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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453540/pre-and-posttreatment-with-hydrogen-sulfide-prevents-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-by-limiting-inflammation-and-oxidation
#1
Simone Faller, Raphael Seiler, Rosa Donus, Helen Engelstaedter, Alexander Hoetzel, Sashko Gregoriev Spassov
Although essential in critical care medicine, mechanical ventilation often results in ventilator-induced lung injury. Low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide have been proven to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects in the lung. The aim of this study was to analyze the kinetic effects of pre- and posttreatment with hydrogen sulfide in order to prevent lung injury as well as inflammatory and oxidative stress upon mechanical ventilation. Mice were either non-ventilated or mechanically ventilated with a tidal volume of 12 ml/kg for 6 h...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448746/pharmaceutical-chemicals-steroids-and-xenoestrogens-in-water-sediments-and-fish-from-the-tidal-freshwater-potomac-river-virginia-usa
#2
Golala Arya, Sara Tadayon, James Sadighian, Jennifer Jones, Kim de Mutsert, Thomas B Huff, Gregory D Foster
Selected pharmaceutical chemicals, steroids and xenoestrogens (PCSXs) consisting of 29 endocrine modulators, therapeutic drugs, pesticides, detergents, plastics, and active ingredients in household products were measured in water, riverbed sediments and fish collected in a tributary embayment of the Potomac River (Hunting Creek, Alexandria, VA, USA) in the vicinity of wastewater discharge. A total of 17 PCSXs were found in the Hunting Creek samples, with steroid hormones (e.g., progesterone and 17α-ethinylestradiol), triclosan, dextromethorphan and bisphenol A being the most prominent micropollutants detected...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448617/seagrass-blue-carbon-spatial-patterns-at-the-meadow-scale
#3
Matthew P J Oreska, Karen J McGlathery, John H Porter
Most information on seagrass carbon burial derives from point measurements, which are sometimes scaled by meadow area to estimate carbon stocks; however, sediment organic carbon (Corg) concentrations may vary with distance from the meadow edge, resulting in spatial gradients that affect the accuracy of stock estimates. We mapped sediment Corg concentrations throughout a large (6 km2) restored seagrass meadow to determine whether Corg distribution patterns exist at different spatial scales. The meadow originated from ≤1-acre plots seeded between 2001 and 2004, so we expected Corg to vary spatially according to the known meadow age at sample sites and with proximity to the meadow edge...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447895/compensatory-function-of-the-diaphragm-following-high-cervical-hemisection-in-the-rat
#4
Kun-Ze Lee, Shih-Hui Hsu
Unilateral high cervical spinal hemisection (i.e., C2Hx) interrupts the respiratory bulbospinal pathway and results in paralysis of the hemidiaphragm. The ipsilateral diaphragmatic activity can partially recover over weeks to months; however, its contribution to the tidal volume generation is less than 20 %. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the contralateral diaphragm exert a compensatory function to maintain the essential ventilation following cervical spinal cord hemisection. The cardiorespiratory pattern and bilateral diaphragm electromyogram (EMG) were measured in urethane-anesthetized and spontaneously breathing adult rats at 1 day, 2 or 8 weeks post-C2Hx or C2 laminectomy...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446881/assessment-of-airway-distensibility-by-the-forced-oscillation-technique-reproducible-and-potentially-simplifiable
#5
Samuel Mailhot-Larouche, Mélanie Lachance, Michela Bullone, Cyndi Henry, Ronald J Dandurand, Louis-Philippe Boulet, Michel Laviolette, Gregory G King, Claude S Farah, Ynuk Bossé
A non-invasive index of airway distensibility is required to track airway remodeling over time. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) provides such an index by measuring the change in respiratory system conductance at 5 Hz over the corresponding change in lung volume (ΔGrs5/ΔVL). To become useful clinically, this method has to be reproducible and easy to perform. The series of breathing maneuvers required to measure distensibility would be greatly facilitated if the difficulty of breathing below functional residual capacity (FRC) could be precluded and the number of maneuvers could be reduced...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444366/intraoperative-air-leak-measured-after-lobectomy-is-associated-with-postoperative-duration-of-air-leak
#6
Alessandro Brunelli, Michele Salati, Cecilia Pompili, Paolo Gentili, Armando Sabbatini
OBJECTIVES: To verify the association between the air leak objectively measured intraoperatively (IAL) using the ventilator and the air leak duration after pulmonary lobectomy. METHODS: Prospective analysis on 111 patients submitted to pulmonary lobectomy (33 by video-assisted thoracic surgery). After resection, objective assessment of air leak (in milliliter per minute) was performed before closure of the chest by measuring the difference between a fixed inspired and expired volume, using a tidal volume of 8 ml/kg, a respiratory rate of 10 and a positive-end expiratory pressure of 5 cmH 2 O...
