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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775988/effects-of-different-resistance-training-frequencies-on-fat-in-overweight-obese-older-women
#1
Edilaine F Cavalcante, Alex S Ribeiro, Matheus A do Nascimento, Analiza M Silva, Crisieli M Tomeleri, Hellen C G Nabuco, Fábio L C Pina, Jerry L Mayhew, Marzo E Da Silva-Grigoletto, Danilo R P da Silva, Steven J Fleck, Edilson S Cyrino
AIM: This study compared the effect of different resistance training (RT) frequencies on total, android, gynoid and trunk body fat in overweight/obese older women. METHODS: Fifty-seven overweight/obese older women (66.9±5.3 years and 39.9±4.9% body fat) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a group performing RT twice a week (G2X), a group performing RT three times a week (G3X), or a non-exercise control group (CG). Both training groups performed the same 12-week RT program consisting of 8 exercises that trained all major muscle groups...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775611/reduced-adiposity-by-compensatory-wat-browning-upon-ibat-removal-in-mice
#2
Zhengyu Piao, Baiqiang Zhai, Xiaoxiao Jiang, Meng Dong, Changguo Yan, Jun Lin, Wanzhu Jin
The strong effects of classic brown adipose tissue (BAT) and recruited beige adipocytes in treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome have been attracting increasing research interest. Cold treatment is an effective, convenient approach to stimulate BAT activity and induce white adipose tissue (WAT) browning. Here, we utilized prolonged cold exposure (from 2 h to 2 weeks in a 4° cold chamber) to elucidate dynamic changes in BAT and in WAT browning during acute and chronic cold exposure in mice. BAT mass decreased quickly, with reduced lipid droplet sizes within 8 h of cold exposure owing to the utilization of BAT pre-storage triglycerides, and subsequently increased during prolonged cold exposure...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773865/perlecan-a-heparan-sulfate-proteoglycan-regulates-systemic-metabolism-with-dynamic-changes-in-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle
#3
Yuri Yamashita, Satoshi Nakada, Toshinori Yoshihara, Takeshi Nara, Norihiko Furuya, Takashi Miida, Nobutaka Hattori, Eri Arikawa-Hirasawa
Perlecan (HSPG2), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is a component of basement membranes and participates in a variety of biological activities. Here, we show physiological roles of perlecan in both obesity and the onset of metabolic syndrome. The perinatal lethality-rescued perlecan knockout (Hspg2-/- -Tg) mice showed a smaller mass and cell size of white adipose tissues than control (WT-Tg) mice. Abnormal lipid deposition, such as fatty liver, was not detected in the Hspg2-/- -Tg mice, and those mice also consumed more fat as an energy source, likely due to their activated fatty acid oxidation...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773671/targeted-inhibition-of-cd74-attenuates-adipose-cox-2-mif-mediated-m1-macrophage-polarization-and-retards-obesity-related-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#4
Pei-Chi Chan, Ting-Ni Wu, Ying-Chuan Chen, Chieh-Hua Lu, Martin Wabitsch, Yu-Feng Tian, Po-Shiuan Hsieh
Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation is crucial to the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance. Our aim was to investigate the contribution of COX-2/MIF-mediated crosstalk between hypertrophic adipocytes and macrophages to the etiology of AT inflammation and involvement of CD74 using human SGBS adipocytes, THP-1 macrophages and mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. The MIF and CD74 mRNA levels in the adipocytes and SVCs (stromal vascular cells) of white fat were highly correlated with body weight, HOMA-IR and adipose macrophage marker expression levels, especially those in SVCs...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773464/sex-and-gender-differences-in-developmental-programming-of-metabolism
#5
REVIEW
Laura Dearden, Sebastien G Bouret, Susan E Ozanne
BACKGROUND: The early life environment experienced by an individual in utero and during the neonatal period is a major factor in shaping later life disease risk-including susceptibility to develop obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The incidence of metabolic disease is different between males and females. How the early life environment may underlie these sex differences is an area of active investigation. SCOPE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of how the early life environment influences metabolic disease risk in a sex specific manner...
April 30, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773163/epicardial-adipose-tissue-may-mediate-deleterious-effects-of-obesity-and-inflammation-on-the-myocardium
#6
REVIEW
Milton Packer
Epicardial adipose tissue has unique properties that distinguish it from other depots of visceral fat. Rather than having distinct boundaries, the epicardium shares an unobstructed microcirculation with the underlying myocardium, and in healthy conditions, produces cytokines that nourish the heart. However, in chronic inflammatory disorders (especially those leading to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction), the epicardium becomes a site of deranged adipogenesis, leading to the secretion of proinflammatory adipokines that can cause atrial and ventricular fibrosis...
May 22, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772287/probiotics-and-nutraceuticals-as-a-new-frontier-in-obesity-prevention-and-management
#7
N Kobyliak, T Falalyeyeva, N Boyko, O Tsyryuk, T Beregova, L Ostapchenko
INTRODUCTION: The beneficial interaction between the microbiota and humans is how bacteria contained within the gut 'talk' to the immune system and in this landscape, probiotics and nutraceuticals play a major role. The study aims to determine whether probiotics plus nutraceuticals such as smectite or omega-3 are superior to probiotic alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced obesity model in rats. METHODS: Totally, 75 rats divided into five groups were included (n=15, in each)...
