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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549098/high-protein-foods-and-physical-activity-protect-against-age-related-muscle-loss-and-functional-decline
#1
M Loring Bradlee, Jabed Mustafa, Martha R Singer, Lynn L Moore
Background: Some clinical trials suggest that protein supplementation enhances the effects of resistance exercise on skeletal muscle mass (SMM); fewer studies examine the effects of diets rich in protein-source foods on SMM and functional status among community-dwelling adults. Methods: Data from the Framingham Offspring study including diet (three-day records, exams 3 and 5), physical activity (exams 2 and 4), percent SMM (%SMM) (exams 6 and 7), and functional performance (exams 5 through 8) were used to evaluate independent and combined effects of physical activity and high-protein foods on adjusted mean %SMM (using analysis of covariance) and risk of functional decline (using Cox proportional hazard's models)...
May 25, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549046/associations-of-physical-fitness-and-body-composition-characteristics-with-simulated-military-task-performance
#2
K Pihlainen, M Santtila, K Häkkinen, H Kyröläinen
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the associations of physical fitness and body composition characteristics with anaerobic endurance performance, tested in the combat load using the occupationally relevant military simulation test (MST). Eighty-one male soldiers, deployed to a crisis management operation in the Middle East, volunteered for the study and participated in a test battery consisting measurements of muscle strength, body composition characteristics, endurance capacity, and MST.A Spearman correlational analysis revealed that the strongest variable, correlated with MST time, was the countermovement jump performed with the combat load (CMJ2) (rs = -0...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548960/severe-hypertriglyceridemia-due-to-two-novel-loss-of-function-lipoprotein-lipase-gene-mutations-c310r-e396v-in-a-chinese-family-associated-with-recurrent-acute-pancreatitis
#3
Yu Lun, Xiaofang Sun, Ping Wang, Jingwei Chi, Xu Hou, Yangang Wang
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is widely expressed in skeletal muscles, cardiac muscles as well as adipose tissue and involved in the catabolism of triglyceride. Herein we have systematically characterized two novel loss-of-function mutations in LPL from a Chinese family in which afflicted members were manifested by severe hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent pancreatitis. DNA sequencing revealed that the proband was a heterozygote carrying a novel c.T928C (p.C310R) mutation in exon 6 of the LPL gene. Another member of the family was detected to be a compound heterozygote who along with the c...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547918/exercise-with-weight-loss-improves-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle-markers-of-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-postmenopausal-women
#4
Heidi K Ortmeyer, Andrew P Goldberg, Alice S Ryan
OBJECTIVE: The effects of 6-month weight loss (WL) versus aerobic exercise training (AEX)+WL on fat and skeletal muscle markers of fatty acid metabolism were determined in normal (NGT) and impaired (IGT) glucose tolerant African-American and Caucasian postmenopausal women with overweight/obesity. METHODS: Fat (gluteal and abdominal) lipoprotein lipase (LPL), skeletal muscle LPL, acyl-CoA synthase (ACS), ß-hydroxacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1), and citrate synthase (CS) activities were measured at baseline (n = 104) and before and after WL (n = 34) and AEX+WL (n = 37)...
May 26, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547916/non-shivering-thermogenesis-as-a-mechanism-to-facilitate-sustainable-weight-loss
#5
REVIEW
B F Palmer, D J Clegg
Currently, there is a significant percentage of the population who are or will be classified as obese, necessitating novel strategies to facilitate sustainable weight loss. Reductions in basal metabolic rate occur in the face of weight loss and pose formidable barriers to individuals attempting to sustain meaningful weight reductions. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which non-shivering thermogenesis may provide insight into metabolic pathways that can become druggable targets to facilitate sustainable weight loss...
