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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944867/succinate-promotes-skeletal-muscle-protein-synthesis-via-erk1-2-signaling-pathway
#1
Yexian Yuan, Yaqiong Xu, Jingren Xu, Bingqing Liang, Xingcai Cai, Canjun Zhu, Lina Wang, Songbo Wang, Xiaotong Zhu, Ping Gao, Xiuqi Wang, Yongliang Zhang, Qingyan Jiang, Gang Shu
It is well known that endurance training is effective to attenuate skeletal muscle atrophy. Succinate is a typical TCA metabolite, of which exercise could dramatically increase the content. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of succinate on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle, and try to delineate the underlying mechanism. The in vitro study revealed that succinate dose‑dependently increased protein synthesis in C2C12 myotube along with the enhancement of phosphorylation levels of AKT Serine/Threonine Kinase 1(Akt), mammalian target of rapamycin, S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, 4E binding protein 1 and forkhead box O (FoxO) 3a...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944847/geniposide-promotes-autophagy-to-inhibit-insulin-resistance-in-hepg2-cells-via-p62-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-glut%C3%A2-4
#2
Hongwei Jiang, Yujin Ma, Junqiang Yan, Jie Liu, Liping Li
Insulin resistance (IR) is known to be an important factor, which can lead to the onset of type 2 diabetes. Autophagy is a cellular process, which sequesters senescent or damaged proteins in autophagosomes for recycling of their products. Insulin and intracellular molecules, including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), are well‑known inhibitors of autophagy. In patients with type 2 diabetes, the expression levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT‑4) in skeletal muscles are significantly decreased, indicating decreased glucose‑processing ability...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944807/conjugated-fatty-acid-rich-oil-from-gynostrmma-pentaphyllum-seed-can-ameliorate-lipid-and-glucose-metabolism-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-mice
#3
Mingxing Zhang, Nan Du, Lu Wang, Xiaobing Wang, Yaping Xiao, Kun Zhang, Quanhong Liu, Pan Wang
Gynostrmma pentaphyllum seed oil (GPSO), extracted from G. pentaphyllum seeds, is rich in conjugated linolenic acid, which is a special fatty acid consisting of cis-9, trans-11, trans-13 isomers. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from insulin resistance, and is usually accompanied by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis (i.e., the metabolic syndrome, or syndrome X), and polycystic ovarian disease. This study aimed to investigate the effect of GPSO on T2DM hepatic lipid metabolism and the underlying mechanism involving level of protein expression...
September 25, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944404/differential-expression-of-genes-and-differentially-perturbed-pathways-associated-with-very-high-evening-fatigue-in-oncology-patients-receiving-chemotherapy
#4
Elena Flowers, Christine Miaskowski, Yvette Conley, Marilyn J Hammer, Jon Levine, Judy Mastick, Steven Paul, Fay Wright, Kord Kober
PURPOSE: Fatigue is the most common symptom associated with cancer and its treatment. Investigation of molecular mechanisms associated with fatigue in oncology patients may identify new therapeutic targets. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationships between gene expression and perturbations in biological pathways and evening fatigue severity in oncology patients who received chemotherapy (CTX). METHODS: The Lee Fatigue Scale (LFS) and latent class analysis were used to identify evening fatigue phenotypes...
September 25, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944303/resveratrol-and-exercise-to-treat-functional-limitations-in-late-life-design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Andrew S Layne, Lisa M Krehbiel, Robert T Mankowski, Stephen D Anton, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Marco Pahor, Bhanuprasad Sandesara, Samuel S Wu, Thomas W Buford
Skeletal muscle mitochondrial function declines with age and is a key factor in the maintenance of physical function among older adults. Research studies from animals and humans have consistently demonstrated that exercise improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in early and middle adulthood. However, mitochondrial adaptations to both acute and chronic exercise are attenuated in late life. Thus, there is an important need to identify adjuvant therapies capable of augmenting mitochondrial adaptations to exercise (e...
