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Obesity adipose

N W Badri, S W Flatt, H S Barkai, B Pakiz, D D Heath, C L Rock
Background: Fasting glucose and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) are important measures of the risk for metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Weight loss interventions are considered part of the first line of therapy for those who develop disease states associated with insulin resistance, such as pre-diabetes, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome. Sex differences in insulin resistance have been extensively reported, but sex differences in the ability to improve insulin sensitivity are not well-established...
2018: Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
Karen Nørgaard Nielsen, Julia Peics, Tao Ma, Iuliia Karavaeva, Morten Dall, Sabina Chubanava, Astrid L Basse, Oksana Dmytriyeva, Jonas T Treebak, Zachary Gerhart-Hines
OBJECTIVE: The ability of adipose tissue to expand and contract in response to fluctuations in nutrient availability is essential for the maintenance of whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Given the nutrient scarcity that mammals faced for millions of years, programs involved in this adipose plasticity were likely evolved to be highly efficient in promoting lipid storage. Ironically, this previously advantageous feature may now represent a metabolic liability given the caloric excess of modern society...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Dayoung Kang, Zhipeng Li, Geun Eog Ji
Ginseng and probiotics have anti-obese effects in mice fed a high-fat diet(HFD). Absorption of ginsenoside and colonization of probiotics occur in the intestine. In this study, the mixture of fermented ginseng and two probiotics, Bifidobacterium longum BORI and Lactobacillus paracasei CH88, was administered to HFD fed mice for 9 weeks. The mixture significantly suppressed weight gain ( p < 0.05, n = 8) and lipid deposition in the liver and adipose tissues as well as increased the mice's food intake. The adipocyte size of the adipose tissue was significantly decreased in the mixture group, especially when 0...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Shalem Modi, Nagendra Yaluri, Tarja Kokkola
Obesity is characterized by excess fat accumulation in white adipose tissue, which triggers chronic low-grade inflammation through secretion of pro-inflammatory factors by the enlarged adipocytes and infiltrated macrophages. This affects glucose and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, inducing type 2 diabetes. NAD+ -dependent deacetylase SIRT1 is known to inhibit adipogenesis through the regulation of the key adipogenic transcription factors, PPARγ and C/EBPα. SIRT1 activators such as resveratrol inhibit adipogenesis and exert anti-inflammatory responses in the adipose tissue...
March 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
M I Maiorino, G Bellastella, D Giugliano, K Esposito
Metabolic diseases are associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which has been indicated as a potential mediator of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Visceral adiposity is thought to be the starting condition of the inflammatory state through the release of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-alpha, CRP, and IL-6, which in turn promote endothelial dysfunction, endothelial expression of chemokines (IL-1) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and P-selectin), and the inhibition of anti-atherogenic factors (adiponectin)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Nahid Rafie, Sahar Golpour Hamedani, Noushin Mohammadifard, Awat Feizi, Sayyed Morteza Safavi
PURPOSE: There are epidemiologic studies indicating a positive correlation between high sodium and low potassium intake and body mass index. Therefore, this study was conducted in a cross-sectional sample of Iranian children and adolescents to evaluate the link between 24-h urinary Na:K ratio and risk of obesity. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 374 participants aged 11-18 years were included. One 24-h urine sample was collected by each participant to estimate Na:K ratio...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Audrey M Neyrinck, Sophie Hiel, Caroline Bouzin, Vicenta Garcia Campayo, Patrice D Cani, Laure B Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne
BACKGROUND: Non-digestible carbohydrates present in cereals such as fructans and arabinoxylans represent promising prebiotic nutrients to prevent the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN:  The aim of this study was to determine the corrective effects of wheat bran-derived arabinoxylan oligosaccharides in obese mice fed a western diet (WD). WD was given for 4 weeks before wheat bran extract (WBE) supplementation (5%) for an additional 4 weeks, whereas a control group received the standard diet...