May 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547886/the-suction-mechanism-of-the-pipid-frog-pipa-pipa-linnaeus-1758
#6
David Cundall, Edward Fernandez, Frances Irish
Most suction-feeding, aquatic vertebrates create suction by rapidly enlarging the oral cavity and pharynx. Forceful enlargement of the pharynx is powered by longitudinal muscles that retract skeletal elements of the hyoid, more caudal branchial arches, and, in many fish, the pectoral girdle. This arrangement was thought to characterize all suction-feeding vertebrates. However, it does not exist in the permanently aquatic, tongueless Pipa pipa, an Amazonian frog that can catch fish. Correlating high-speed (250 and 500 fps) video records with anatomical analysis and functional tests shows that fundamental features of tetrapod body design are altered to allow P...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546788/dmd-transcripts-in-crl-2061-rhabdomyosarcoma-cells-show-high-levels-of-intron-retention-by-intron-specific-pcr-amplification
#7
Emma Tabe Eko Niba, Ryo Yamanaka, Abdul Qawee Mahyoob Rani, Hiroyuki Awano, Masaaki Matsumoto, Hisahide Nishio, Masafumi Matsuo
BACKGROUND: The DMD gene encoding dystrophin is mutated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a fatal progressive muscle wasting disease. DMD has also been shown to act as a tumor suppressor gene. Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a mesodermal sarcoma that shares characteristics of skeletal muscle precursors. Products of the DMD gene in RMS have not yet been fully clarified. Here, DMD products were analyzed in CRL-2061 cells established from alveolar RMS. METHODS: The 14-kb long DMD cDNA was PCR amplified as 20 separated fragments, as were nine short intron regions...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546635/local-cryotherapy-minimally-impacts-the-metabolome-and-transcriptome-of-human-skeletal-muscle
#8
Dylan C Sarver, Kristoffer B Sugg, Nathaniel P Disser, Elizabeth R Sibilsky Enselman, Tariq M Awan, Christopher L Mendias
Cryotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of skeletal muscle injuries. However, the data to support the use of cryotherapy is inconclusive, and the biochemical etiology of cryotherapy in human skeletal muscle remains largely unknown. We therefore sought to determine how a clinically-relevant dose of cryotherapy would impact the transcriptome and metabolome of skeletal muscle. Eight healthy male subjects (age 24.7 ± 4.5 years, BMI 22.2 ± 1.6) received a 15 minute bout of local cryotherapy, delivered via ice cup massage over the anterolateral thigh...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546467/post-exercise-cold-water-immersion-modulates-skeletal-muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-mrna-expression-in-immersed-and-non-immersed-limbs-evidence-of-systemic-regulation
#9
Robert Allan, Adam Philip Sharples, Graeme L Close, Barry Drust, Sam O Shepherd, John Dutton, James P Morton, Warren Gregson
Mechanisms mediating post-exercise cold-induced increases in PGC-1α gene expression in human skeletal muscle are yet to be fully elucidated, but may involve local cooling effects on AMPK and p38 MAPK related signalling and/or increased systemic β-adrenergic stimulation. We aimed to therefore examine whether post-exercise cold-water immersion enhancement of PGC-1α mRNA is mediated through local or systemic mechanisms. Ten subjects completed acute cycling (8x5 min at ~80% peak power output) followed by seated-rest (CON) or single-leg cold-water immersion (CWI; 10 min, 8°C)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546288/dynamic-changes-in-the-skeletal-muscle-proteome-during-denervation-induced-atrophy
#10
Franziska Lang, Sriram Aravamudhan, Hendrik Nolte, Clara Tuerk, Soraya Hölper, Stefan Müller, Stefan Günther, Bert Blaauw, Thomas Braun, Marcus Krüger
Loss of neuronal stimulation enhances protein breakdown and reduces protein synthesis, causing rapid muscle mass loss. To elucidate the pathophysiological adaptations that occur in atrophying muscles, we used stable isotope labelling and mass spectrometry to accurately quantify protein expression changes during denervation-induced atrophy after sciatic nerve section in the mouse gastrocnemius muscle (GAST). Additionally, mice were fed a SILAC diet containing (13)C6 lysine for four, seven, or eleven days to calculate relative levels of protein synthesis in denervated and control muscles...