June 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944268/shivering-thermogenesis-in-humans-origin-contribution-and-metabolic-requirement
#6
REVIEW
François Haman, Denis P Blondin
As endotherms, humans exposed to a compensable cold environment rely on an increase in thermogenic rate to counteract heat lost to the environment, thereby maintaining a stable core temperature. This review focuses primarily on the most important contributor of heat production in cold-exposed adult humans, shivering skeletal muscles. Specifically, it presents current understanding on (1) the origins of shivering, (2) the contribution of shivering to total heat production and (3) the metabolic requirements of shivering...
2017: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943472/7-nitroindazol-loaded-nanoemulsions-preparation-characterization-and-its-improved-inhibitory-effect-on-nitric-oxide-synthase-1
#7
Clarissa Germano Barp, Cassiana Mendes, Elenara Lemos-Senna, Jamil Assreuy
Nitric oxide (NO) participates in several physiological processes such as maintenance of blood pressure, host defense, neurotransmission, inhibition of platelet aggregation and learning and memory. NO is also involved in several diseases or dysfunctions in the cardiovascular, central nervous and musculoskeletal systems. NO also has been shown to be a major player in sepsis. NOS-1-derived NO has been shown to be a relevant species in physiology but also is an important element in pathology. There exist some NOS-1 inhibitors and among of them, 7-nitroindazole has been used for its in vivo selectivity...
September 21, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943449/inactivation-of-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-gsk-3%C3%AE-enhances-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-metabolism
#8
W F Theeuwes, H R Gosker, R C J Langen, K J P Verhees, N A M Pansters, A M W J Schols, A H V Remels
BACKGROUND: Aberrant skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative metabolism is a debilitating feature of chronic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic heart failure. Evidence in non-muscle cells suggests that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) represses mitochondrial biogenesis and inhibits PPAR-γ co-activator 1 (PGC-1), a master regulator of cellular oxidative metabolism. The role of GSK-3β in the regulation of skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism is unknown...
September 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943275/mifepristone-enhances-insulin-stimulated-akt-phosphorylation-and-glucose-uptake-in-skeletal-muscle-cells
#9
Izela Bernal-Sore, Mario Navarro-Marquez, César Osorio-Fuentealba, Francisco Díaz-Castro, Andrea Del Campo, Camila Donoso-Barraza, Omar Porras, Sergio Lavandero, Rodrigo Troncoso
Mifepristone is the only FDA-approved drug for glycaemia control in patients with Cushing's syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Mifepristone also has beneficial effects in animal models of diabetes and patients with antipsychotic treatment-induced obesity. However, the mechanisms through which Mifepristone produces its beneficial effects are not completely elucidated. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of mifepristone on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake on a model of L6 rat-derived skeletal muscle cells...
September 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943254/sox7-is-required-for-muscle-satellite-cell-development-and-maintenance
#10
Rashida F Rajgara, Neena Lala-Tabbert, François Marchildon, Émilie Lamarche, Jennifer K MacDonald, Daryl A Scott, Alexandre Blais, Ilona S Skerjanc, Nadine Wiper-Bergeron
Satellite cells are skeletal-muscle-specific stem cells that are activated by injury to proliferate, differentiate, and fuse to enable repair. SOX7, a member of the SRY-related HMG-box family of transcription factors is expressed in quiescent satellite cells. To elucidate SOX7 function in skeletal muscle, we knocked down Sox7 expression in embryonic stem cells and primary myoblasts and generated a conditional knockout mouse in which Sox7 is excised in PAX3(+) cells. Loss of Sox7 in embryonic stem cells reduced Pax3 and Pax7 expression...
