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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728382/effects-of-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-formula-and-its-extraction-on-muscle-fiber-characteristics-in-finishing-pigs-porcine-cell-proliferation-and-isoforms-of-myosin-heavy-chain-gene-expression-in-myocytes
#1
Qin Ping Yu, Ding Yuan Feng, Xiao Jun He, Fan Wu, Min Hao Xia, Tao Dong, Yi Hua Liu, Hui Ze Tan, Shi Geng Zou, Tao Zheng, Xian Hua Ou, Jian Jun Zou
Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine formula (TCMF) on muscle fiber characteristics in finishing pigs and the effects of the formula's extract (distilled water, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extraction) on porcine cell proliferation and isoforms of MyHC gene expression in myocytes. Methods: XThe psoas major muscle was obtained from pigs at the end of the experiment. Muscle fiber characteristics in the psoas major muscle were analyzed using myosin ATPase staining...
June 26, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727929/na-h-exchanger-and-proton-channel-in-heart-failure-associated-with-becker-and-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#2
Ghassan Bkaily, Danielle Jacques
Cardiomyopathy is found in patients with Duchenne (DMD) and Becker (BMD) muscular dystrophies which are linked muscle diseases caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Dystrophin defects are not limited to DMD but are also present in mild BMD. The hereditary cardiomyopathic hamster of the UM-X7.1 strain is a particular experimental model of heart failure (HF) leading to early death in muscular dystrophy (dystrophin deficiency and sarcoglycan mutation) and heart disease (δ-sarcoglycan deficiency and dystrophin mutation) in human DMD...
July 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727777/8-oxoguanine-dna-glycosylase-ogg1-deficiency-elicits-coordinated-changes-in-lipid-and-mitochondrial-metabolism-in-muscle
#3
Vladimir Vartanian, Jana Tumova, Pawel Dobrzyn, Agnieszka Dobrzyn, Yusaku Nakabeppu, R Stephen Lloyd, Harini Sampath
Oxidative stress resulting from endogenous and exogenous sources causes damage to cellular components, including genomic and mitochondrial DNA. Oxidative DNA damage is primarily repaired via the base excision repair pathway that is initiated by DNA glycosylases. 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) recognizes and cleaves oxidized and ring-fragmented purines, including 8-oxoguanine, the most commonly formed oxidative DNA lesion. Mice lacking the OGG1 gene product are prone to multiple features of the metabolic syndrome, including high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727070/short-term-heat-stress-causes-altered-intracellular-signaling-in-oxidative-skeletal-muscle
#4
S Ganesan, C M Summers, S C Pearce, N K Gabler, R J Valentine, L H Baumgard, R P Rhoads, J T Selsby
Heat stress (HS) causes morbidities and mortalities, in part by inducing organ-specific injury and dysfunction. Further, HS markedly reduces farm animal productivity, and this is especially true for lean tissue accretion. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which short-term HS caused muscle dysfunction in skeletal muscle. We have previously found increased free radical injury in skeletal muscle following 24 h of HS. Thus, we hypothesized that HS would lead to apoptosis, autophagy, and decreased mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727019/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-dedifferentiated-fat-cells-potential-and-perspectives-for-their-use-in-clinical-and-animal-science-purpose
#5
M S Duarte, R Bueno, W Silva, C F Campos, M P Gionbelli, S E F Guimarães, F F Silva, P S Lopes, G J Hausman, M V Dodson
An increasing body of evidences has demonstrated the ability of the mature adipocyte to dedifferentiate into a population of proliferative-competent cells known as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. As early as the 1970s, in vitro studies showed that DFAT cells may be obtained by ceiling culture, which takes advantage of the buoyancy property of lipid-filled cells. It was documented that DFAT cells may acquire a phenotype similar to mesenchymal stem cells and yet may differentiate into multiple cell lineages, such as skeletal and smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726981/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-factors-influencing-bovine-intramuscular-adipose-tissue-development-and-cellularity
#6
E Albrecht, L Schering, Y Liu, K Komolka, C Kühn, K Wimmers, T Gotoh, S Maak
Appearance, distribution, and amount of intramuscular fat (IMF), often referred to as marbling, are highly variable and depend on environmental and genetic factors. On the molecular level, the concerted action of several drivers, including hormones, receptors, transcription factors, etc., determines where clusters of adipocytes arise. Therefore, the aim of future studies remains to identify such factors as biological markers of IMF to increase the ability to identify animals that deposit IMF early in age to increase efficiency of high-quality meat production...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726959/association-of-cultured-myotubes-and-fasting-plasma-metabolite-profiles-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetes-subjects
#7
Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar, Mohamad Roji Sarmidi
Accumulating evidence implicates mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle as the root cause for the greatest hallmarks of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the identification of specific metabolite-based markers linked to mitochondrial dysfunction in T2D has not been adequately addressed. Therefore, we sought to identify the markers-based metabolomics for mitochondrial dysfunction associated with T2D. First, a cellular disease model was established using human myotubes treated with antimycin A, an oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor...