April 24, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444079/use-of-noninvasive-ventilation-in-severe-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-due-to-accidental-chlorine-inhalation-a-case-report
#7
Adriano Medina Matos, Rodrigo Ribeiro de Oliveira, Mauro Martins Lippi, Rodrigo Ryoji Takatani, Wilson de Oliveira
Acute respiratory distress syndrome is characterized by diffuse inflammatory lung injury and is classified as mild, moderate, and severe. Clinically, hypoxemia, bilateral opacities in lung images, and decreased pulmonary compliance are observed. Sepsis is one of the most prevalent causes of this condition (30 - 50%). Among the direct causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome, chlorine inhalation is an uncommon cause, generating mucosal and airway irritation in most cases. We present a case of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome after accidental inhalation of chlorine in a swimming pool, with noninvasive ventilation used as a treatment with good response in this case...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444075/applicability-of-respiratory-variations-in-stroke-volume-and-its-surrogates-for-dynamic-fluid-responsiveness-prediction-in-critically-ill-patients-a-systematic-review-of-the-prevalence-of-required-conditions
#8
Leandro Utino Taniguchi, Fernando Godinho Zampieri, Antonio Paulo Nassar
Objective: The present systematic review searched for published data on the prevalence of required conditions for proper assessment in critically ill patients. Methods: The Medline, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched to identify studies that evaluated the prevalence of validated conditions for the fluid responsiveness assessment using respiratory variations in the stroke volume or another surrogate in adult critically ill patients. The primary outcome was the suitability of the fluid responsiveness evaluation...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443830/paco-sub-2-sub-measurement-in-cerebral-haemodynamics-face-mask-or-nasal-cannulae
#9
Jatinder Singh Minhas, Thompson Robinson, Ronney Panerai
Objective PaCO2 affects cerebral blood flow (CBF) and its regulatory mechanisms, but the effects of CO2 measurement technique on cerebrovascular parameters are unknown. In order to determine if the two most commonly used approaches, face mask (FM) or nasal cannulae (NC), are interchangeable or not, we tested the hypothesis that the use of FM versus NC does not lead to significant differences in CO2-related systemic and cerebrovascular parameters. Approach Recordings of CBF velocity (CBFV), blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) were performed in 42 subjects during normocapnia (FM or NC) and 5% CO2 inhalation (FM) or hyperventilation (NC)...
April 26, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443736/brain-resting-state-functional-connectivity-is-preserved-under-sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-patients-with-pervasive-developmental-disorders-a-pilot-study
#10
Lakshmikumar Venkat Raghavan, Suparna Bharadwaj, Vincent Wourms, Audrey Tan, Michael T Jurkiewicz, David J Mikulis, Adrian P Crawley
Background Functional connectivity studies play a huge role in understanding the relationship between the network connections and the behavioral phenotype of patients with Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). However, some patients with PDD may not tolerate the imaging procedure while awake and they often need general anesthesia. General anesthesia is a confounding factor in functional imaging studies due to its effect on the functional connectivity. The objective of this study is to look at the resting state functional connectivity (RS-FC) under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients with pervasive developmental disorders...
