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Alexandre Wojcinski, Andrew K Lawton, N Sumru Bayin, Zhimin Lao, Daniel N Stephen, Alexandra L Joyner
Regeneration of several organs involves adaptive reprogramming of progenitors, but the intrinsic capacity of the developing brain to replenish lost cells remains largely unknown. Here we found that the developing cerebellum has unappreciated progenitor plasticity, since it undergoes near full growth and functional recovery following acute depletion of granule cells, the most plentiful neuron population in the brain. We demonstrate that following postnatal ablation of granule cell progenitors, Nestin-expressing progenitors, specified during mid-embryogenesis to produce astroglia and interneurons, switch their fate and generate granule neurons in mice...
August 14, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
Changyong Liu, Xingxing Cheng, Bohan Li, Zhangwei Chen, Shengli Mi, Changshi Lao
LiFePO₄ (LFP) is a promising cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. In this study, low temperature direct writing (LTDW)-based 3D printing was used to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) LFP electrodes for the first time. LFP inks were deposited into a low temperature chamber and solidified to maintain the shape and mechanical integrity of the printed features. The printed LFP electrodes were then freeze-dried to remove the solvents so that highly-porous architectures in the electrodes were obtained. LFP inks capable of freezing at low temperature was developed by adding 1,4 dioxane as a freezing agent...
August 10, 2017: Materials
Weixin Liu, Sergei Golovatch, Thomas Wesener
Laos has large areas of primary forest with a largely unexplored fauna. This is evidenced by millipedes, class Diplopoda, with fewer than 60 species being recorded from the country. In the widespread Southeast Asian "Star Millipede" genus Eutrichodesmus Silvestri, 1910 (family Haplodesmidae), only two of 49 recorded species have been found in Laos. Four new species of Star Millipedes are here described from caves in Laos: Eutrichodesmus steineri Liu & Wesener, sp. n., Eutrichodesmus deporatus Liu & Wesener, sp...
2017: ZooKeys
Youthanavanh Vonghachack, Somphou Sayasone, Virak Khieu, Robert Bergquist, Govert J van Dam, Pytsje T Hoekstra, Paul L A M Corstjens, Beatrice Nickel, Hanspeter Marti, Jürg Utzinger, Sinuon Muth, Peter Odermatt
BACKGROUND: Given the restricted distribution of Schistosoma mekongi in one province in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and two provinces in Cambodia, together with progress of the national control programmes aimed at reducing morbidity and infection prevalence, the elimination of schistosomiasis mekongi seems feasible. However, sensitive diagnostic tools will be required to determine whether elimination has been achieved. We compared several standard and novel diagnostic tools in S...
August 10, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Heather A Enright, Miranda J S Falso, Michael A Malfatti, Victoria Lao, Edward A Kuhn, Nicholas Hum, Yilan Shi, Ana Paula Sales, Kurt W Haack, Kristen S Kulp, Bruce A Buchholz, Gabriela G Loots, Graham Bench, Kenneth W Turteltaub
Triclocarban (TCC) is among the top 10 most commonly detected wastewater contaminants in both concentration and frequency. Its presence in water, as well as its propensity to bioaccumulate, has raised numerous questions about potential endocrine and developmental effects. Here, we investigated whether exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of TCC could result in transfer from mother to offspring in CD-1 mice during gestation and lactation using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). 14C-TCC (100 nM) was administered to dams through drinking water up to gestation day 18, or from birth to post-natal day 10...
2017: PloS One
Liang Lim, Catherine J Streutker, Norman Marcon, Maria Cirocco, Alexandra Lao, Vladimir V Iakovlev, Ralph DaCosta, Brian C Wilson
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS : Accurate endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) remains a major clinical challenge. The current standard is to take multiple biopsies under endoscopic image guidance, but this leaves the majority of the tissue unsampled, leading to significant risk of missing dysplasia. Furthermore, determining whether there is submucosal invasion is essential for proper staging. Hence, there is a clinical need for a rapid in vivo wide-field imaging method to identify dysplasia in BE, with the capability of imaging beyond the mucosal layer...
August 2017: Endoscopy International Open
Chunhuan Lao, Richard Edlin, Paul Rouse, Charis Brown, Michael Holmes, Peter Gilling, Ross Lawrenson
BACKGROUND: Radical prostatectomy is the most common treatment for localised prostate cancer in New Zealand. Active surveillance was introduced to prevent overtreatment and reduce costs while preserving the option of radical prostatectomy. This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of active surveillance compared to watchful waiting and radical prostatectomy. METHODS: Markov models were constructed to estimate the life-time cost-effectiveness of active surveillance compared to watchful waiting and radical prostatectomy for low risk localised prostate cancer patients aged 45-70 years, using national datasets in New Zealand and published studies including the SPCG-4 study...