September 18, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942197/integrated-metabolic-models-for-xenobiotic-induced-mitochondrial-toxicity-in-skeletal-muscle
#11
William Dott, Jayne Wright, Kelvin Cain, Pratibha Mistry, Karl E Herbert
There is a need for robust in vitro models to sensitively capture skeletal muscle adverse toxicities early in the research and development of novel xenobiotics. To this end, an in vitro rat skeletal muscle model (L6) was used to study the translation of transcriptomics data generated from an in vivo rat model. Novel sulfonyl isoxazoline herbicides were associated with skeletal muscle toxicity in an in vivo rat model. Gene expression pathway analysis on skeletal muscle tissues taken from in vivo repeat dose studies identified enriched pathways associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, energy metabolism, protein regulation and cell cycle...
September 18, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942144/microgravity-influences-maintenance-of-the-human-muscle-stem-progenitor-cell-pool
#12
Tohru Hosoyama, Shunji Ichida, Masatsugu Kanno, Reiichi Ishihara, Toshikatsu Hatashima, Koji Ueno, Kimikazu Hamano
Microgravity induces skeletal muscle atrophy; however, the underlying mechanism is not clarified. In particular, the influence of microgravity on human skeletal muscle stem/progenitor cells (SMPCs) is not well understood. In this study, we used induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human SMPCs to investigate the effect of microgravity on maintenance of the stem/progenitor cell pool. Human SMPCs were induced by free-floating spherical aggregation culture, and derivatized-SMPC spheres were maintained in a microgravity condition (10(-3) G) for 2 weeks using a clinostat rotation system...
September 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941526/pediatric-myasthenia-gravis
#13
Jason H Peragallo
Myasthenia gravis is a disorder of neuromuscular transmission that leads to fatigue of skeletal muscles and fluctuating weakness. Myasthenia that affects children can be classified into the following 3 forms: transient neonatal myasthenia, congenital myasthenic syndromes, and juvenile myasthenia gravis (JMG). JMG is an autoimmune disorder that has a tendency to affect the extraocular muscles, but can also affect all skeletal muscles leading to generalized weakness and fatigability. Respiratory muscles may be involved leading to respiratory failure requiring ventilator support...
May 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941236/using-plin-proteins-to-explain-the-athlete-s-paradox
#14
Logan K Townsend, Greg L McKie
Modern humans over-consume calories so much that adipose tissue can no longer keep up with storage requirements, forcing other tissues, like skeletal muscle, to compensate by storing more lipids (IMTG). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941175/myogenic-progenitor-cells-exhibit-ifn-type-i-driven-pro-angiogenic-properties-and-molecular-signature-during-juvenile-dermatomyositis
#15
Cyril Gitiaux, Claire Latroche, Michèle Weiss-Gayet, Mathieu P Rodero, Darragh Duffy, Brigitte Bader Meunier, Christophe Glorion, Patrick Nusbaum, Christine Bodemer, Guy Mouchiroud, Jamel Chelly, Stéphane Germain, Isabelle Desguerre, Bénédicte Chazaud
OBJECTIVE: Juvenile DermatoMyositis (JDM) is an inflammatory pediatric myopathy characterized by focal capillary loss in muscle, followed by a progressive recovery upon adequate immunomodulating treatments, although some patients remain refractory to treatments. While the underlying mechanism of capillary depletion remains uncertain, recent studies have identified an upregulation of type I Interferon (IFN-I) expression specific to JDM. Given that myogenic precursor cells (MPCs) exert pro-angiogenic activity during normal skeletal muscle regeneration, we hypothesized that they may also modulate vascular remodeling /angiogenesis during JDM...
September 21, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941132/infectious-dose-dependent-accumulation-of-live-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-virus-in-chicken-skeletal-muscle-implications-for-public-health
#16
G Vasudevan, P R Vanamayya, S Nagarajan, K Rajukumar, S Suba, G Venketash, C Tosh, R Sood, R H Nissly, S V Kuchipudi
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of H5N1 subtype are a major global threat to poultry and public health. Export of poultry products, such as chicken and duck meat, is a known source for the cross-boundary spread of HPAI H5N1 viruses. Humans get infected with HPAI H5N1 viruses either by close contact with infected poultry or through consumption of fresh/undercooked poultry meat. Skeletal muscle is the largest soft tissue in chicken that has been shown to contain virus during systemic HPAIV infection and supports productive virus infection...