April 26, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443680/periodic-breathing-during-incremental-exercise
#11
Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Ugo Corrà, Michele Emdin
Periodic breathing during incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a regularly recurring waxing and waning of tidal volume due to oscillations in central respiratory drive. Periodic breathing is a sign of respiratory control system instability, which may occur at rest or during exercise. The possible mechanisms responsible of exertional periodic breathing might be related to any instability of the ventilatory regulation caused by: 1) increased circulatory delay (i.e., circulation time from the lung to the brain and chemoreceptors, due to reduced cardiac index leading to delay in information transfer), 2) increase in controller gain (i...
April 26, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442633/positive-end-expiratory-pressure-effect-of-3-high-flow-nasal-cannula-devices
#12
Jing-Chao Luo, Mei-Shan Lu, Zhi-Hong Zhao, Wei Jiang, Biao Xu, Li Weng, Tong Li, Bin Du
BACKGROUND: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is supposed to provide additional PEEP compared with conventional oxygen therapy. However, the exact determinants of this PEEP effect are unclear. We investigated the factors that might affect the PEEP and compared PEEP performance among 3 HFNC devices. METHODS: Three available HFNC devices were evaluated: the AIRVO 2 device and 2 mechanical ventilators (SV300 and Monnal T75). A device consisting of a test lung (5600i) and an airway model (AMT(IE)) was used to simulate spontaneous breathing...
April 25, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442632/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-training-on-ventilatory-efficiency-and-respiratory-drive-in-obese-subjects
#13
Mehdi Chlif, Anis Chaouachi, Said Ahmaidi
BACKGROUND: Obese patients show a decline in exercise capacity and diverse degrees of dyspnea in association with mechanical abnormalities, increased ventilatory requirements secondary to the increased metabolic load, and a greater work of breathing. Consequently, obese patients may be particularly predisposed to the development of respiratory muscle fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study was to assess inspiratory muscle performance during incremental exercise in 19 obese male subjects (body mass index 41 ± 6 kg/m(2)) after aerobic exercise training using the noninvasive, inspiratory muscle tension-time index (TT0...
April 25, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442444/hydrogen-sulfide-ameliorates-prenatal-cigarette-smoke-exposure-induced-impairment-of-respiratory-responses-to-hypercapnia-in-neonatal-rats
#14
Senfeng Zhang, Fang Lei, Fusheng Zhao, Xiang Yan, Wen Wang, Yu Zheng
The present study was designed to investigate whether H2S could improve the respiratory responses to hypercapnia blunted by prenatal CSE in neonatal rats in vivo. Respiratory activities were recorded with head-out body plethysmography. The results showed that during baseline, respiratory frequency (FR), tidal volume (VT) and minute ventilation (VE) were similar among tested groups; frequency of spontaneous apnea (FSA), not post-sigh apnea (FPA), was significantly elevated by prenatal CSE. During hypercapnia, the increases in FR and VE were significantly reduced, but VT was not markedly different, in CSE group; both FSA and FPA were decreased, although FSA remained higher in CSE group...
April 22, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441233/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-due-to-tuberculosis-in-a-respiratory-icu-over-a-16-year-period
#15
Valliappan Muthu, Sahajal Dhooria, Ashutosh N Aggarwal, Digambar Behera, Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Ritesh Agarwal
OBJECTIVE: Whether tuberculosis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with worse outcomes when compared with acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to other causes remains unknown. Herein, we compare the outcomes between the two groups. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of all subjects admitted with acute respiratory distress syndrome over the last 16 years. SETTING: Respiratory ICU of a tertiary care hospital in North India...