May 14, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772029/prolyl-carboxypeptidase-activity-in-the-circulation-and-its-correlation-with-body-weight-and-adipose-tissue-in-lean-and-obese-subjects
#8
Kaat Kehoe, Heidi Noels, Wendy Theelen, Emilie De Hert, Shenguan Xu, An Verrijken, Thierry Arnould, Erik Fransen, Nina Hermans, Anne-Marie Lambeir, Per Venge, Luc Van Gaal, Ingrid De Meester
BACKGROUND: Prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP) is involved in the regulation of body weight, likely by hydrolysing alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and apelin in the hypothalamus and in the periphery. A link between PRCP protein concentrations in plasma and metabolic disorders has been reported. In this study, we investigated the distribution of circulating PRCP activity and assessed its relation with body weight and adipose tissue in obese patients and patients who significantly lost weight...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770928/body-adiposity-index-lipid-accumulation-product-and-cardiometabolic-index-reveal-the-contribution-of-adiposity-phenotypes-in-the-risk-of-hyperuricemia-among-chinese-rural-population
#9
Haoyu Wang, Yingxian Sun, Shuze Wang, Hao Qian, Pengyu Jia, Yintao Chen, Zhao Li, Lijun Zhang
Adiposity phenotypes, estimated by higher body adiposity index (BAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), and cardiometabolic index (CMI), has conferred increased metabolic risk. The relative contribution of BAI, LAP, and CMI in hyperuricemia, however, is unknown. We hypothesized that these obesity indicators would refine identification of hyperuricemia. Information on serum uric acid (SUA), fasting lipid profiles, and body adiposity measures (BAI, LAP, and CMI) were recorded in a cross-sectional population-based sample of 11,102 participants (≥ 35 years old) from China...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770778/apolipoprotein-e-in-diet-induced-obesity-a-paradigm-shift-from-conventional-perception
#10
Kyriakos E Kypreos, Eleni A Karavia, Caterina Constantinou, Aikaterini Hatziri, Christina Kalogeropoulou, Eva Xepapadaki, Evangelia Zvintzou
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a major protein component of peripheral and brain lipoprotein transport systems. APOE in peripheral circulation does not cross blood brain barrier or blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier. As a result, peripheral APOE expression does not affect brain APOE levels and vice versa. Numerous epidemiological studies suggest a key role of peripherally expressed APOE in the development and progression of coronary heart disease while brain APOE has been associated with dementia and Alzheimer's disease...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770757/soya-protein-%C3%AE-conglycinin-ameliorates-fatty-liver-and-obesity-in-diet-induced-obese-mice-through-the-down-regulation-of-ppar%C3%AE
#11
Dongyang Li, Reina Ikaga, Tomomi Yamazaki
Diets high in fat can result in obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The improvement of obesity and NAFLD is an important issue. β-Conglycinin, one of the soya proteins, is known to prevent hyperlipidaemia, obesity and NAFLD. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of β-conglycinin on the improvement of obesity and NAFLD in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and clarify the mechanism underlying these effects in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT). DIO male ddY mice were divided into six groups: HF, medium-fat (MF) and low-fat (LF) groups fed casein, and HF, MF and LF groups in all of which the casein was replaced by β-conglycinin...
June 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769704/effect-of-protocatechuic-acid-on-insulin-responsiveness-and-inflammation-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-from-obese-individuals-possible-role-for-ptp1b
#12
Paulina Ormazabal, Beatrice Scazzocchio, Rosaria Varì, Carmela Santangelo, Massimo D'Archivio, Gianfranco Silecchia, Annunziata Iacovelli, Claudio Giovannini, Roberta Masella
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The occurrence of chronic inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in obese subjects precipitates the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Anthocyanins and their main metabolite protocatechuic acid (PCA) have been demonstrated to stimulate insulin signaling in human adipocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PCA is able to modulate insulin responsiveness and inflammation in VAT from obese (OB) and normal weight (NW) subjects...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769355/role-of-obesity-in-smoking-behaviour-mendelian-randomisation-study-in-uk-biobank
#13
Robert Carreras-Torres, Mattias Johansson, Philip C Haycock, Caroline L Relton, George Davey Smith, Paul Brennan, Richard M Martin
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist circumference influence smoking status and intensity. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation study. SETTING: UK Biobank, with replication of results from the Tobacco and Genetics (TAG) consortium. PARTICIPANTS: European descent participants from the UK Biobank cohort (n=372 791) and the TAG consortium (n=74 035). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of current and past smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, age of smoking initiation...
