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Nutrition, diet and health, obesity and diet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427537/metabolomics-nutrition-and-potential-biomarkers-of-food-quality-intake-and-health-status
#1
Jean-Louis Sébédio
Diet, dietary patterns, and other environmental factors such as exposure to toxins are playing an important role in the prevention/development of many diseases, like obesity, type 2 diabetes, and consequently on the health status of individuals. A major challenge nowadays is to identify novel biomarkers to detect as early as possible metabolic dysfunction and to predict evolution of health status in order to refine nutritional advices to specific population groups. Omics technologies such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics coupled with statistical and bioinformatics tools have already shown great potential in this research field even if so far only few biomarkers have been validated...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421143/the-dual-burden-of-malnutrition-and-associated-dietary-and-lifestyle-habits-among-lebanese-school-age-children-living-in-orphanages-in-north-lebanon
#2
Germine El-Kassas, Fouad Ziade
Childhood is a crucial period affecting physical and intellectual development. Although children living in orphanages are among the most vulnerable groups at risk of malnutrition, there is scarcity of data concerning their nutritional status in Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including a sample of 153 institutionalized children aged 5-14 years from all orphanages in Tripoli. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric, clinical, and dietary tools. Interpretation of anthropometric data showed that 13...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407489/exposure-to-the-plasticizer-di-2-ethylhexyl-terephthalate-dehtp-in-portuguese-children-urinary-metabolite-levels-and-estimated-daily-intakes
#3
Frederik Lessmann, Luísa Correia-Sá, Conceição Calhau, Valentina F Domingues, Tobias Weiss, Thomas Brüning, Holger M Koch
Classical ortho-phthalate plasticizers are, due to their endocrine disrupting potency and reproductive toxicity, increasingly replaced by alternative plasticizers. Di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHTP) is one of these substitutes. In this study, we investigated DEHTP exposure in 107 Portuguese children (4-17years old) by analyzing specific DEHTP metabolites in their urine using a newly developed LC-MS/MS method. We could detect the major, specific DEHTP metabolite mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) terephthalate (5cx-MEPTP) in 100% of the samples with levels above the limit of quantification in 96% of the samples (median concentration 4...
April 10, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407234/mediterranean-diet-decreases-adolescent-waist-circumference
#4
Flora Bacopoulou, Georgios Landis, Anastasios Rentoumis, Artemis Tsitsika, Vasiliki Efthymiou
BACKGROUND: To explore the effects of a multicomponent-multilevel school-based educational intervention on the nutritional habits and abdominal obesity indices of a representative adolescent sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A representative sample of 1,610 adolescents aged 12-17 years in 23 public high schools of three municipalities in the Attica region in Greece, participated in a program funded by the European Union (August 2013-August 2014). Participants underwent dietary assessment with the use of the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index in children and adolescents (KIDMED), blood pressure assessment and screening for general and abdominal obesity by measuring body mass index, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), at baseline and following a six-month school-based intervention...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390403/farm-fresh-foods-for-healthy-kids-f3hk-an-innovative-community-supported-agriculture-intervention-to-prevent-childhood-obesity-in-low-income-families-and-strengthen-local-agricultural-economies
#5
Rebecca A Seguin, Emily H Morgan, Karla L Hanson, Alice S Ammerman, Stephanie B Jilcott Pitts, Jane Kolodinsky, Marilyn Sitaker, Florence A Becot, Leah M Connor, Jennifer A Garner, Jared T McGuirt
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity persists in the United States and is associated with serious health problems. Higher rates of obesity among children from disadvantaged households may be, in part, attributable to disparities in access to healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables. Community supported agriculture can improve access to and consumption of fresh produce, but the upfront payment structure, logistical barriers, and unfamiliarity with produce items may inhibit participation by low-income families...
April 8, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368304/pre-pregnancy-body-mass-index-is-associated-with-dietary-inflammatory-index-and-c-reactive-protein-concentrations-during-pregnancy
#6
Dayeon Shin, Junguk Hur, Eun-Hee Cho, Hae-Kyung Chung, Nitin Shivappa, Michael D Wirth, James R Hébert, Kyung Won Lee
There have been a limited number of studies examining the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and dietary inflammation during pregnancy. Our aim is to examine the association between pre-pregnancy BMI and the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII)™ and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations during pregnancy. The study included 631 pregnant American women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cross-sectional examinations from 2003 to 2012. Pre-pregnancy BMI was calculated based on self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and measured height...