April 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436715/controlled-invasive-mechanical-ventilation-strategies-in-obese-patients-undergoing-surgery
#16
Lígia de Albuquerque Maia, Pedro Leme Silva, Paolo Pelosi, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco
The obesity prevalence is increasing in surgical population. As the number of obese surgical patients increases, so does the demand for mechanical ventilation. Nevertheless, ventilatory strategies in this population are challenging, since obesity results in pathophysiological changes in respiratory function. Areas covered: We reviewed the impact of obesity on respiratory system and the effects of controlled invasive mechanical ventilation strategies in obese patients undergoing surgery. To date, there is no consensus regarding the optimal invasive mechanical ventilation strategy for obese surgical patients, and no evidence that possible intraoperative beneficial effects on oxygenation and mechanics translate into better postoperative pulmonary function or improved outcomes...
April 24, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436580/pulmonary-function-and-outcomes-in-infants-randomized-to-a-rescue-course-of-antenatal-steroids
#17
Cindy McEvoy, Diane Schilling, Patricia Spitale, Jean O'Malley, Susan Bowling, Manuel Durand
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to obtain follow-up pulmonary function testing and assessment of clinical respiratory outcomes, at 1-2 years, in preterm infants whose mothers were randomized to a single rescue course of antenatal steroids (AS) versus placebo. METHODS: Follow-up of a randomized, double-blinded trial. In the original trial pregnant women ≥14 days after initial course of AS were randomized to rescue AS or placebo. Pulmonary function testing and a standardized respiratory questionnaire were obtained at 1-2 years of corrected age...
April 24, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435743/effects-of-overground-locomotor-training-on-the-ventilatory-response-to-volitional-treadmill-walking-in-individuals-with-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury-a-pilot-study
#18
Gino S Panza, Andrew A Guccione, Lisa M Chin, Jared M Gollie, Jeffery E Herrick, John P Collins
INTRODUCTION: Although there has been substantial emphasis on the neuromuscular and cardiovascular adaptations following rehabilitation, pulmonary adaptations in individuals with incomplete SCI (iSCI) in response to locomotor training have been less frequently studied. In healthy individuals, effective transition from rest to work is accomplished by a hyperpneic response, which exhibits an exponential curve with three phases. However, the degree to which our current understanding of exercise hyperpnea can be applied to individuals with iSCI is unknown...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435239/pulmonary-rehabilitation-for-copd-improves-exercise-time-rather-than-exercise-tolerance-effects-and-mechanisms
#19
Keisuke Miki, Ryoji Maekura, Seigo Kitada, Mari Miki, Kenji Yoshimura, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Toshiko Kawabe, Hiroyuki Kagawa, Yohei Oshitani, Akitoshi Satomi, Kohei Nishida, Nobuhiko Sawa, Kimiko Inoue
BACKGROUND: COPD patients undergoing pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) show various responses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible mechanisms and predictors of the response to PR in COPD patients. METHODS: Thirty-six stable COPD patients underwent PR including a 4-week high-intensity exercise training program, and they were evaluated by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. All patients (mean age 69 years, severe and very severe COPD 94%) were classified into four groups by whether the exercise time (Tex) or the peak oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] increased after PR: two factors increased (both the Tex and the peak [Formula: see text] increased); two factors decreased; time only increased (the Tex increased, but the peak [Formula: see text] economized); and [Formula: see text] only increased (the Tex decreased, but the peak [Formula: see text] increased)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434669/diurnal-variation-of-co2-ch4-and-n2o-emission-fluxes-continuously-monitored-in-situ-in-three-environmental-habitats-in-a-subtropical-estuarine-wetland
#20
Wen-Bin Yang, Chung-Shin Yuan, Chuan Tong, Pin Yang, Lei Yang, Bang-Qin Huang
Wetlands play a crucial role in modulating atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). The key factors controlling GHG emission from subtropical estuarine wetlands were investigated in this study, which continuously monitored the uptake/emission of GHGs (CO2, CH4, and N2O) by/from a subtropical estuarine wetland located in the Minjiang estuary in the coastal region of southeastern China. A self-designed floating chamber was used to collect air samples on-site at three environmental habitats (Phragmites australis marsh, mudflats, and river water)...
April 20, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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