May 25, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545591/an-ultrastructural-study-of-the-surface-and-attachment-structures-of-paradiplozoon-homoion-bychowsky-nagibina-1959-monogenea-diplozoidae
#11
Veronika Konstanzová, Božena Koubková, Martin Kašný, Jana Ilgová, Ewa Dzika, Milan Gelnar
BACKGROUND: Species of Diplozoon Palombi, 1949 (Monogenea: Diplozoidae) are blood-feeding ectoparasites mainly parasitising the gills of cyprinid fishes. Although these parasites have been the subject of numerous taxonomic, phylogenetic and ecological studies, the ultrastructure of the surface and haptor attachment structures remains almost unknown. In this study, we used transmission electron microscopy to examine the ultrastructure of attachment clamps and neodermal surface of Paradiplozoon homoion (Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1959), family Diplozoidae Palombi, 1949, thereby broadening our knowledge of platyhelminth biology...
May 25, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545587/type-2-diabetes-and-obesity-induce-similar-transcriptional-reprogramming-in-human-myocytes
#12
Leif Väremo, Tora Ida Henriksen, Camilla Scheele, Christa Broholm, Maria Pedersen, Mathias Uhlén, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Jens Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is one of the primary tissues involved in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The close association between obesity and T2D makes it difficult to isolate specific effects attributed to the disease alone. Therefore, here we set out to identify and characterize intrinsic properties of myocytes, associated independently with T2D or obesity. METHODS: We generated and analyzed RNA-seq data from primary differentiated myotubes from 24 human subjects, using a factorial design (healthy/T2D and non-obese/obese), to determine the influence of each specific factor on genome-wide transcription...
May 25, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545481/therapeutic-strategies-to-address-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-deficiency-and-the-loss-of-nitric-oxide-bioavailability-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#13
REVIEW
Cara A Timpani, Alan Hayes, Emma Rybalka
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is a rare and fatal neuromuscular disease in which the absence of dystrophin from the muscle membrane induces a secondary loss of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and the muscles capacity for endogenous nitric oxide synthesis. Since nitric oxide is a potent regulator of skeletal muscle metabolism, mass, function and regeneration, the loss of nitric oxide bioavailability is likely a key contributor to the chronic pathological wasting evident in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. As such, various therapeutic interventions to re-establish either the neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein deficit or the consequential loss of nitric oxide synthesis and bioavailability have been investigated in both animal models of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and in human clinical trials...
May 25, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545403/long-lasting-effect-of-obesity-on-skeletal-muscle-transcriptome
#14
Ilhem Messaoudi, Mithila Handu, Maham Rais, Suhas Sureshchandra, Byung S Park, Suzanne S Fei, Hollis Wright, Ashley E White, Ruhee Jain, Judy L Cameron, Kerri M Winters-Stone, Oleg Varlamov
BACKGROUND: Reduced physical activity and increased intake of calorically-dense diets are the main risk factors for obesity, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes. Chronic overnutrition and hyperglycemia can alter gene expression, contributing to long-term obesity complications. While caloric restriction can reduce obesity and glucose intolerance, it is currently unknown whether it can effectively reprogram transcriptome to a pre-obesity level. The present study addressed this question by the preliminary examination of the transcriptional dynamics in skeletal muscle after exposure to overnutrition and following caloric restriction...