September 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940924/main-artifacts-in-electrocardiography
#17
REVIEW
Andrés Ricardo Pérez-Riera, Raimundo Barbosa-Barros, Rodrigo Daminello-Raimundo, Luiz Carlos de Abreu
Electrocardiographic artifacts are defined as electrocardiographic alterations, not related to cardiac electrical activity. As a result of artifacts, the components of the electrocardiogram (ECG) such as the baseline and waves can be distorted. Motion artifacts are due to shaking with rhythmic movement. Examples of motion artifacts include tremors with no evident cause, Parkinson's disease, cerebellar or intention tremor, anxiety, hyperthyroidism, multiple sclerosis, and drugs such as amphetamines, xanthines, lithium, benzodiazepines, or shivering (due to hypothermia, fever (rigor due to shaking), cardiopulmonary resuscitation by chest compression (oscillations of great amplitude) and patients who move their limbs during the test, causing sudden irregularities in the ECG baseline that may resemble premature contractions or interfere with ECG wave shapes, or other supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias...
September 20, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940557/skeletal-muscle-protein-accretion-rates-and-hindlimb-growth-are-reduced-in-late-gestation-intrauterine-growth-restricted-fetal-sheep
#18
Paul J Rozance, Laura Zastoupil, Stephanie R Wesolowski, David A Goldstrohm, Brittany Strahan, Melanie Cree-Green, Melinda Sheffield-Moore, Giacomo Meschia, William W Hay, Randall B Wilkening, Laura D Brown
Reduced skeletal muscle mass in the IUGR fetus persists into adulthood and may contribute to increased metabolic disease risk. To determine how placental insufficiency with reduced oxygen and nutrient supply to the fetus affects hindlimb blood flow, substrate uptake, and protein accretion rates in skeletal muscle, late gestation CON (n = 8) and IUGR (n = 13) fetal sheep were catheterized with aortic and femoral catheters and a flow transducer around the external iliac artery. Muscle protein kinetic rates were measured using isotopic tracers...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940424/n1366s-mutation-of-human-skeletal-muscle-sodium-channel-causes-paramyotonia-congenita
#19
Qing Ke, Jia Ye, Siyang Tang, Jin Wang, Benyan Luo, Fang Ji, Xu Zhang, Ye Yu, Xiaoyang Cheng, Yuezhou Li
Paramyotonia congenita is an autosomal dominant skeletal muscle channelopathy caused by missense mutations in SCN4A, the gene encoding the α subunit of the human skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.4. Here, we report a three-generation family in which six members present clinical symptoms of paramyotonia congenita characterized by a marked worsening of myotonia by cold and by the presence of clear episodes of paralysis. We identified a novel mutation in SCN4A (Asn-1366-Ser, N1366S) in all patients in the family but not in healthy relatives or in 500 normal control subjects...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940338/inpp5k-variant-causes-autosomal-recessive-congenital-cataract-in-a-pakistani-family
#20
S Yousaf, S A Sheikh, S Riazuddin, A M Waryah, Z M Ahmed
Congenital cataract (CC) is clinically and genetically highly heterogeneous. Here, we enrolled a consanguineous kindred (LUCC15) from Pakistan, with three affected individuals suffering with CC. Exome sequencing revealed a transition mutation [c.149T>C; p.(Ile50Thr)] in INPP5K. Inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase K, encoded by INPP5K, is involved in dephosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 4,5-bisphosphate, and PtdIns 3,4,5-trisphosphate. Recently, pathogenic variants in INPP5K have been reported in families with congenital muscular dystrophies, intellectual disability, and cataract...
September 22, 2017: Clinical Genetics
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