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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821157/in-situ-formation-of-injectable-and-porous-heparin-based-hydrogel
#1
Meeichyn Goh, Younghee Kim, Kihak Gwon, Kiyoon Min, YoungMin Hwang, Giyoong Tae
In this study, by combining photopolymerization and particle leaching technique, in situ formation of porous hydrogel with pore interconnectivity was demonstrated in vivo upon subcutaneous injection into the back of mice as well as in vitro. A precursor solution containing thiolated heparin, PEG-diacrylate (PEG-DA), and gelatin microparticles (GMPs) as a fast dissolving porogen were photopolymerized by visible-light-initiated thiol-ene reaction with eosin Y (EY) as a photo initiator and triethanolamine (TEOA) as a co-initiator...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821133/single-helix-in-v-type-starch-carrier-determines-the-encapsulation-capacity-of-ethylene
#2
Linfan Shi, Xiong Fu, Qiang Huang, Bin Zhang
V-type starch carriers with different single helix contents were prepared using alcoholic-alkaline treatment followed by ethanol precipitation. Ethylene gas was entrapped into V-type starch carriers using a solid encapsulation method. The morphological and structural properties of inclusion complexes (ICs) were characterized using scanning electron and light microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Raman spectroscopy. Aqueous ethanol treatment resulted in swelling and aggregation of starch granules, and B-type diffraction reflections were either reduced or completely lost with evolution of V-type pattern...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821132/the-effect-of-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-on-poly-pseudo-rotaxane-nanoparticles-self-assembled-by-protoporphyrin-modified-poly-ethylene-glycol-for-anticancer-drug-delivery
#3
Taotao Xu, Junhua Li, Jun Cao, Wenxia Gao, Li Li, Bin He
Poly(pseudo)rotaxane (PPR) nanoparticles was facilely prepared using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modified with protoporphyrin (PpIX) and α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) via host-guest interaction, the effect of α-CD number on the nanoparticle properties was investigated. The PEG with protoporphyrin (PEG-PpIX) end capping was synthesized via coupling reaction and the poly(pseudo)rotaxane nanoparticles with different amount of α-CD were fabricated by host-guest interaction between mPEG-PpIX and α-CDs. The final product was characterized by nuclear magnetic spectrum ((1)H NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS)...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821130/reaction-pattern-differences-impact-physical-properties-of-starches-derivatized-to-the-same-extent-in-a-model-cross-linking-system
#4
Jung Sun Hong, Sara V Gomand, Kerry C Huber, Jan A Delcour
This study investigated the physical properties of maize (MS) and wheat (WS) starches derivatized with 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl)aminofluorescein (model cross-linking system) to have the same overall fluorescence intensity on starch molecules, but reacted either more uniformly throughout granules (UD) or more at granule surfaces (SD). Both MS and WS derivatives had lower swelling powers (SP) at 90°C than their respective native starches. The UD derivatives had lower SP (90°C) and greater retrogradation enthalpies than did SD derivatives, consistent with their lower peak and higher setback pasting viscosities...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821115/rheology-and-bioactivity-of-high-molecular-weight-dextrans-synthesised-by-lactic-acid-bacteria
#5
Kenza Zarour, Mª Goretti Llamas, Alicia Prieto, Patricia Rúas-Madiedo, María Teresa Dueñas, Pilar Fernández de Palencia, Rosa Aznar, Mebrouk Kihal, Paloma López
Dextrans synthesised by three Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains, isolated from mammalian milks, were studied and compared with dextrans produced by Lc. mesenteroides and Lactobacillus sakei strains isolated from meat products. Size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle laser light scattering detection analysis demonstrated that the dextrans have molecular masses between 1.74×10(8)Da and 4.41×10(8)Da. Rheological analysis of aqueous solutions of the polymer revealed that all had a pseudoplastic behaviour under shear conditions and a random, and flexible, coil structure...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821110/unraveling-the-reaction-mechanism-of-silver-ions-reduction-by-chitosan-from-so-far-neglected-spectroscopic-features
#6
Ana Patrícia Carapeto, Ana Maria Ferraria, Ana Maria Botelho do Rego
Metallic silver nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous solution using chitosan, as both reducing and stabilizing agent, and AgNO3 as silver precursor aiming the production of solid ultra-thin films. A systematic characterization of the resulting system as a function of the initial concentrations was performed. The combination of UV-vis absorption - and its quantitative analysis - with X-ray photoelectron spectra, light scattering measurements and atomic force microscopy allowed obtaining a rational picture of silver reduction mechanism through the identification of the nature of the formed reduced/oxidized species...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821107/relationship-between-multi-scale-structures-and-properties-of-photophobic-films-based-on-hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose-and-monosodium-phosphate
#7
Liang Zhang, Yan Zhao, Jian-Ya Qian, Shan Jiang, Jun Liu, Xiao-Long He