May 25, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544772/ganglioside-gm3-content-in-skeletal-muscles-is-increased-in-type-2-but-decreased-in-type-1-diabetes-rat-models-implications-of-glycosphingolipid-metabolism-in-pathophysiology-of-diabetes
#15
Josko Bozic, Anita Markotic, Vedrana Cikes-Culic, Anela Novak, Josip Andelo Borovac, Hrvoje Vucemilovic, Gorana Trgo, Tina Ticinovic Kurir
BACKGROUND: Ganglioside GM3 is an abundant constituent of the plasma membrane where its accumulation attenuates insulin receptor signaling. Considering the role of skeletal muscles for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, the aim of this study was to determine the expression of GM3 and its precursors in skeletal muscle of diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) rat models. METHODS: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (55 mg/kg for DM1 and 35 mg/kg for DM2) injection to male Sprague-Dawley rats which were fed with normal pellet diet (DM1 type) or high-fat diet (DM2 type)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544616/biochemical-isolation-of-myonuclei-employed-to-define-changes-to-the-myonuclear-proteome-that-occur-with-aging
#16
Alicia A Cutler, Eric B Dammer, Duc M Doung, Nicholas T Seyfried, Anita H Corbett, Grace K Pavlath
Skeletal muscle aging is accompanied by loss of muscle mass and strength. Examining changes in myonuclear proteins with age would provide insight into molecular processes which regulate these profound changes in muscle physiology. However, muscle tissue is highly adapted for contraction and thus comprised largely of contractile proteins making the nuclear proteins difficult to identify from whole muscle samples. By developing a method to purify myonuclei from whole skeletal muscle, we were able to collect myonuclei for analysis by flow cytometry, biochemistry, and mass spectrometry...
May 23, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544394/muscle-metabolic-alterations-induced-by-genetic-ablation-of-4e-bp1-and-4e-bp2-in-response-to-diet-induced-obesity
#17
Olivier Le Bacquer, Kristell Combe, Christophe Montaurier, Jérôme Salles, Christophe Giraudet, Véronique Patrac, Carla Domingues-Faria, Christelle Guillet, Katie Louche, Yves Boirie, Nahum Sonenberg, Cédric Moro, Stéphane Walrand
SCOPE: In recent years, several studies reported the role of eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs) on the development of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Our aim was to investigate the effect of 4E-BP protein deletion on lipid accumulation and metabolism in skeletal muscle in response to a high fat diet-induced obesity in 4E-BP1/2 DKO mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Diet-induced obesity engendered increased ectopic accumulation of lipotoxic species in skeletal muscle of 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2 double-knockout mice (4E-BP1/2 DKO), namely diacylglycerols and ceramides...
May 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544355/temporal-overexpression-of-sirt1-in-skeletal-muscle-of-adult-mice-does-not-improve-insulin-sensitivity-or-markers-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#18
Kristoffer Svensson, Samuel A LaBarge, Vitor F Martins, Simon Schenk
AIMS: Activation of the NAD(+) dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1 has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to treat mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. However, life-long overexpression of SIRT1 in skeletal muscle does not improve parameters of mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity. In this study we investigated whether temporal overexpression of SIRT1 in muscle of adult mice would affect skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity...
May 22, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543723/neuromuscular-junctions-nmjs-ultrastructural-analysis-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-nachr-subunit-mrna-expression-in-offspring-subjected-to-protein-restriction-throughout-pregnancy
#19
Paula Aiello Tomé de Souza Castro, Ludimila Canuto Faccioni, Patrícia Aline Boer, Robson Francisco Carvalho, Selma Maria Michelin Matheus, Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva
Protein restriction during gestation can alter the skeletal muscle phenotype of offspring; however, little is known with regard to whether this also affects the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), as muscle phenotype maintenance depends upon NMJ functional integrity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a low protein (6%) intake by dams throughout gestation on male offspring NMJ morphology and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α1, γ and ε subunit expression in the soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543604/muscle-growth-to-infinity-and-beyond
#20
REVIEW
Brittany R Counts, Samuel L Buckner, J Grant Mouser, Scott J Dankel, Matthew B Jessee, Kevin T Mattocks, Jeremy P Loenneke
Strength increases following training are thought to be influenced first by neural adaptions, and second by large contributions from muscle growth. This is largely based on the idea that muscle growth is a slow process and a plateau in muscle growth would substantially hinder long term increases in strength. Our purpose was to review the literature to better determine the time course of skeletal muscle growth in the upper and lower body, and to determine if and when muscle growth plateaus. Studies were included if they had at least three muscle size time points, participants ≥ 18 years old, and used a resistance training protocol...
May 23, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
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