July 20, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726633/bmal1-function-in-skeletal-muscle-regulates-sleep
#8
J Christopher Ehlen, Allison J Brager, Julie Baggs, Lennisha Pinckney, Cloe L Gray, Jason P DeBruyne, Karyn A Esser, Joseph S Takahashi, Ketema N Paul
Sleep loss can severely impair the ability to perform, yet the ability to recover from sleep loss is not well understood. Sleep regulatory processes are assumed to lie exclusively within the brain mainly due to the strong behavioral manifestations of sleep. Whole-body knockout of the circadian clock gene Bmal1 in mice affects several aspects of sleep, however, the cells/tissues responsible are unknown. We found that restoring Bmal1 expression in the brains of Bmal1-knockout mice did not rescue Bmal1-dependent sleep phenotypes...
July 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726081/psoas-muscle-volume-as-a-predictor-of-peripheral-neurotoxicity-induced-by-primary-chemotherapy-in-ovarian-cancers
#9
Tomoyuki Yoshikawa, Masashi Takano, Morikazu Miyamoto, Isao Yajima, Yukihiro Shimizu, Yusuke Aizawa, Yuki Suguchi, Miki Moriiwa, Tadashi Aoyama, Hiroaki Soyama, Tomoko Goto, Junko Hirata, Ayako Suzuki, Hidenori Sasa, Isao Nagaoka, Hitoshi Tsuda, Kenichi Furuya
PURPOSE: Low skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) has been reported to have an influence on survival and toxicities of chemotherapy in several solid tumors. The impact of sarcopenia on the treatment of ovarian cancers has not been determined. The present study aimed to evaluate correlation between sarcopenia and toxicities of chemotherapy in ovarian cancers. METHODS: Medical charts of the ovarian cancer patients that received chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin at our hospital between 2010 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
July 19, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726035/evaluation-of-physical-activity-in-sarcopenic-conditions-of-kidney-transplantation-recipients
#10
Masaaki Yanishi, Hiroyasu Tsukaguchi, Yutaka Kimura, Yuya Koito, Kenji Yoshida, Maiko Seo, Eri Jino, Motohiko Sugi, Hidefumi Kinoshita, Tadashi Matsuda
INTRODUCTION: Sarcopenia is an involuntary decline in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function that normally proceed with aging but may develop faster under some chronic disease conditions. In this study, we compared the physical activity between sarcopenia and non-sarcopenia subgroups in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: Fifty-eight recipients (42 males and 16 females) were enrolled in this study. Mean age of the recipients was 46.6 ± 12.7 years. Mean duration of dialysis was 2...