April 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347373/using-stable-isotope-techniques-in-nutrition-assessments-and-tracking-of-global-targets-post-2015
#7
Victor O Owino, Christine Slater, Cornelia U Loechl
Stable isotopes are non-radioactive, safe and are applied for various purposes in human health assessment in trace amounts that minimally disturb normal physiology. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports the use of stable isotope techniques to design and evaluate interventions addressing malnutrition in all its forms with focus on infant and young child feeding; maternal and adolescent nutrition; diet quality; prevention and control of non-communicable diseases; healthy ageing and gut function. These techniques can be used to objectively measure: (1) amount of human milk consumed and whether an infant is exclusively breastfed; (2) body composition in the context of re-feeding programmes for moderate and severe acute malnutrition and as an indicator of the risk for obesity; (3) bioavailability and bioconversion of pro-vitamin A and vitamin A body stores following vitamin A intervention programmes; (4) absorption and retention of iron, zinc and protein; (5) total energy expenditure for validation of physical activity measurement and dietary assessment tools and (6) diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346492/dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-body-composition-reference-values-of-limbs-and-trunk-from-nhanes-1999-2004-with-additional-visualization-methods
#8
Benjamin J Hinton, Bo Fan, Bennett K Ng, John A Shepherd
Body Mass Index has traditionally been used as a measure of health, but Fat Mass Index (FMI) and Lean Mass Index (LMI) have been shown to be more predictive of mortality and health risk. Total body FMI and LMI reference curves have particularly been useful in quantifying sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity. Research has shown regional composition has significant associations to health outcomes. We derived FMI and LMI reference curves of the regions of the body (leg, arm, and trunk) for 15,908 individuals in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for each sex and ethnicity using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method and developed software to visualize this regional composition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339339/use-of-dietary-supplements-improved-diet-quality-but-not-cardiovascular-and-nutritional-biomarkers-in-socioeconomically-diverse-african-american-and-white-adults
#9
Marie Fanelli Kuczmarski, May A Beydoun, Emily Stave Shupe, Ryan T Pohlig, Alan B Zonderman, Michele K Evans
Knowledge of the contribution of supplements to overall nutritional health is limited. The research objectives were to describe motivations for use of dietary supplements by African Americans and Whites examined in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study and to determine if supplements provided beneficial effects to micronutrient diet quality and nutritional and cardiovascular biomarkers. The majority of the HANDLS study population were smokers, overweight or obese, and self-reported their health as poor to good...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337856/contribution-of-snacks-to-dietary-intakes-of-young-children-in-the-united-states
#10
Lenka H Shriver, Barbara J Marriage, Tama D Bloch, Colleen K Spees, Samantha A Ramsay, Rosanna P Watowicz, Christopher A Taylor
Nutritional quality of children's diets is a public health priority in the fight against childhood obesity and chronic diseases. The main purpose of this study was to determine contribution of snacks to energy and nutrient intakes and to identify leading snack food sources of energy, total fat, and added sugars amongst young children in the United States. Using the 2005-2012 NHANES data, dietary intakes of 2- to 5-year-old children were analysed from a parent-reported 24-hour dietary recall (n = 3,429). Snacking occasions were aggregated to determine the proportion of total food/beverage intake obtained from snacks, estimate energy, and nutrient intakes, and identify the leading snack food sources of energy, added sugars, and total fat...
March 23, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326003/effects-of-organic-food-consumption-on-human-health-the-jury-is-still-out
#11
Marcin Barański, Leonidas Rempelos, Per Ole Iversen, Carlo Leifert
The most recent systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses have indicated significant and nutritionally-relevant composition differences between organic and conventional foods. This included higher antioxidant, but lower cadmium and pesticide levels in organic crops, and higher omega-3 fatty acids concentrations in organic meat and dairy products. Also, results from a small number of human cohort studies indicate that there are positive associations between organic food consumption and reduced risk/incidence of certain acute diseases (e...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325079/dietary-guidelines-for-the-asia-pacific-region
#12
Colin W Binns, Mi Kyung Lee, Masaharu Kagawa, Wah Yun Low, Qiu Liqian, Georgia S Guldan, Tomiko Hokama, Keiko Nanishi, Sreymom Oy, Li Tang, Alfred Zerfas
Nutrition is a major determinant of health throughout all stages of life and together with smoking is the most important risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the Asia Pacific Region. The workshop participants examined Dietary Guidelines and Food Guides that are in use in our region, together with additional materials from the World Health Organization, UNICEF and the World Cancer Research Foundation. The resulting set of guidelines is meant as a reminder of the main issues to be covered in a general public health education program...
March 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320484/nutritional-intervention-preconception-and-during-pregnancy-to-maintain-healthy-glucose-metabolism-and-offspring-health-nipper-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Keith M Godfrey, Wayne Cutfield, Shiao-Yng Chan, Philip N Baker, Yap-Seng Chong
BACKGROUND: Improved maternal nutrition and glycaemic control before and during pregnancy are thought to benefit the health of the mother, with consequent benefits for infant body composition and later obesity risk. Maternal insulin resistance and glycaemia around conception and in early pregnancy may be key determinants of maternal physiology and placental function, affecting fetal nutrient supply and maternal-feto-placental communications throughout gestation, with implications for later postnatal health...
