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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029284/the-influence-of-co2-on-genioglossus-muscle-after-discharge-following-arousal-from-sleep-hypocapnia-and-genioglossus-muscle-after-discharge
#1
Jennifer M Cori, Peter D Rochford, Fergal J O'Donoghue, John Trinder, Amy S Jordan
Objectives: Ventilatory after-discharge (sustained elevation of ventilation following stimulus removal), occurs during sleep but not when hypocapnia is present. Genioglossus after-discharge also occurs during sleep, but CO2 effects have not been assessed. The relevance is that post-arousal after-discharge may protect against upper airway collapse. This study aimed to determine whether arousal elicits genioglossus after-discharge that persists into sleep, and whether it is influenced by CO2...
October 6, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029015/an-experimental-study-comparing-the-respiratory-effects-of-tapentadol-and-oxycodone-in-healthy-volunteers
#2
R van der Schrier, K Jonkman, M van Velzen, E Olofsen, A M Drewes, A Dahan, M Niesters
Background: There is a clinical need for potent opioids that produce little or no respiratory depression. In the current study we compared the respiratory effects of tapentadol, a mu-opioid receptor agonist and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, and oxycodone, a selective mu-opioid receptor agonist. We hypothesize that tapentadol 100 mg has a lesser effect on the control of breathing than oxycodone 20 mg. Methods: Fifteen healthy volunteers were randomized to receive oral tapentadol (100 and 150 mg), oxycodone 20 mg or placebo immediate release tablets in a crossover double-blind randomized design...
October 4, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028733/the-use-of-tidal-volume-challenge-test-in-critically-ill-patients-caution-needed
#3
Yang Liu, Yu-Ming Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026971/is-impaired-cerebral-vasoreactivity-an-early-marker-of-cognitive-decline-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#4
Aude Metzger, Emmanuelle Le Bars, Jeremy Deverdun, François Molino, Bénédicte Maréchal, Marie-Christine Picot, Xavier Ayrignac, Clarisse Carra, Luc Bauchet, Alexandre Krainik, Pierre Labauge, Nicolas Menjot de Champfleur
OBJECTIVE: The link between cerebral vasoreactivity and cognitive status in multiple sclerosis remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential decrease of cerebral vasoreactivity in multiple sclerosis patients and correlate it with cognitive status. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with multiple sclerosis (nine progressive and 24 remitting forms, median age: 39 years, 12 males) and 22 controls underwent MRI with a hypercapnic challenge to assess cerebral vasoreactivity and a neuropsychological assessment...
October 12, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025898/aging-is-associated-with-increased-propensity-for-central-apnea-during-nrem-sleep
#5
Susmita Chowdhuri, Sukanya Pranathiageswaran, Hillary Loomis-King, Anan Salloum, M Safwan Badr
The reason for increased sleep disordered breathing with predominance of central apneas in the elderly is unknown. We hypothesized that the propensity to central apneas is increased in older adults, manifested by a reduced carbon-dioxide (CO2) reserve in older compared to young adults during non-REM (NREM) sleep. METHODS: 10 elderly and 15 young healthy adults underwent multiple brief trials of nasal noninvasive positive pressure ventilation during stable NREM sleep. Cessation of mechanical ventilation (MV) resulted in hypocapnic central apnea or hypopnea...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025748/compromised-cerebrovascular-regulation-and-cerebral-oxygenation-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#6
Simon Malenfant, Patrice Brassard, Myriam Paquette, Olivier Le Blanc, Audrey Chouinard, Valérie Nadeau, Philip D Allan, Yu-Chieh Tzeng, Sébastien Simard, Sébastien Bonnet, Steeve Provencher
BACKGROUND: Functional cerebrovascular regulatory mechanisms are important for maintaining constant cerebral blood flow and oxygen supply in heathy individuals and are altered in heart failure. We aim to examine whether pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is associated with abnormal cerebrovascular regulation and lower cerebral oxygenation and their physiological and clinical consequences. METHODS AND RESULTS: Resting mean flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAvmean); transcranial Doppler), cerebral pressure-flow relationship (assessed at rest and during squat-stand maneuvers; analyzed using transfer function analysis), cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2, and central chemoreflex were assessed in 11 patients with PAH and 11 matched healthy controls...