May 16, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769150/adipose-tissue-uncoupling-protein-1-levels-and-function-are-increased-in-a-mouse-model-of-developmental-obesity-induced-by-maternal-exposure-to-high-fat-diet
#14
E Bytautiene Prewit, C Porter, M La Rosa, N Bhattarai, H Yin, P Gamble, T Kechichian, L S Sidossis
With brown adipose tissue (BAT) becoming a possible therapeutic target to counteract obesity, the prenatal environment could represent a critical window to modify BAT function and browning of white AT. We investigated if levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and UCP1-mediated thermogenesis are altered in offspring exposed to prenatal obesity. Female CD-1 mice were fed a high-fat (HF) or standard-fat (SF) diet for 3 months before breeding. After weaning, all pups were placed on SF. UCP1 mRNA and protein levels were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively, in brown (BAT), subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissues at 6 months of age...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768729/adaptive-changes-in-pancreas-post-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-induced-weight-loss
#15
A Lautenbach, M Wernecke, N Riedel, J Veigel, J Yamamura, S Keller, R Jung, P Busch, O Mann, F K Knop, J J Holst, J J Meier, J Aberle
AIMS: Obesity has been shown to trigger adaptive increases in pancreas parenchymal and fat volume. Consecutively, pancreatic steatosis may lead to beta-cell dysfunction. However, it is not known, whether the pancreatic tissue components decrease with weight loss and pancreatic steatosis is reversible following RYGB. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the effects of RYGB-induced weight loss on pancreatic volume and glucose homeostasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 11 patients were recruited in the Obesity Centre of the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf...
May 16, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768501/secretion-of-autoimmune-antibodies-in-the-human-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue
#16
Daniela Frasca, Alain Diaz, Maria Romero, Seth Thaller, Bonnie B Blomberg
The adipose tissue (AT) contributes to systemic and B cell intrinsic inflammation, reduced B cell responses and secretion of autoimmune antibodies. In this study we show that adipocytes in the human obese subcutaneous AT (SAT) secrete several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which contribute to the establishment and maintenance of local and systemic inflammation, and consequent suboptimal immune responses in obese individuals, as we have previously shown. We also show that pro-inflammatory chemokines recruit immune cells expressing the corresponding receptors to the SAT, where they also contribute to local and systemic inflammation, secreting additional pro-inflammatory mediators...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768198/myocardin-related-transcription-factor-a-promotes-recruitment-of-itga5-profibrotic-progenitors-during-obesity-induced-adipose-tissue-fibrosis
#17
Jean Z Lin, Nabil Rabhi, Stephen R Farmer
Adipose tissue fibrosis is associated with inflammation and insulin resistance in human obesity. In particular, visceral fat fibrosis is correlated with hyperlipidemia and ectopic fat accumulation. Myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTFA) is an important coactivator that mediates the transcription of extracellular matrix and other fibrogenic genes. Here, we examine the role of MRTFA in the development of adipose tissue fibrosis and identify a signaling pathway that regulates the fate of vascular progenitors...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768196/loss-of-abhd15-impairs-the-anti-lipolytic-action-of-insulin-by-altering-pde3b-stability-and-contributes-to-insulin-resistance
#18
Wenmin Xia, Ariane R Pessentheiner, Dina C Hofer, Melina Amor, Renate Schreiber, Gabriele Schoiswohl, Thomas O Eichmann, Evelyn Walenta, Bianca Itariu, Gerhard Prager, Hubert Hackl, Thomas Stulnig, Dagmar Kratky, Thomas Rülicke, Juliane G Bogner-Strauss
Elevated circulating fatty acids (FAs) contribute to obesity-associated metabolic complications, but the mechanisms by which insulin suppresses lipolysis are poorly understood. We show that α/β-hydrolase domain-containing 15 (ABHD15) is required for the anti-lipolytic action of insulin in white adipose tissue (WAT). Neither insulin nor glucose treatments can suppress FA mobilization in global and conditional Abhd15-knockout (KO) mice. Accordingly, insulin signaling is impaired in Abhd15-KO adipocytes, as indicated by reduced AKT phosphorylation, glucose uptake, and de novo lipogenesis...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768065/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-adiposity-and-macronutrient-balance-in-a-healthy-pregnant-population-with-overweight-and-obesity
#19
Elizabeth F Sutton, Christopher D Morrison, Jacqueline M Stephens, Leanne M Redman
AIM OF THE STUDY: The regulation and actions of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) are responsive to energy status and macronutrient balance, and investigations of FGF21 in normal pregnancy, which could be informative for FGF21 biology, are seldom. The goal of our study was to examine FGF21 levels in a contemporary healthy, pregnant population. METHODS: We phenotyped 43 women with overweight and obesity during pregnancy for weight, body composition, and fasting blood...
May 16, 2018: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767564/interorgan-metabolic-crosstalk-in-human-insulin-resistance
#20
Sofiya Gancheva, Tomas Jelenik, Elisa Álvarez-Hernández, Michael Roden
Excessive energy intake and reduced energy expenditure drive the development of insulin resistance and metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolic signals derived from dietary intake or secreted from adipose tissue, gut, and liver contribute to energy homeostasis. Recent metabolomic studies identified novel metabolites and enlarged our knowledge on classic metabolites. This review summarizes the evidence of their roles as mediators of interorgan crosstalk and regulators of insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
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