August 8, 2017: BMC Cancer
Andrew M Ellisdon, Claudia A Nold-Petry, Laura D'Andrea, Steven X Cho, Jason C Lao, Ina Rudloff, Devi Ngo, Camden Y Lo, Tatiana P Soares da Costa, Matthew A Perugini, Paul J Conroy, James C Whisstock, Marcel F Nold
Dysregulation of the inflammatory response underlies numerous diseases. Although most interleukin-1 family cytokines are proinflammatory, human interleukin-37 (IL-37) is a powerful, broad-spectrum inhibitor of inflammation and immunity. We determined the crystal structure of IL-37 to establish the anti-inflammatory mechanism of this key cytokine in view of developing IL-37-based therapies. We found that two β-trefoil fold IL-37 molecules form a head-to-head dimer that is stable in solution. IL-37 variants mutated to convert the cytokine into an obligate monomer were up to 13-fold more effective than the dimer in suppressing proinflammatory events both in primary human blood cells and in vivo in murine endotoxic shock...
February 10, 2017: Science Immunology
Ali Tarighatnia, Amirhossien Mohammadalian, Morteza Ghojazade, Leili Pourafkari, Alireza Farajollahi
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the operator and patient radiation exposure in standard projections during elective diagnostic coronary angiography procedures via transradial (TRA) versus transfemoral (TFA) approaches. METHODS: In this analytical cross-sectional study, a total of 202 consecutive patients who were candidates for diagnostic coronary angiography were randomized to undergo the procedure via TFA or TRA approaches (101 in each group). Patients with abnormal Allen test and history of coronary artery bypass surgery, valvular heart disease, and unsuccessful coronary angiography were excluded from the study...
August 2, 2017: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Akihiro Ohkado, Marvin Mercader, Takuji Date
BACKGROUND: It is of critical importance to improve and maintain the quality of chest radiography (CXR) to avoid faulty diagnosis of respiratory diseases. The study aims to determine the effectiveness of a training program in improving the quality of CXR among radiological technologists (RTs) in Laos. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted through on-site investigation of X-ray facilities, assessment of CXR films in Laos, both before and after a training course in November 2013...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Yury V Bykov, Sergei V Egorov, Anatoly G Eremeev, Vladislav V Kholoptsev, Ivan V Plotnikov, Kirill I Rybakov, Andrei A Sorokin
The results of a study of ultra-rapid (flash) sintering of oxide ceramic materials under microwave heating with high absorbed power per unit volume of material (10-500 W/cm³) are presented. Ceramic samples of various compositions-Al₂O₃; Y₂O₃; MgAl₂O₄; and Yb(LaO)₂O₃-were sintered using a 24 GHz gyrotron system to a density above 0.98-0.99 of the theoretical value in 0.5-5 min without isothermal hold. An analysis of the experimental data (microwave power; heating and cooling rates) along with microstructure characterization provided an insight into the mechanism of flash sintering...
August 11, 2016: Materials
Tomoyo Taniguchi, Kaiissar Md Mannoor, Daisuke Nonaka, Hiromu Toma, Changchun Li, Miwako Narita, Viengxay Vanisaveth, Shigeyuki Kano, Masuhiro Takahashi, Hisami Watanabe
Although expansions in γδ T cell populations are known to occur in the peripheral blood of patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum, the role of these cells in people with naturally acquired immunity against P. falciparum who live in malaria-endemic areas is poorly understood. We used a cross-sectional survey to investigate the role of peripheral blood γδ T cells in people living in Lao People's Democratic Republic, a malaria-endemic area. We found that the proportion of non-Vγ9 γδ T cells was higher in non-hospitalized uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients (UMPs) from this region...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ratmanee Chanabun, Khamla Inkavilay, Somsak Panha
Seven new species of semi-aquatic freshwater earthworms belonging to the genus Glyphidrilus Horst, 1889 are described from Thailand and Laos, Glyphidrilus nanensis Chanabun & Panha sp. n., G. satunensis Chanabun & Panha sp. n., G. chiangraiensis Chanabun & Panha sp. n., G. namphao Chanabun & Panha sp. n., G. sekongensis Chanabun & Panha sp. n., G. namdonensis Chanabun & Panha sp. n., and G. champasakensis Chanabun & Panha sp. n. The species are characterized by their external and internal morphological characteristics, as well as body sizes...