October 12, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022063/community-structure-of-active-aerobic-methanotrophs-in-red-mangrove-kandelia-obovata-soils-under-different-frequency-of-tides
#7
Yo-Jin Shiau, Yuanfeng Cai, Yu-Te Lin, Zhongjun Jia, Chih-Yu Chiu
Methanotrophs are important microbial communities in coastal ecosystems. They reduce CH4 emission in situ, which is influenced by soil conditions. This study aimed to understand the differences in active aerobic methanotrophic communities in mangrove forest soils experiencing different inundation frequency, i.e., in soils from tidal mangroves, distributed at lower elevations, and from dwarf mangroves, distributed at higher elevations. Labeling of pmoA gene of active methanotrophs using DNA-based stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) revealed that methanotrophic activity was higher in the dwarf mangrove soils than in the tidal mangrove soils, possibly because of the more aerobic soil conditions...
October 11, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020995/sedation-with-propofol-during-ercp-is-the-combination-with-esketamine-more-effective-and-safer-than-with-alfentanil-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Susanne Eberl, Lena Koers, Jeanin E van Hooft, Edwin de Jong, Thomas Schneider, Markus W Hollmann, Benedikt Preckel
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a gastrointestinal procedure that requires a relatively motionless patient during the intervention. Deep sedation by intravenous propofol combined with an opioid has recently become the preferred sedation technique. However, when high doses of propofol are used, side effects, namely respiratory depression, may occur. Esketamine has hypnotic, analgesic, and sympathomimetic effects. Our assumption is that a combination of propofol with esketamine reduces the dosage of individual drugs, thereby minimizing sedation side effects while keeping the same satisfaction level of patients and endoscopists...
October 11, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020114/how-annual-course-of-photoperiod-shapes-seasonal-behavior-of-diploid-and-triploid-oysters-crassostrea-gigas
#9
Laura Payton, Mohamedou Sow, Jean-Charles Massabuau, Pierre Ciret, Damien Tran
In this work, we study if ploidy (i.e. number of copies of chromosomes) in the oyster Crassostrea gigas may introduce differences in behavior and in its synchronization by the annual photoperiod. To answer to the question about the effect of the seasonal course of the photoperiod on the behavior of C. gigas according to its ploidy, we quantified valve activity by HFNI valvometry in situ for 1 year in both diploid and triploid oysters. Chronobiological analyses of daily, tidal and lunar rhythms were performed according the annual change of the photoperiod...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019893/rescue-therapeutic-strategy-combining-ultra-protective-mechanical-ventilation-with-extracorporeal-co2-removal-membrane-in-near-fatal-asthma-with-severe-pulmonary-barotraumas-a-case-report
#10
Arthur Pavot, Jihad Mallat, Nicolas Vangrunderbeeck, Didier Thevenin, Malcolm Lemyze
RATIONALE: Mechanical ventilation of severe acute asthma is still considered a challenging issue, mainly because of the gas trapping phenomenon with the potential for life-threatening barotraumatic pulmonary complications. PATIENT CONCERNS: Herein, we describe 2 consecutive cases of near-fatal asthma for whom the recommended protective mechanical ventilation approach using low tidal volume of 6 mL/kg and small levels of PEEP was rapidly compromised by giant pneumomediastinum with extensive subcutaneousemphysema...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016381/randomized-study-comparing-the-effect-of-carbon-dioxide-insufflation-on-veins-using-2-types-of-endoscopic-and-open-vein-harvesting
#11
Bhuvaneswari Krishnamoorthy, William R Critchley, Janesh Nair, Ignacio Malagon, John Carey, James B Barnard, Paul D Waterworth, Rajamiyer V Venkateswaran, James E Fildes, Ann L Caress, Nizar Yonan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess whether the use of carbon dioxide insufflation has any impact on integrity of long saphenous vein comparing 2 types of endoscopic vein harvesting and traditional open vein harvesting. METHODS: A total of 301 patients were prospectively randomized into 3 groups. Group 1 control arm of open vein harvesting (n = 101), group 2 closed tunnel (carbon dioxide) endoscopic vein harvesting (n = 100) and Group 3 open tunnel (carbon dioxide) endoscopic vein harvesting (open tunnel endoscopic vein harvesting) (n = 100)...
