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Nutrition, diet and health, obesity and diet

Allison C Sylvetsky, Rebecca J Brown, Jenny E Blau, Mary Walter, Kristina I Rother
BACKGROUND: Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS), especially in form of diet soda, have been linked to metabolic derangements (e.g. obesity and diabetes) in epidemiologic studies. We aimed to test acute metabolic effects of NNS in isolation (water or seltzer) and in diet sodas. METHODS: We conducted a four-period, cross-over study at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (Bethesda, Maryland). Thirty healthy adults consumed 355 mL water with 0 mg, 68 mg, 170 mg, and 250 mg sucralose, and 31 individuals consumed 355 mL caffeine-free Diet Rite Cola™, Diet Mountain Dew™ (18 mg sucralose, 18 mg acesulfame-potassium, 57 mg aspartame), and seltzer water with NNS (68 mg sucralose and 41 mg acesulfame-potassium, equivalent to Diet Rite Cola™) in randomized order, prior to oral glucose tolerance tests...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Lori J Stark, Stephanie Spear Filigno, Christopher Bolling, Megan B Ratcliff, Jessica C Kichler, Shannon L Robson, Stacey L Simon, Mary Beth McCullough, Lisa M Clifford, Cathleen O Stough, Cynthia Zion, Richard F Ittenbach
Obesity affects nearly 2 million preschool age children in the United States and is not abating. However, research on interventions for already obese preschoolers is limited. To address this significant gap in the literature, we developed an intervention targeting obesity reduction in 2 to 5year olds, Learning about Activity and Understanding Nutrition for Child Health (LAUNCH). This paper describes the rationale, design, participant enrollment, and implementation of a 3-arm randomized, parallel-group clinical trial comparing LAUNCH to a motivational-interviewing intervention (MI) and standard care (STC), respectively...
October 21, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
David R Just, Brian Wansink
OBJECTIVE: Excessive intake of fast food, soft drinks and candy are considered major factors leading to overweight and obesity. This article examines whether the epidemiological relationship between frequency of intake of these foods and body mass index (BMI) is driven by the extreme tails (+/-2 standard deviations). If so, a clinical recommendation to reduce frequency intake may have little relevance to 95% of the population. METHODS: Using 2007-2008 Centers for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the consumption incidence of targeted foods on two non-continuous days was examined across discrete ranges of BMI...
December 2015: Obesity Science & Practice
Kay D Mann, Mark S Pearce, Chris J Seal
Observational evidence suggests that increased whole grain (WG) intake reduces the risks of many non-communicable diseases, such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, obesity and certain cancers. More recently, studies have shown that WG intake lowers all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Much of the reported evidence on risk reduction is from US and Scandinavian populations, where there are tangible WG dietary recommendations. At present there is no quantity-specific WG dietary recommendation in the UK, instead we are advised to choose WG or higher fibre versions...
October 21, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Petra Rust, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Maria Luisa Fonte, Lauren Fietchner, Matteo Manuelli, Hellas Cena
BACKGROUND: The aim of this case report is to discuss the issue of nutritional therapy in patients taking warfarin. Patients are often prescribed vitamin K free diets without nutritional counseling, leading to possible health consequences. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old woman with obesity and hypertension was prescribed a low calorie diet by her family doctor in an effort to promote weight loss. After a pulmonary embolism, she was placed on anticoagulant therapy and on hospital discharge she was prescribed a vitamin K free diet to avoid interactions...
October 19, 2016: Nutrition Journal
Satya P Sharma, Hea J Chung, Hyeon J Kim, Seong T Hong
Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc.), which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
Ligia J Dominguez, Mario Barbagallo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Physical and cognitive frailty are interrelated and synergistic syndromes more frequently seen in old age, which represent intermediate stages between aging successfully and disability. Poor nutrition is a fundamental determinant for both conditions, while various dietary components are proposed to prevent and/or improve them. This updated review discusses the possible influence of nutritional factors on cognitive frailty and its potential mediators. RECENT FINDINGS: Oxidative stress, low-grade systemic inflammation, neuroinflammation, and altered autophagy, all associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, are proposed mechanisms to explain the influence of nutrition on cognitive health...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Hyun Kim, Flavia C D Andrade
The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is a widely recommended diet for individuals with hypertension. Adherence to the DASH diet has been shown to be effective for controlling hypertension, but it is unclear whether a hypertension diagnosis has an impact on adherence to the diet and nutrient intake. This study examined the association between hypertension diagnosis and the DASH nutrient intake using the multivariate linear regression method. The sample was composed of individuals with hypertension in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2007 to 2012...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine Reports
Geir Bjørklund, Salvatore Chirumbolo
Diet may be defined as a complex process that should involve a deeper comprehension of metabolism, energy balance, and the molecular pathways involved in cellular stress response and survival, gut microflora genetics, enzymatic polymorphism within the human population, and the role of plant-derived polyphenols in this context. Metabolic syndrome, encompassing pathologies with a relatively high morbidity, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, is a bullet point of the big concern about how daily dietary habits should promote health and prevent metabolic impairments to prevent hospitalization and the need for health care...