Photophobic (white) films were prepared with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and monosodium phosphate (NaH2PO4) to overcome the redox reaction induced by titanium dioxide photocatalysis of HPMC/TiO2 white film. What's more, HPMC/NaH2PO4 white film could overcome the drying temperature dependent property of white films based on HPMC and calcium salts. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, wide angel X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscope and texture analyzer were used to investigate the effect of NaH2PO4 on the short-range, supra-molecular structures and properties of HPMC film...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821092/the-effect-of-temperature-on-the-colligative-properties-of-food-grade-konjac-gum-in-water-solutions
#8
Joanna Kruk, Kacper Kaczmarczyk, Anna Ptaszek, Urszula Goik, Paweł Ptaszek
This research paper presents the results of tests on the colligative properties of konjac gum chains in water solutions. For this purpose, the measurements of osmotic pressure and intrinsic viscosity of aqueous solutions, in the function of konjac gum concentration and temperature were carried out. The applied methods allowed for the determination of the second osmotic virial coefficients B2, which raised with the increase of temperature. It indicate that increase of temperature causes higher affinity of polysaccharide's chains to water...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821041/regulation-of-structure-rheological-and-surface-properties-of-chitin-nanocrystal-dispersions
#9
M A Torlopov, I S Martakov, V I Mikhaylov, N V Tsvetkov, P V Krivoshapkin
The hydrosols of chitin nanocrystals (ChN) are promising as modifiers of properties, drug delivery systems, and media. The purpose of this work is to clarify the mechanisms for regulating processes of stability and structure formation occurring in the ChN hydrosols under the influence of varying ionic strength. ChN were isolated from the crab shell; ChN hydrosols are obtained with different concentrations of the dispersed phase. The structure and morphology of the particles was studied by atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821034/the-relationship-between-monosaccharide-composition-of-extracellular-polysaccharide-and-activities-of-related-enzymes-in-nostoc-flagelliforme-under-different-culture-conditions
#10
Pei-Pei Han, Shun-Yu Yao, Rong-Jun Guo, Shi-Gang Shen, Rong-Rong Yan, Zhi-Lei Tan, Shi-Ru Jia
The relationship between monosaccharide composition of Nostoc flagelliforme extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and activities of EPS synthesis enzymes under various carbon sources, nitrogen sources and light culture condition was investigated. Culture conditions showed significant influences on both monosaccharide composition and related enzyme activities. Under both carbon and nitrogen sources conditions, mannose mole percentage was increased with the increase of initial mole ratio of C/N and positively related to fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase activity, and glucuronic acid and galactose mole percentages were positively correlated with UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, while arabinose and rhamnose mole percentages were negatively associated with UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821033/novel-nitroaniline-cellulose-nanohybrids-nitro-radical-photo-release-and-its-antibacterial-action
#11
Prashant Chauhan, Ning Yan
In this study, carboxylated nanocrystalline cellulose is surface functionalized by a chromophoric nitro radical (NO) photodonor via covalent bonding. The resulting new photoactive nanohybrid material displays an effective photogeneration of NO radicals upon illumination by light. The release of NO radicals has been chemically detected by various spectroscopic techniques. The bactericidal activity of the novel nanohybrid is effectively demonstrated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria with light...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821011/the-photodynamic-action-of-pheophorbide-a-induces-cell-death-through-oxidative-stress-in-leishmania-amazonensis
#12
Nathielle Miranda, Hélito Volpato, Jean Henrique da Silva Rodrigues, Wilker Caetano, Tânia Ueda-Nakamura, Sueli de Oliveira Silva, Celso Vataru Nakamura
Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by hemoflagellate protozoa, affecting millions of people worldwide. The difficulties of treating patients with this parasitosis include the limited efficacy and many side effects of the currently available drugs. Therefore, the search for new compounds with leishmanicidal action is necessary. Photodynamic therapy has been studied in the medical field because of its selectivity, utilizing a combination of visible light, a photosensitizer compound, and singlet oxygen to reach the area of treatment...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820990/relative-importance-of-humic-and-fulvic-acid-on-ros-generation-dissolution-and-toxicity-of-sulfide-nanoparticles
#13
Enxiang Shang, Yang Li, Junfeng Niu, Yijing Zhou, Tianyu Wang, John Charles Crittenden
In this study, the effect of natural organic matter (NOM) composition (humic acid (HA) or fulvic acid (FA)) on dissolution, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and toxicity of sulfide nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated under UV irradiation. NOM acted as a UV filter or antioxidant, decreasing ROS (O2(-), OH, and (1)O2) generation by WS2 and MoS2 NPs. The higher light-absorbing fractions of HA in NP/HA mixtures and the faster reaction rate of HA with ROS resulted in higher inhibition effect of HA than FA on O2(-) and OH generation by WS2 and MoS2 NPs...