October 9, 2017: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016193/the-possible-emergence-of-life-and-differentiation-of-a-shallow-biosphere-on-irradiated-icy-worlds-the-example-of-europa
#12
Michael J Russell, Alison E Murray, Kevin P Hand
Irradiated ice-covered ocean worlds with rocky mafic mantles may provide the conditions needed to drive the emergence and maintenance of life. Alkaline hydrothermal springs-relieving the geophysical, thermal, and chemical disequilibria between oceans and tidally stressed crusts-could generate inorganic barriers to the otherwise uncontrolled and kinetically disfavored oxidation of hydrothermal hydrogen and methane. Ionic gradients imposed across these inorganic barriers, comprising iron oxyhydroxides and sulfides, could drive the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and the oxidation of methane through thermodynamically favorable metabolic pathways leading to early life-forms...
October 10, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993497/marine-biorhythms-bridging-chronobiology-and-ecology
#13
Martin Bulla, Thomas Oudman, Allert I Bijleveld, Theunis Piersma, Charalambos P Kyriacou
Marine organisms adapt to complex temporal environments that include daily, tidal, semi-lunar, lunar and seasonal cycles. However, our understanding of marine biological rhythms and their underlying molecular basis is mainly confined to a few model organisms in rather simplistic laboratory settings. Here, we use new empirical data and recent examples of marine biorhythms to highlight how field ecologists and laboratory chronobiologists can complement each other's efforts. First, with continuous tracking of intertidal shorebirds in the field, we reveal individual differences in tidal and circadian foraging rhythms...
November 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993038/capnography-in-the-emergency-department-a-review-of-uses-waveforms-and-limitations
#14
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman, Michael A Vivirito
BACKGROUND: Capnography has many uses in the emergency department (ED) and critical care setting, most commonly cardiac arrest and procedural sedation. OBJECTIVE OF THE REVIEW: This review evaluates several indications concerning capnography beyond cardiac arrest and procedural sedation in the ED, as well as limitations and specific waveforms. DISCUSSION: Capnography includes the noninvasive measurement of CO2, providing information on ventilation, perfusion, and metabolism in intubated and spontaneously breathing patients...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990307/physiological-dead-space-and-arterial-carbon-dioxide-contributions-to-exercise-ventilatory-inefficiency-in-patients-with-reduced-or-preserved-ejection-fraction-heart-failure
#15
Erik H Van Iterson, Bruce D Johnson, Barry A Borlaug, Thomas P Olson
AIMS: Patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced (HFrEF) or preserved (HFpEF) ejection fraction demonstrate an increased ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide (V̇E /V̇CO2 ) slope. The physiological correlates of the V̇E /V̇CO2 slope remain unclear in the two HF phenotypes. We hypothesized that changes in the physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio (VD /VT ) and arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2 ) differentially contribute to the V̇E /V̇CO2 slope in HFrEF vs. HFpEF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adults with HFrEF (n = 32) and HFpEF (n = 27) [mean ± standard deviation (SD) left ventricular ejection fraction: 22 ± 7% and 61 ± 9%, respectively; mean ± SD body mass index: 28 ± 4 kg/m(2) and 33 ± 6 kg/m(2) , respectively; P < 0...