March 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319656/the-role-of-pulses-in-sustainable-and-healthy-food-systems
#14
REVIEW
John McDermott, Amanda J Wyatt
Improving nutrition is a development priority, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in Africa and South Asia, in which there is a persistent burden of undernutrition and increasing obesity. Healthy food systems can play a necessary role, aligned with other multisectoral actions, in addressing this challenge. Contributing to improved nutrition and health outcomes through food-based solutions is complex. In considering the role that pulses can play in addressing this challenge, there are useful conceptual frameworks and emerging lessons...
March 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315860/determinants-and-duration-of-impact-of-early-gut-bacterial-colonization
#15
Christine Ann Edwards
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies show low diversity of the gut microbiome in those with chronic diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. Manipulation of the microbiota may promote health. However, the adult microbiota is stable and may be difficult to change. Understanding the fixed and modifiable factors, which determine colonization in early life, may provide strategies for acquisition of a health-promoting microbiome. SUMMARY: Not enough is known about the long-term effects of established determinants of gut colonization, including delivery mode, perinatal antibiotics, and infant diet...
March 18, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295377/time-restricted-feeding-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-cardiometabolic-disorders
#16
Girish C Melkani, Satchidananda Panda
The soaring prevalence of obesity and diabetes is associated with an increase in comorbidities, including elevated risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CVDs continue to be among the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. While increased nutrition intake from an energy dense diet is known to disrupt metabolic homeostasis and contributes to the disease risk, circadian rhythm disruption is emerging as a new risk factor for CVD. Circadian rhythms coordinate cardiovascular health via temporal control of organismal metabolism and physiology...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293621/development-of-the-physical-activity-and-your-nutrition-for-cancer-pync-smartphone-app-for-preventing-breast-cancer-in-women
#17
Steven S Coughlin, Gina M Besenyi, Deborah Bowen, Gianluca De Leo
BACKGROUND: In the U.S., breast cancer accounts for more cancer deaths in women than any site other than lung cancer. Based upon attributable risks, about 30-35% of breast cancers could potentially be prevented by addressing obesity, physical inactivity, increased alcohol consumption, and carcinogenic exposures such as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We need methods of reducing women's risks of this disease that are attractive and easy to use, widely accessible to diverse women, and able to be easily amended to account for new research...
2017: MHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282965/hyper-and-hypo-nutrition-studies-of-the-hepatic-transcriptome-and-epigenome-suggest-that-ppar%C3%AE-regulates-anaerobic-glycolysis
#18
Anthony R Soltis, Shmulik Motola, Santiago Vernia, Christopher W Ng, Norman J Kennedy, Simona Dalin, Bryan J Matthews, Roger J Davis, Ernest Fraenkel
Diet plays a crucial role in shaping human health and disease. Diets promoting obesity and insulin resistance can lead to severe metabolic diseases, while calorie-restricted (CR) diets can improve health and extend lifespan. In this work, we fed mice either a chow diet (CD), a 16 week high-fat diet (HFD), or a CR diet to compare and contrast the effects of these diets on mouse liver biology. We collected transcriptomic and epigenomic datasets from these mice using RNA-Seq and DNase-Seq. We found that both CR and HFD induce extensive transcriptional changes, in some cases altering the same genes in the same direction...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282253/introduction-to-the-special-focus-issue-on-the-impact-of-diet-on-gut-microbiota-composition-and-function-and-future-opportunities-for-nutritional-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-to-improve-human-health
#19
Sharon M Donovan
Over the past decade, application of culture-independent, next generation DNA sequencing has dramatically enhanced our understanding of the composition of the gut microbiome and its association with human states of health and disease. Host genetics, age, and environmental factors such as where and who you live with, use of pre-, pro- and antibiotics, exercise and diet influence the short- and long-term composition of the microbiome. Dietary intake is a key determinant of microbiome composition and diversity and studies to date have linked long-term dietary patterns as well as short-term dietary interventions to the composition and diversity of the gut microbiome...
March 4, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276612/a-gut-reaction-the-combined-influence-of-exercise-and-diet-on-gastrointestinal-microbiota-in-rats
#20
Romeo Batacan, Andrew Fenning, Vincent J Dalbo, Aaron T Scanlan, Mitch J Duncan, Robert J Moore, Dragana Stanley
AIMS: Intestinal microbiota modulates the development of clinical conditions, including metabolic syndrome and obesity. Many of these conditions are influenced by nutritional and exercise behaviours. This study aimed to investigate the ability of exercise to re-shape the intestinal microbiota and the influence of the diet on the process. METHODS AND RESULTS: A rat model was used to examine the intestinal microbiota responses to four activity conditions, including: high intensity interval training, light intensity training, sedentary and normal control, each containing two nutritional conditions: high-fat high-fructose diet (HF) and standard chow (SC) diet...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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