August 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820980/isotope-fractionation-in-phase-transfer-processes-under-thermodynamic-and-kinetic-control-implications-for-diffusive-fractionation-in-aqueous-solution
#14
Frank-Dieter Kopinke, Anett Georgi, Ulf Roland
Diffusive isotope fractionation of organic compounds in aqueous solution was investigated by means of liquid-liquid and liquid-gas partitioning experiments under kinetic control. The two-film model was used to describe phase-transfer kinetics. It assumes the diffusion of solutes across a stagnant water boundary layer as the rate-controlling step. For all investigated solutes (benzene-D0 and -D6, toluene-D0, -D5, and -D8, cyclohexane-D0 and -D12), there was no significant observable fractionation effect between nondeuterated and perdeuterated isotopologues, resulting in a ratio of diffusion coefficients Dlight: Dheavy=1...
August 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820922/a-self-assembling-peptide-gel-as-a-vitreous-substitute-a-rabbit-study
#15
Koji Uesugi, Hirokazu Sakaguchi, Yasutaka Hayashida, Ryuhei Hayashi, Koichi Baba, Yuya Suganuma, Hidenori Yokoi, Motokazu Tsujikawa, Kohji Nishida
Purpose: To evaluate a self-assembling peptide gel as a potential vitreous substitute. Methods: PanaceaGel SPG-178, a self-assembling peptide gel, was diluted with distilled water and a balanced salt solution to achieve a final peptide concentration of 0.1%. The gel's refractive index, visible light transmission rate, and rheologic properties were investigated. The gel's biocompatibility was evaluated by examining the cellular viability (live and dead staining) and proliferation rate (alamarBlue assay)...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820895/identification-of-leishmania-donovani-antigen-in-circulating-immune-complexes-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-subjects-for-diagnosis
#16
Fauzia Jamal, Pushkar Shivam, Sarita Kumari, Manish Kumar Singh, Abul Hasan Sardar, Pushpanjali, Selvasankar Murugesan, Shyam Narayan, Anil Kumar Gupta, Krishna Pandey, V N R Das, Vahab Ali, Sanjiva Bimal, Pradeep Das, Shubhankar K Singh
The unreliability of most of the existing antibody-based diagnostic kits to discriminate between active and treated VL cases, relapse situation and reinfection are a major hurdle in controlling the cases of Kala-azar in an endemic area. An antigen targeted diagnostic approaches can be an attractive strategy to overcome these problems. Hence, this study was focused on identifying the Leishmania antigens, lies in circulating immune complex (CICs), can be used for diagnostic as well as prognostic purposes. The present study was conducted on peripheral blood samples of 115 human subjects, based on isolation of CICs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820878/neurobiology-lighting-up-neurons
#17
Grant Miura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820739/metal-to-insulator-transition-induced-by-uv-illumination-in-a-single-sno-sub-2-sub-nanobelt
#18
Emilson Ribeiro Viana, Geraldo Mathias Ribeiro, Alfredo G de Oliveira, Juan Carlos Gonzalez Perez
An individual tin oxide (SnO<sub>2</sub>) nanobelt was connected in a back-gate field-effect transistor (FET) configuration and the conductivity of the nanobelt were measured at different temperatures from 400K to 4K, in darkness and under UV illumination. In darkness, the SnO<sub>2</sub> nanobelts show semiconductor behaviour for the whole temperature range measured. But when subject to UV illumination the photoinduced carriers was high enough that leads to a Metal-to-Insulator transition, near room temperature, at T<sub>MIT</sub> = 240 K...
August 18, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820597/deterministic-symmetry-breaking-of-plasmonic-nanostructures-enabled-by-dna-programmable-assembly
#19
Matthew R Jones, Kevin L Kohlstedt, Matthew N O'Brien, Jinsong Wu, George C Schatz, Chad A Mirkin
The physical properties of matter rely fundamentally on the symmetry of constituent building blocks. This is particularly true for structures that interact with light via the collective motion of their conduction electrons (i.e., plasmonic materials), where the observation of exotic optical effects, such as negative refraction and electromagnetically induced transparency, require the coupling of modes that are only present in systems with nontrivial broken symmetries. Lithography has been the predominant fabrication technique for constructing plasmonic metamaterials, as it can be used to form patterns of arbitrary complexity, including those with broken symmetry...
August 18, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820581/a-simple-approach-to-the-visible-light-photoactivation-of-molecular-metal-oxides
#20
Satomi Fujimoto, Jamie M Cameron, Rong-Jia Wei, Katharina Kastner, David Robinson, Victor Sans, Graham N Newton, Hiroki Oshio
This study explores a new method to maximize the visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance of organic-inorganic hybrid polyoxometalates (POMs). Experimental and theoretical investigations of a family of phosphonate-substituted POMs show that modification of grafted organic moieties can be used to tune the electronic structure and photoactivity of the metal oxide component. Unlike fully inorganic polyoxotungstates, these organic-inorganic hybrid species are responsive to visible light and function as photocatalysts (λ > 420 nm) in the decomposition of a model environmental pollutant...
August 18, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
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