aware of One Health and care about infectious disease issues. Survey results showed Zoo members primarily cared about chronic, non-infectious diseases and their associated economic costs, with participants ranking their top three health issues of concern for humans as nutrition/obesity/diet (49%), costs of health care (48%), and cancer (37%)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Anna Lartey, Janice Meerman, Ramani Wijesinha-Bettoni
BACKGROUND: The International Union of Nutritional Sciences held its 21st International Congress of Nutrition in October 2017 in Buenos Aires, Argentina under the theme - From Sciences to Nutrition Security. In addition to multiple sessions on food systems and their links to diet, nutrition and health, the Congress closing lecture focused on the need to transform food systems so as to increase their capacity to provide healthy diets, making a call for greater involvement of nutrition scientists...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
W Philip T James
BACKGROUND: This analysis sets out an overview of an IUNS presentation of a European clinician's assessment of the challenges of coping with immediate critical clinical problems and how to use metabolic and a mechanistic understanding of disease when developing nutritional policies. SUMMARY: Critically ill malnourished children prove very sensitive to both mineral and general nutritional overload, but after careful metabolic control they can cope with a high-quality, energy-rich diet provided their initial lactase deficiency and intestinal atrophy are taken into account...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Kathryn C Fitzgerald, Tuula Tyry, Amber Salter, Stacey S Cofield, Gary Cutter, Robert J Fox, Ruth Ann Marrie
INTRODUCTION: Dietary approaches to management of MS has been proposed for several decades, yet very little is known concerning dietary composition or adherence to specialized diets in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We conducted a survey of participants in the North American Research Committee on MS (NARCOMS) registry assessing diet composition and the prevalence of 19 different diets. We characterized prevalence of different diets and compared diet composition with estimated intakes from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) survey respondents and across demographics and MS clinical characteristics...
February 27, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Myriam Landry, Simone Lemieux, Annie Lapointe, Alexandra Bédard, Ariane Bélanger-Gravel, Catherine Bégin, Véronique Provencher, Sophie Desroches
Given that traditional interventions promoting the adoption of a healthy diet are having limited impacts on the population's food choices and eating behaviours, researchers and health practitioners could explore alternative strategies such as the use of eating pleasure to promote healthy eating. To inform future interventions using this approach, this study aimed to explore how a sample of Quebecers perceives and defines eating pleasure and healthy eating. Specific objectives were to verify what commonalities can be found between their definitions of eating pleasure and healthy eating, and what differences can be observed in their answers based on their gender and body mass index (BMI)...
March 2, 2018: Appetite
Anne Martin, Josephine N Booth, Yvonne Laird, John Sproule, John J Reilly, David H Saunders
BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity is high. Lifestyle changes towards a healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced sedentary activities are recommended to prevent and treat obesity. Evidence suggests that changing these health behaviours can benefit cognitive function and school achievement in children and adolescents in general. There are various theoretical mechanisms that suggest that children and adolescents with excessive body fat may benefit particularly from these interventions...
March 2, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Elina Järvelä-Reijonen, Leila Karhunen, Essi Sairanen, Joona Muotka, Sanni Lindroos, Jaana Laitinen, Sampsa Puttonen, Katri Peuhkuri, Maarit Hallikainen, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Riitta Korpela, Miikka Ermes, Raimo Lappalainen, Marjukka Kolehmainen
BACKGROUND: Internal motivation and good psychological capabilities are important factors in successful eating-related behavior change. Thus, we investigated whether general acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) affects reported eating behavior and diet quality and whether baseline perceived stress moderates the intervention effects. METHODS: Secondary analysis of unblinded randomized controlled trial in three Finnish cities. Working-aged adults with psychological distress and overweight or obesity in three parallel groups: (1) ACT-based Face-to-face (n = 70; six group sessions led by a psychologist), (2) ACT-based Mobile (n = 78; one group session and mobile app), and (3) Control (n = 71; only the measurements)...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Vivian Hc Wang, Jungwon Min, Hong Xue, Shufa Du, Fei Xu, Huijun Wang, Youfa Wang
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies in China showed large sex differences in childhood overweight and obesity (OW/OB) rates. However, limited research has examined the cause of these sex differences. The present study aimed to examine individual and parental/familial factors associated with sex differences in childhood OW/OB rates in China. DESIGN: Variables associated with child weight status, beliefs and behaviours, and obesity-related parenting practices were selected to examine their sex differences and association with a sex difference in child OW/OB outcomes using logistic regression analysis...