July 19, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725675/comparisons-of-elisa-and-western-blot-assays-for-detection-of-autophagy-flux
#11
Sung-Hee Oh, Yong-Bok Choi, June-Hyun Kim, Conrad C Weihl, Jeong-Sun Ju
We analyzed autophagy/mitophagy flux in vitro (C2C12 myotubes) and in vivo (mouse skeletal muscle) following the treatments of autophagy inducers (starvation, rapamycin) and a mitophagy inducer (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, CCCP) using two immunodetection methods, ELISA and Western blotting, and compared their working range, accuracy, and reliability. The ELISAs showed a broader working range than that of the LC3 Western blots (Table 1). Table 2 showed that data value distribution was tighter and the average standard error from the ELISA was much smaller than those of the Western blot, directly relating to the accuracy of the assay...
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725668/data-on-myod-reduction-by-autophagy-in-c2c12-cells
#12
Yeong-Min Yoo, Yung Chul Park
Autophagy is a highly regulated physiologic mechanism in which cells maintain homeostasis by degrading excessive or unnecessary proteins and damaged or aged organelles through the lysosomal machinery (Yorimitsu and Klionsky, 2005) [1]. MyoD is basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that regulate myoblast proliferation and myogenic differentiation. MyoD is expressed in adult skeletal muscle (Megeney et al., 1996) [2] and adult fibers (Brack et al., 2005) [3]. MyoD is mainly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (Floyd et al...
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725215/prolyl-hydroxylase-domain-2-inhibition-improves-skeletal-muscle-regeneration-in-a-male-murine-model-of-obesity
#13
Indranil Sinha, Dharaniya Sakthivel, Benjamin A Olenchock, Carla R Kruse, Jeremy Williams, David E Varon, Jessica D Smith, Arin L Madenci, Kristo Nuutila, Amy J Wagers
Obesity leads to a loss of muscle mass and impaired muscle regeneration. In obese individuals, pathologically elevated levels of prolyl hydroxylase domain enzyme 2 (PHD2) limit skeletal muscle hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Loss of local VEGF may further impair skeletal muscle regeneration. We hypothesized that PHD2 inhibition would restore vigorous muscle regeneration in a murine model of obesity. Adult (22-week-old) male mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), with 60% of calories derived from fat, or a regular diet (RD), with 10% of calories derived from fat, for 16 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725197/skeletal-muscle-remodeling-in-response-to-eccentric-vs-concentric-loading-morphological-molecular-and-metabolic-adaptations
#14
REVIEW
Martino V Franchi, Neil D Reeves, Marco V Narici
Skeletal muscle contracts either by shortening or lengthening (concentrically or eccentrically, respectively); however, the two contractions substantially differ from one another in terms of mechanisms of force generation, maximum force production and energy cost. It is generally known that eccentric actions generate greater force than isometric and concentric contractions and at a lower metabolic cost. Hence, by virtue of the greater mechanical loading involved in active lengthening, eccentric resistance training (ECC RT) is assumed to produce greater hypertrophy than concentric resistance training (CON RT)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724990/large-meta-analysis-of-genome-wide-association-studies-identifies-five-loci-for-lean-body-mass
#15