March 7, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
K Verboven, K Wouters, K Gaens, D Hansen, M Bijnen, S Wetzels, C D Stehouwer, G H Goossens, C G Schalkwijk, E E Blaak, J W Jocken
Obesity is associated with a disturbed adipose tissue (AT) function characterized by adipocyte hypertrophy, an impaired lipolysis and pro-inflammatory phenotype, which contributes to insulin resistance (IR). We investigated whether AT phenotype in different AT depots of obese individuals with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with whole-body IR. Subcutaneous (SC) and visceral (V) AT biopsies from 18 lean, 17 obese and 8 obese T2DM men were collected. AT phenotype was characterized by ex vivo measurement of basal and stimulated lipolysis (mature adipocytes), adipocyte size distribution (AT tissue sections) and AT immune cells (flow cytometry)...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kornelia Johann, Marlen Colleen Reis, Lisbeth Harder, Beate Herrmann, Sogol Gachkar, Jens Mittag, Rebecca Oelkrug
Stimulation of thermogenic pathways appears to be a promising approach to find new ways of tackling metabolic diseases like obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. Thermogenic, weight reducing and insulin sensitizing effects of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE 5) inhibitors have recently been postulated, suggesting that modulators of endogenous cGMP signaling have the therapeutic potential to treat metabolic disorders. However, most studies have been performed in vitro or in animals that were not glucose intolerant. We, thus, aimed to test the metabolic effects of the PDE 5 inhibitor sildenafil by treating diet-induced obese (DIO) mice orally for 8 days...
March 13, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Ariel Molly Wilson, Zhuo Shao, Vanessa Grenier, Gaëlle Mawambo, Jean-François Daudelin, Agnieszka Dejda, Frédérique Pilon, Natalija Popovic, Salix Boulet, Célia Parinot, Malika Oubaha, Nathalie Labrecque, Vincent de Guire, Mathieu Laplante, Guillaume Lettre, Florian Sennlaub, Jean-Sebastien Joyal, Michel Meunier, Przemyslaw Sapieha
Obesity gives rise to metabolic complications by mechanisms that are poorly understood. Although chronic inflammatory signaling in adipose tissue is typically associated with metabolic deficiencies linked to excessive weight gain, we identified a subset of neuropilin-1 (NRP1)-expressing myeloid cells that accumulate in adipose tissue and protect against obesity and metabolic syndrome. Ablation of NRP1 in macrophages compromised lipid uptake in these cells, which reduced substrates for fatty acid β-oxidation and shifted energy metabolism of these macrophages toward a more inflammatory glycolytic metabolism...
March 16, 2018: Science Immunology
Luzia Jaeger Hintze, Virginie Messier, Marie-Ève Lavoie, Martin Brochu, Jean-Marc Lavoie, Denis Prud'homme, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Éric Doucet
Resistance training (RT) has been shown to decrease fat mass (FM), and increase fat-free mass (FFM), which can be a useful for weight loss maintenance. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of a 1-year RT intervention on weight loss maintenance following a 6-month dietary weight loss intervention. DESIGN: Following a 6-month dietary weight loss intervention (-6% ± 5.8; 5.05 kg ± 4.45), 70 postmenopausal women living with overweight or obesity were randomized to a control group (n = 34) or a RT group (n = 36) (3×/week first 6 months, 2×/week last 6 months, 70-80% of 1-repetition maximum)...
March 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Volatiana Rakotoarivelo, Gregory Lacraz, Marian Mayhue, Christine Brown, Diane Rottembourg, Julie Fradette, Subburaj Ilangumaran, Alfredo Menendez, Marie-France Langlois, Sheela Ramanathan
Population studies have linked insulin resistance to systemic low-grade chronic inflammation and have reported elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6, individually or in certain combinations, in adipose tissues or in the serum. We undertook this comprehensive study to simultaneously evaluate the expression of several pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in serum and in the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues from obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery...
March 8, 2018: EBioMedicine
Lucia Balazova, Christian Wolfrum, Miroslav Balaz
Recruitment of thermogenic adipocytes within white fat depots represents a promising strategy to increase energy expenditure. Negative energy balance has been reported to promote adipose tissue browning in rodents. In a recent issue of Cell Reports, Barquissau et al. show that caloric restriction-associated weight loss does not induce browning of subcutaneous abdominal white fat in obese humans.