October 8, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988854/dynamics-of-phytoplankton-productivity-and-exopolysaccharides-eps-and-tep-pools-in-the-seine-estuary-france-normandy-over-tidal-cycles-and-over-two-contrasting-seasons
#16
Jérôme Morelle, Mathilde Schapira, Pascal Claquin
Exopolysaccharides (EPS) play an important role in the carbon flux and may be directly linked to phytoplankton and microphytobenthos production, most notably in estuarine systems. However the temporal and spatial dynamics of estuarine EPS are still not well understood, nor how primary productivity triggers this variability at these different scales. The aim of this study was to investigate the primary productivity of phytoplankton and EPS dynamics in the Seine estuary over a tidal cycle in three different haline zones over two contrasted seasons...
September 18, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988173/protocol-for-the-tidal-melanoma-study-topical-imiquimod-or-diphenylcyclopropenone-for-the-management-of-cutaneous-in-transit-melanoma-metastases-a-phase-ii-single-centre-randomised-pilot-study
#17
Tavis Read, Scott Webber, Janine Thomas, Michael Wagels, Helmut Schaider, H Peter Soyer, B Mark Smithers
INTRODUCTION: Patients with in-transit melanoma metastases present a therapeutic challenge. Complete surgical excision of localised disease is considered as the gold standard; however, surgery is not always acceptable and alternatives are required. Treatment results reported using imiquimod and diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) suggest that topical immunotherapies can be used to successfully treat select patients with melanoma metastases. A phase II, randomised, single centre, pilot study was designed to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of DPCP and imiquimod for the treatment of superficial, cutaneous in-transit melanoma metastases...
October 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986852/effect-of-inspiratory-synchronization-during-pressure-controlled-ventilation-on-lung-distension-and-inspiratory-effort
#18
Nuttapol Rittayamai, François Beloncle, Ewan C Goligher, Lu Chen, Jordi Mancebo, Jean-Christophe M Richard, Laurent Brochard
BACKGROUND: In pressure-controlled (PC) ventilation, tidal volume (V T) and transpulmonary pressure (P L ) result from the addition of ventilator pressure and the patient's inspiratory effort. PC modes can be classified into fully, partially, and non-synchronized modes, and the degree of synchronization may result in different V T and P L despite identical ventilator settings. This study assessed the effects of three PC modes on V T, P L , inspiratory effort (esophageal pressure-time product, PTPes), and airway occlusion pressure, P 0...
October 6, 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986766/comprehensive-risk-assessment-and-source-identification-of-selected-heavy-metals-cu-cd-pb-zn-hg-as-in-tidal-saltmarsh-sediments-of-shuangtai-estuary-china
#19
Chang-Fa Liu, Bing Li, Yi-Ting Wang, Yuan Liu, Heng-Jiang Cai, Hai-Feng Wei, Jia-Wen Wu, Jin Li
Heavy metals do not degrade and can remain in the environment for a long time. In this study, we analyzed the effects of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Hg, and As, on environmental quality, pollutant enrichment, ecological hazard, and source identification of elements in sediments using data collected from samples taken from Shuangtai tidal wetland. The comprehensive pollution indices were used to assess environmental quality; fuzzy similarity analysis and geoaccumulation index were used to analyze pollution accumulation; correlation matrix, principal component analysis, and clustering analysis were used to analyze pollution source; environmental risk index and ecological risk index were used to assess ecological risk...
October 6, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985693/assessing-the-depth-of-isoflurane-anaesthesia-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#20
Ka Ting Ng, R Peter Alston, George Just, Chris McKenzie
INTRODUCTION: Bispectral index (BIS) and monitoring of end-tidal concentration may be associated with a reduction in the incidence of awareness during volatile-based general anaesthesia. An analogue of end-tidal concentration during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is measuring exhausted isoflurane concentration from the oxygenator as an estimate to blood and, so, brain concentration. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between oxygenator exhaust and blood concentrations of isoflurane and the BIS score during CPB when administering isoflurane into the sweep gas supply to the oxygenator...
October 1, 2017: Perfusion
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