M Carola Zillikens, Serkalem Demissie, Yi-Hsiang Hsu, Laura M Yerges-Armstrong, Wen-Chi Chou, Lisette Stolk, Gregory Livshits, Linda Broer, Toby Johnson, Daniel L Koller, Zoltán Kutalik, Jian'an Luan, Ida Malkin, Janina S Ried, Albert V Smith, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Liesbeth Vandenput, Jing Hua Zhao, Weihua Zhang, Ali Aghdassi, Kristina Åkesson, Najaf Amin, Leslie J Baier, Inês Barroso, David A Bennett, Lars Bertram, Rainer Biffar, Murielle Bochud, Michael Boehnke, Ingrid B Borecki, Aron S Buchman, Liisa Byberg, Harry Campbell, Natalia Campos Obanda, Jane A Cauley, Peggy M Cawthon, Henna Cederberg, Zhao Chen, Nam H Cho, Hyung Jin Choi, Melina Claussnitzer, Francis Collins, Steven R Cummings, Philip L De Jager, Ilja Demuth, Rosalie A M Dhonukshe-Rutten, Luda Diatchenko, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Anke W Enneman, Mike Erdos, Johan G Eriksson, Joel Eriksson, Karol Estrada, Daniel S Evans, Mary F Feitosa, Mao Fu, Melissa Garcia, Christian Gieger, Thomas Girke, Nicole L Glazer, Harald Grallert, Jagvir Grewal, Bok-Ghee Han, Robert L Hanson, Caroline Hayward, Albert Hofman, Eric P Hoffman, Georg Homuth, Wen-Chi Hsueh, Monica J Hubal, Alan Hubbard, Kim M Huffman, Lise B Husted, Thomas Illig, Erik Ingelsson, Till Ittermann, John-Olov Jansson, Joanne M Jordan, Antti Jula, Magnus Karlsson, Kay-Tee Khaw, Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, Norman Klopp, Jacqueline S L Kloth, Heikki A Koistinen, William E Kraus, Stephen Kritchevsky, Teemu Kuulasmaa, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso, Jari Lahti, Thomas Lang, Bente L Langdahl, Lenore J Launer, Jong-Young Lee, Markus M Lerch, Joshua R Lewis, Lars Lind, Cecilia Lindgren, Yongmei Liu, Tian Liu, Youfang Liu, Östen Ljunggren, Mattias Lorentzon, Robert N Luben, William Maixner, Fiona E McGuigan, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Thomas Meitinger, Håkan Melhus, Dan Mellström, Simon Melov, Karl Michaëlsson, Braxton D Mitchell, Andrew P Morris, Leif Mosekilde, Anne Newman, Carrie M Nielson, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Ben A Oostra, Eric S Orwoll, Aarno Palotie, Stephan Parker, Munro Peacock, Markus Perola, Annette Peters, Ozren Polasek, Richard L Prince, Katri Räikkönen, Stuart H Ralston, Samuli Ripatti, John A Robbins, Jerome I Rotter, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Suzanne Satterfield, Eric E Schadt, Sabine Schipf, Laura Scott, Joban Sehmi, Jian Shen, Chan Soo Shin, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Shad Smith, Nicole Soranzo, Alena Stančáková, Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elizabeth A Streeten, Unnur Styrkarsdottir, Karin M A Swart, Sian-Tsung Tan, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Patricia Thompson, Cynthia A Thomson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Emmi Tikkanen, Gregory J Tranah, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Natasja M van Schoor, Arjun Verma, Peter Vollenweider, Henry Völzke, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Mark Walker, Michael N Weedon, Ryan Welch, H-Erich Wichman, Elisabeth Widen, Frances M K Williams, James F Wilson, Nicole C Wright, Weijia Xie, Lei Yu, Yanhua Zhou, John C Chambers, Angela Döring, Cornelia M van Duijn, Michael J Econs, Vilmundur Gudnason, Jaspal S Kooner, Bruce M Psaty, Timothy D Spector, Kari Stefansson, Fernando Rivadeneira, André G Uitterlinden, Nicholas J Wareham, Vicky Ossowski, Dawn Waterworth, Ruth J F Loos, David Karasik, Tamara B Harris, Claes Ohlsson, Douglas P Kiel
Lean body mass, consisting mostly of skeletal muscle, is important for healthy aging. We performed a genome-wide association study for whole body (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) and appendicular (arms and legs) lean body mass (n = 28,330) measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, height, and fat mass. Twenty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with lean body mass either genome wide (p < 5 × 10(-8)) or suggestively genome wide (p < 2...