February 26, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Audrée-Anne Dumas, Annie Lapointe, Sophie Desroches
BACKGROUND: Social media platforms are increasingly used by registered dietitians (RDs) to improve knowledge translation and exchange in nutrition. However, a thorough understanding of social media in dietetic practice is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to map and summarize the evidence about the users, uses, and effects of social media in dietetic practice to identify gaps in the literature and inform future research by using a scoping review methodology...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Mona Mischke, Tulika Arora, Sebastian Tims, Eefje Engels, Nina Sommer, Kees van Limpt, Annemarie Baars, Raish Oozeer, Annemarie Oosting, Fredrik Bäckhed, Jan Knol
AIMS: The metabolic state of human adults is associated with their gut microbiome. The symbiosis between host and microbiome is initiated at birth, and early life microbiome perturbation can disturb health long-lastingly. Here, we determined how beneficial microbiome interventions in early life affect metabolic health in adulthood. METHODS: Postnatal diets were supplemented with either prebiotics (scGOS/lcFOS) or synbiotics (scGOS/lcFOS with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V) until post-natal (PN) day 42 in a well-established rodent model for nutritional programming...
February 20, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Aashima Dabas, Anju Seth
Childhood obesity has been recognized as a global pandemic. Preventive strategies have proven to be the most effective public health intervention in curbing this pandemic. A multi-component approach involving dietary modification and advocacy for a healthy lifestyle comprising of regular physical activity, minimizing screen time and behavioral interventions have been found beneficial in preventing obesity. A life-cycle approach has been recommended where preventive interventions go as far back as affecting maternal, fetal and early childhood nutrition and lifestyle...
February 19, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Patricia Iozzo, Elena Sanguinetti
Early nutrition and growth in the initial years of life are important determinants of later body weight and metabolic health in humans, and the current epidemic of obesity involving children requires a better understanding of causal and protective mechanisms and components in infant foods. This review focuses on recent evidence implicating feeding modes (e.g., breast milk and formula milk) and dietary transitions toward complementary foods in the progression of microbiota maturation in children. The literature exploring body weight outcomes of microbiota changes induced by diet in early life is limited...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Rebeca Eriksen, Rachel Gibson, Kathryn Lamb, Yvonne McMeel, Anne-Claire Vergnaud, Jeanette Spear, Maria Aresu, Queenie Chan, Paul Elliott, Gary Frost
CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide. Diet is a key modifiable component in the development of CVD. No official UK diet quality index exists for use in UK nutritional epidemiological studies. The aims of this study are to: (i) develop a diet quality index based on components of UK dietary reference values (DRV) and (ii) determine the association between the index, the existing UK nutrient profile (NP) model and a comprehensive range of cardiometabolic risk markers among a British adult population. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from the Airwave Health Monitoring Study (n 5848)...
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Luísa Correia-Sá, Monika Kasper-Sonnenberg, Claudia Pälmke, André Schütze, Sónia Norberto, Conceição Calhau, Valentina F Domingues, Holger M Koch
In this study we analyzed one of the most comprehensive sets of 21 urinary phthalate metabolites representing exposure to 11 parent phthalates (DEP, DMP, DiBP, DnBP, BBzP, DEHP, DiNP, DiDP, DCHP, DnPeP, DnOP) in first morning urine samples of 112 Portuguese children (4-18 years) sampled in 2014/15. The study population consisted of two groups: group 1 with normal weight/underweight children (N = 43) following their regular diet and group 2 with obese/overweight children (N = 69) following a healthy diet (with nutritional counselling)...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Arti Ahluwalia, Alessandra Misto, Federico Vozzi, Chiara Magliaro, Giorgio Mattei, Maria Cristina Marescotti, Angelo Avogaro, Elisabetta Iori
Metabolic disorders due to over-nutrition are a major global health problem, often associated with obesity and related morbidities. Obesity is peculiar to humans, as it is associated with lifestyle and diet, and so difficult to reproduce in animal models. Here we describe a model of human central adiposity based on a 3-tissue system consisting of a series of interconnected fluidic modules. Given the causal link between obesity and systemic inflammation, we focused primarily on pro-inflammatory markers, examining the similarities and differences between the 3-tissue model and evidence from human studies in the literature...
2018: PloS One
Deepa Pandit-Agrawal, Anuradha Khadilkar, Shashi Chiplonkar, Vaman Khadilkar
OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge of nutrition and physical activity; examine associations of knowledge with sociodemographic and anthropometric parameters; and evaluate the relationship between knowledge and practice in adults. DESIGN: In a cross-sectional design, 720 adults were selected using random sampling. Data on anthropometry, body fat, diet, physical activity, and nutrition and physical activity knowledge were collected using standardized questionnaires. Tertiles were used to categorize nutrition knowledge (NK) and physical activity knowledge (PK)...
February 13, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
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