2017: ZooKeys
Pamela B Landsman-Blumberg, Nathaniel Katz, Kavita Gajria, Anna O D'Souza, Sham L Chaudhari, Paul P Yeung, Richard White
The study assessed 12-month chronic pain (CP)-related health care utilization and costs among chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) patients who initiated various long-term opioid treatments. Treatments included monotherapy with long-acting opioids (mono-LAOs), mono-therapy with short-acting opioids (mono-SAOs), both LAOs and SAOs (combination), and opioid therapy initiated with SAO or LAO and switched to the other class (switch). Using MarketScan(®) claims databases (2006-2012), we identified CNCP patients with ≥90 days opioid supply after pain diagnosis and continuous enrollment 12 months before pain diagnosis (baseline period) and 12 months after opioid start (post-index period)...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
Chun Zhou, Chang-Qing Jiang, Zhen Zong, Jia-Chen Lin, Li-Feng Lao
MicroRNA-146a-5p (miR-146a) functions as a tumor suppressor or oncogene involved in multiple biological processes. But, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which miR-146a contributes to osteosarcoma (OS) remain unclear. The correlation of miR-146a expression with clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of OS patients was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis. Cell growth in vitro and in vivo was assessed by MTT, cell colony formation and animal models. The target of miR-146a was identified by bioinformatics software and gene luciferase reporter...
July 19, 2017: Oncotarget
Garrett P League, Tania Y Estévez-Lao, Yan Yan, Valeria A Garcia-Lopez, Julián F Hillyer
BACKGROUND: The immune system of adult mosquitoes has received significant attention because of the ability of females to vector disease-causing pathogens while ingesting blood meals. However, few studies have focused on the immune system of larvae, which, we hypothesize, is highly robust due to the high density and diversity of microorganisms that larvae encounter in their aquatic environments and the strong selection pressures at work in the larval stage to ensure survival to reproductive maturity...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Andreas Kling, Katja Jantos, Helmut Mack, Wilfried Hornberger, Karla Drescher, Volker Nimmrich, Ana Relo, Karsten Wicke, Charles W Hutchins, Yanbin Lao, Kennan C Marsh, Achim Moeller
Calpain overactivation has been implicated in a variety of pathological disorders including ischemia/reperfusion injury, cataract formation, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer´s Disease (AD). Herein we describe our efforts leading to the identification of ketoamide-based 2-(3-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)nicotinamides as potent and reversible inhibitors of calpain with high selectivity versus related cysteine protease cathepsins, other proteases and receptors. Broad efficacy in a set of preclinical models relevant to AD suggests that inhibition of calpain represents an attractive approach with potential benefit for the treatment of AD...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
R Arouca, M B Silva Neto, C M Chaves, M Nagao, S Watauchi, I Tanaka, M ElMassalami
Layered BiS [Formula: see text] -based series, such as LaO [Formula: see text] F [Formula: see text] BiS [Formula: see text] and Sr [Formula: see text] La [Formula: see text] FBiS [Formula: see text] , offer ideal examples for studying normal and superconducting phase diagram of a solid solution that evolves from a nonmagnetic band-insulator parent. We constructed typical [Formula: see text] phase diagrams of these systems based on events occurring in thermal evolution of their electrical resistivity, [Formula: see text]...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Kejing Lao, Jie Sun, Chong Wang, Ying Wang, Qidong You, Hong Xiao, Hua Xiang
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of death in men. Recently, some researches have showed that 5α-reductase inhibitors were beneficial in PCa treatment as well. In this study, a series of novel 3-oxo-4-oxa-5α-androst-17β-amide derivatives have been designed and synthesized in a more simple and convenient method. Most of the synthesized compounds displayed good 5α-reductase inhibitory activities and androgen receptor binding affinities. Their anti-proliferation activities in PC-3 and LNCaP cell lines were also evaluated and the results indicated that most of the synthesized compounds exhibited potent anti-proliferative activities...
May 27, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Ying Zhen, Ryan J Harrigan, Kristen C Ruegg, Eric C Anderson, Thomas C Ng, Sirena Lao, Kirk E Lohmueller, Thomas B Smith
The little greenbul, a common rainforest passerine from sub-Saharan Africa, has been the subject of long-term evolutionary studies to understand the mechanisms leading to rainforest speciation. Previous research found morphological and behavioral divergence across rainforest-savanna transition zones (ecotones), and a pattern of divergence with gene flow suggesting divergent natural selection has contributed to adaptive divergence and ecotones could be important areas for rainforests speciation. Recent advances in genomics and environmental modeling make it possible to examine patterns of genetic divergence in a more comprehensive fashion...
July 28, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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