March 13, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Erin E Centeio, Nate McCaughtry, E Whitney G Moore, Noel Kulik, Alex Garn, Jeffrey Martin, Bo Shen, Cheryl L Somers, Mariane Fahlman
Obesity among children is highly prevalent and can lead to risk factors for chronic disease in adulthood. Key organizations have called on schools to play a larger role by increasing children's physical activity and nutrition by adopting an overall culture of health. This study examined the impact of a socioecological theory driven school-wide nutrition and physical activity intervention on 5th graders' central adiposity and obesity level. In 2015-2016, in the Midwest region of U.S., four treatment and two control schools, including 628 (377 treatment) 5th grade children participated in an eight-month intervention...
March 13, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Olga Gruzdeva, Evgenya Uchasova, Yulia Dyleva, Daria Borodkina, Olga Akbasheva, Ekaterina Belik, Viktoria Karetnikova, Natalia Brel, Alexander Kokov, Vasiliy Kashtalap, Olga Barbarash
BACKGROUND: Determination of the impact of visceral obesity and epicardial adipose tissue thickness on stimulating growth factor levels during hospitalization for myocardial infarction is of potential importance for predicting outcomes and assessing the development of cardiofibrotic changes associated with maladaptive myocardial remodeling. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationships between epicardial adipose tissue thickness, adipokine profiles, and the stimulating growth factor 2/interleukin-33 signaling system during hospitalization for myocardial infarction, and with the cardiac fibrosis extent 1-year post-MI in patients with visceral obesity...
March 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Sergio Polakof, Didier Rémond, Jérémie David, Dominique Dardevet, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux
OBJECTIVES: High-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHS) overfeeding is one of the main factors responsible for the increased prevalence of metabolic disorders. Elevated levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including insulin resistance (IR). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether elevated BCAA levels are the cause or the consequence of IR and to determine the mechanisms and tissues involved in such a phenotype. METHODS: We performed a 2-mo follow-up on minipigs overfed an HFHS diet and focused on kinetics fasting and postprandial (PP) BCAA levels and BCAA catabolism in key tissues...
November 27, 2017: Nutrition
Noelia Lahoz-García, Antonio García-Hermoso, Marta Milla-Tobarra, Ana Díez-Fernández, Alba Soriano-Cano, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno
The association between diet and obesity has been widely studied and it continues to be controversial; however, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) acts as a confounder or mediator in this relation has not been analyzed. The aim of this study is to examine if the relation between diet and obesity is mediated by CRF. In this cross-sectional study, fat mass (by electronic bioimpedance) was measured in 320 schoolchildren, aged 9-11 years. Diet was measured through two computerised 24-h dietary recalls and CRF was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test...
March 16, 2018: Nutrients
Jessica H Hill, Claudia Solt, Michelle T Foster
Obesity and associated metabolic co-morbidities are a worldwide public health problem. Negative health outcomes associated with obesity, however, do not arise from excessive adiposity alone. Rather, deleterious outcomes of adipose tissue accumulation are a result of how adipocytes are distributed to individual regions in the body. Due to our increased understanding of the dynamic relationship that exists between specific adipose depots and disease risk, an accurate characterization of total body adiposity as well as location is required to properly evaluate a population's disease risk...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Gary J Hausman
Adipose tissue exists in many locations or depots that differ from one another based on numerous and various characteristics. The unique "layered" anatomical feature of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in man and the pig is reviewed and discussed. The origin of fetal pig adipose tissue subcutaneous layers is reviewed before the onset of adipogenesis and after the overt adipogenesis. Furthermore, the distinguishing characteristics of developing outer SAT layer (OSQ) and middle SAT layer (MSQ) in pigs are reviewed...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
H Zhao, J Wang, D Fang, O Lee, R T Chatterton, V Stearns, S A Khan, S E Bulun
Obesity is associated with increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal but not in premenopausal women. Many factors may be responsible for this difference. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which the genes related to the AMPK pathway, inflammation, and estrogen actions are affected by adiposity in breast tissue with the objective of identifying differences that may explain the different breast cancer risk in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Random fine needle aspirates (rFNAs) of breast tissue were collected from 57 premenopausal and 55 postmenopausal women and were classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese...
March 15, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
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