July 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724966/acetylation-induced-tdp-43-pathology-is-suppressed-by-an-hsf1-dependent-chaperone-program
#16
Ping Wang, Connor M Wander, Chao-Xing Yuan, Michael S Bereman, Todd J Cohen
TDP-43 pathology marks a spectrum of multisystem proteinopathies including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and sporadic inclusion body myositis. Surprisingly, it has been challenging to recapitulate this pathology, highlighting an incomplete understanding of TDP-43 regulatory mechanisms. Here we provide evidence supporting TDP-43 acetylation as a trigger for disease pathology. Using cultured cells and mouse skeletal muscle, we show that TDP-43 acetylation-mimics promote TDP-43 phosphorylation and ubiquitination, perturb mitochondria, and initiate degenerative inflammatory responses that resemble sporadic inclusion body myositis pathology...
July 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724854/improvement-of-pulmonary-function-after-comprehensive-obesity-rehabilitation-program-in-obese-patients
#17
Tamao Takahashi, Satoru Ebihara, Masahiro Kohzuki
Obesity is a major risk factor of cardiovascular, osteoarthritis, metabolic and pulmonary disorders, and exercise is an efficient method for treating obesity. However, obese patients often complain of dyspnea on exertion, which makes it difficult to continue exercise program. Obesity is also known to have an adverse effect on pulmonary function. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a comprehensive obesity rehabilitation (COR) program on pulmonary function in Japanese patients with morbid obesity...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724748/depressed-synaptic-transmission-and-reduced-vesicle-release-sites-in-huntington-s-disease-neuromuscular-junctions
#18
Ahmad Khedraki, Eric J Reed, Shannon H Romer, Qingbo Wang, William Romine, Mark M Rich, Robert J Talmadge, Andrew A Voss
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive and fatal degenerative disorder that results in debilitating cognitive and motor dysfunction. Most HD studies have focused on degeneration of the central nervous system. We previously discovered that skeletal muscle from transgenic R6/2 HD mice is hyperexcitable due to decreased chloride and potassium conductances. The progressive and early onset of these defects suggest a primary myopathy in HD. In this study, we examined the relationship between neuromuscular transmission and skeletal muscle hyperexcitability...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724742/the-myokine-irisin-is-released-in-response-to-saturated-fatty-acids-and-promotes-pancreatic-beta-cell-survival-and-insulin-secretion
#19
Annalisa Natalicchio, Nicola Marrano, Giuseppina Biondi, Rosaria Spagnuolo, Rossella Labarbuta, Immacolata Porreca, Angelo Cignarelli, Marco Bugliani, Piero Marchetti, Sebastio Perrini, Luigi Laviola, Francesco Giorgino
This study explored the role of irisin as a new pancreatic beta-cell secretagogue and survival factor and its potential role in the communication between skeletal muscle and pancreatic beta-cells under lipotoxic conditions. Recombinant irisin stimulated insulin biosynthesis and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in a PKA-dependent manner, and prevented saturated fatty acid-induced apoptosis in human and rat pancreatic beta-cells, as well as in human and murine pancreatic islets, via AKT/BCL2 signaling...
July 19, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724548/bradykinin-does-not-acutely-sensitize-the-reflex-pressor-response-during-hindlimb-skeletal-muscle-stretch-in-decerebrate-rats
#20
Korynne S Rollins, Joshua R Smith, Peter J Esau, Evan A Kempf, Tyler D Hopkins, Steven W Copp
Hindlimb skeletal muscle stretch (i.e., selective activation of the muscle mechanoreflex) in decerebrate rats evokes reflex increases in blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity. Bradykinin has been found to sensitize mechano-gated channels through a bradykinin B2 receptor-dependent mechanism. Moreover, bradykinin B2 receptor expression on sensory neurons is increased following chronic femoral artery ligation in the rat (a model of simulated peripheral artery disease). We tested the hypothesis that, in decerebrate, unanesthetized rats, the injection of bradykinin into the arterial supply of a hindlimb would acutely augment (i...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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