August 8, 2016: Nutrition
Jacqueline A Vernarelli, Diane C Mitchell, Barbara J Rolls, Terryl J Hartman
PURPOSE: Recent public health messages have advised consumers to lower dietary energy density (ED) for weight management, but it is not known whether the proportion of the diet from low-ED foods is related to weight status. In a nationally representative sample of US adults, we evaluated whether the proportions of dietary energy intake contributed by low- and high-ED foods are associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). METHODS: Data were from a cross-sectional sample of 9551 adults ≥18 years in the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Julia A Wolfson, Shannon Frattaroli, Sara N Bleich, Katherine Clegg Smith, Stephen P Teret
Declines in cooking skills in the United States may contribute to poor diet quality and high obesity rates. Little is known about how Americans learn to cook or their support for cooking education policies. The objective of this study was to examine how Americans learn to cook, attributions of responsibility for teaching children how to cook, and public support for policies to teach cooking skills. We used a concurrent, triangulation mixed-methods design that combined qualitative focus group data (from 7 focus groups in Baltimore, MD (N = 53)) with quantitative survey data from a nationally representative, web-based survey (N = 1112)...
October 5, 2016: Appetite
Yong-Moon Mark Park, Teresa T Fung, Susan E Steck, Jiajia Zhang, Linda J Hazlett, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hwan Lee, Anwar T Merchant
OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations among the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-style diet, the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), and mortality risk in metabolically obese normal-weight (MONW) adults. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were from normal-weight (body mass index of 18.5 to <25) adults aged 30 to 90 years at baseline in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, October 18, 1988, through October 15, 1994, followed up for deaths (all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer related) until December 31, 2011...
October 2016: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Quynh Th Pham, Anthony Worsley
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Food marketing has been identified as a target for intervention in the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity within countries and globally, and promotion of healthy diets has been classified as a key strategy to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases and health inequalities. The present study aims to investigate how Vietnamese middle-class household food providers are impacted by food advertising communications, their views of food marketing and the ways they think the government can control food marketing to assist people to consume healthier diets...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Luis A Berrios
More than one-third of the US adult population and 17% of the youth are now obese, and obesity is associated with more than $147 billion a year in health care costs. Critical care nurses should understand the physiological differences and practice guidelines for patients with a body mass index greater than 30. The ABCD approach encompasses key clinical concepts in the management of critically ill obese and morbidly obese patients, including management of airways and breathing, minimizing nurses' back and other injuries, increasing awareness of bias, circulation problems, risks of decubitus ulcers and other skin breakdown, differences in drug calculations and metabolism, limitations in diagnostic equipment and imaging, diet and nutritional recommendations, and concerns with durable medical equipment...
October 2016: Critical Care Nurse
R Barazzoni, N E P Deutz, G Biolo, S Bischoff, Y Boirie, T Cederholm, C Cuerda, N Delzenne, M Leon Sanz, O Ljungqvist, M Muscaritoli, C Pichard, J C Preiser, P Sbraccia, P Singer, L Tappy, B Thorens, A Van Gossum, R Vettor, P C Calder
Growing evidence underscores the important role of glycemic control in health and recovery from illness. Carbohydrate ingestion in the diet or administration in nutritional support is mandatory, but carbohydrate intake can adversely affect major body organs and tissues if resulting plasma glucose becomes too high, too low, or highly variable. Plasma glucose control is especially important for patients with conditions such as diabetes or metabolic stress resulting from critical illness or surgery. These patients are particularly in need of glycemic management to help lessen glycemic variability and its negative health consequences when nutritional support is administered...
September 19, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
S Saraf-Bank, F Haghighatdoost, A Esmaillzadeh, B Larijani, L Azadbakht
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Nowadays, metabolic syndrome (MetS) is deemed as a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the association between Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score and MetS and its features among Iranian female nurses. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed among 1036 Iranian women. A validated, self-administered, dish-based, semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the habitual intake of participants...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Jean-Philippe Chaput, Caroline Dutil
BACKGROUND: Sleep is an important contributor to physical and mental health; however, chronic sleep deprivation has become common in adolescents, especially on weekdays. Adolescents aged 14-17 years are recommended to sleep between 8 and 10 h per night to maximize overall health and well-being. Although sleep needs may vary between individuals, sleep duration recommendations are important for surveillance and help inform policies, interventions, and the population of healthy sleep behaviors...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Yong-Moon Mark Park, Susan E Steck, Teresa T Fung, Jiajia Zhang, Linda J Hazlett, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hwan Lee, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Anwar T Merchant
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is sparse evidence on the relationship between the Mediterranean diet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) style diet, and metabolic health, especially comparing cardiometabolic phenotypes among in normal weight and obese populations. We aimed to investigate the association of the Mediterranean diet scores (MDS) and DASH index with metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically obese normal weight (MONW) phenotypes in a representative U.S. POPULATION: HASH(0x4f85648) METHODS: MDS and DASH index were calculated using dietary data from 2767 adults aged 20-90 years without any prior diagnosis of cancer or cardiovascular disease from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994...
September 8, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir, Ellen Alma Tryggvadottir, Bryndis Eva Birgisdottir, Thorhallur Ingi Halldorsson, Helga Medek, Reynir Tomas Geirsson
INTRODUCTION: Nutrition in pregnancy may affect growth, development and health of the child in the short and long term. We aimed to assess diet and nutrient intake among pregnant women in the capital area and evaluate differences in dietary intake between women who were overweight/obese and normal weight before pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pregnant women aged 18-40 years (n=183) living in the capital area kept four day weighed food records to assess diet and nutrient intake in the 19th-24th week of pregnancy (n=98 with body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m2; n=46 with BMI 25-29...
September 2016: Læknablađiđ
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