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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334696/mast-cells-participate-in-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-within-adipose-tissue
#1
REVIEW
P Żelechowska, J Agier, E Kozłowska, E Brzezińska-Błaszczyk
Obesity is reckoned as one of the civilization diseases, posing a considerable global health issue. Evidence points towards a contribution of multitude immune cell populations in obesity pathomechanism and the development of chronic low-grade inflammation in the expanded adipose tissue. Notably, adipose tissue is a reservoir of mast cells which number in individuals with obesity particularly increased. Some of them tend to degranulation what generate secretion of strong pro-inflammatory and regulatory mediators, as well as cytokines/chemokines...
January 15, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334695/complex-interplay-among-adiposity-insulin-resistance-and-bone-health
#2
REVIEW
C Ma, K T Tonks, J R Center, D Samocha-Bonet, J R Greenfield
Obesity and osteoporosis are common public health problems. Paradoxically, while obesity is associated with higher bone density, type 2 diabetic obese individuals have an increased fracture risk. Although obesity and insulin resistance co-exist, some obese individuals remain insulin-sensitive. We suggest that the apparent paradox relating obesity, bone density and fracture risk in type 2 diabetes may be at least partly influenced by differences in bone strength and quality between insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive obese individuals...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334664/methyl-dehydroabietate-counters-high-fat-diet-induced-insulin-resistance-and-hepatic-steatosis-by-modulating-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-signaling-in-mice
#3
Hiroki Yoshioka, Yuki Mizuno, Tomohiro Yamaguchi, Yoshimi Ichimaru, Koichi Takeya, Yukio Hitotsuyanagi, Tsunemasa Nonogaki, Yutaka Aoyagi
The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of methyl dehydroabietate (mDA) on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and obesity characteristics induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. Adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells was evaluated after 14 days of incubation with mDA. mDA enhanced adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. For the in vivo evaluation, five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed HFD or normal CE-2 diet (control) for eight weeks. During the experimental period, mice were administered mDA (50 mg/kg, p...
January 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334590/highly-dispersible-and-bioavailable-curcumin-but-not-native-curcumin-induces-brown-like-adipocyte-formation-in-mice
#4
Sho Nishikawa, Misa Kamiya, Hiroki Aoyama, Mami Nomura, Takuma Hyodo, Aoi Ozeki, Hyunjin Lee, Tsukasa Takahashi, Atsushi Imaizumi, Takanori Tsuda
SCOPE: The induction of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and metabolic disorders via the ability of these cells to release excess energy as heat in association with uncoupling protein 1. Some experimental trials suggest that curcumin (a yellow pigment from turmeric) has a suppressive effect on the accumulation of body fat. However, there is little evidence to show that curcumin induces the formation of brown-like adipocytes and the molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive...
January 15, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333574/unique-metabolic-activation-of-adipose-tissue-macrophages-in-obesity-promotes-inflammatory-responses
#5
Lily Boutens, Guido J Hooiveld, Sourabh Dhingra, Robert A Cramer, Mihai G Netea, Rinke Stienstra
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recent studies have identified intracellular metabolism as a fundamental determinant of macrophage function. In obesity, proinflammatory macrophages accumulate in adipose tissue and trigger chronic low-grade inflammation, that promotes the development of systemic insulin resistance, yet changes in their intracellular energy metabolism are currently unknown. We therefore set out to study metabolic signatures of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in lean and obese conditions...
January 14, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333376/anti-inflammatory-and-anti-obesity-properties-of-food-bioactive-components-effects-on-adipose-tissue
#6
REVIEW
Shasika Jayarathne, Iurii Koboziev, Oak-Hee Park, Wilna Oldewage-Theron, Chwan-Li Shen, Naima Moustaid-Moussa
Obesity is an epidemic and costly disease affecting 13% of the adult population worldwide. Obesity is associated with adipose tissue hypertrophy and hyperplasia, as well as pathologic endocrine alterations of adipose tissue including local and chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. Moreover, this inflammation is a risk factor for both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance. Basic and clinical studies demonstrate that foods containing bioactive compounds are capable of preventing both obesity and adipose tissue inflammation, improving obesity-associated MetS in human subjects and animal models of obesity...
December 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333102/an-amino-acids-mixture-attenuates-glycemic-impairment-but-not-affects-adiposity-development-in-rats-fed-with-ages-containing-diet
#7
Yi-Hung Liao, Chung-Yu Chen, Chiao-Nan Chen, Chia-Ying Wu, Shiow-Chwen Tsai
Background: Unhealthy western dietary patterns lead to over-consumption of fat and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and these account for the developments of obesity, diabetes, and related metabolic disorders. Certain amino acids (AAs) have been recently demonstrated to improve glycemia and reduce adiposity. Therefore, our primary aims were to examine whether feeding an isoleucine-enriched AA mixture (4.5% AAs; Ile: 3.0%, Leu: 1.0%, Val: 0.2%, Arg: 0.3% in the drinking water) would affect adiposity development and prevent the impairments of glycemic control in rats fed with the fat/AGE-containing diet (FAD)...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332861/epicardial-fat-thickness-and-bone-mineral-content-the-healthy-twin-study-in-korea
#8
Dong-Won Lee, Min Soo Cho, Eun Yeong Choe, Seung Woo Park, Yun-Mi Song, Sang-Chol Lee, Joohon Sung
BACKGROUND: The conventional concept of positive association between general obesity and bone health was challenged in recent studies reporting the different effects of specific fat deposition on bone health. In the present study, we investigated the association between epicardial fat and bone health. METHODS: We measured echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and bone mineral content (BMC) in a twin-family cohort of Koreans (n = 1,198; 525 men, 460 pre- and 213 post-menopausal women)...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332860/impact-of-the-great-east-japan-earthquake-on-body-mass-index-weight-and-height-of-infants-and-toddlers-an-infant-survey
#9
Hiroshi Yokomichi, Hiroko Matsubara, Mami Ishikuro, Masahiro Kikuya, Tsuyoshi Isojima, Susumu Yokoya, Noriko Kato, Toshiaki Tanaka, Shoichi Chida, Atsushi Ono, Mitsuaki Hosoya, Soichiro Tanaka, Shinichi Kuriyama, Shigeo Kure, Zentaro Yamagata
BACKGROUND: The body mass index (BMI) of preschool children from 4 years of age through primary school has increased since the Great East Japan Earthquake, but that of children aged under 3 years has not been studied. This study evaluated how the anthropometrics of younger children changed following the earthquake. METHODS: Height and weight data of children living in northeast Japan were collected from 3-, 6-, 18-, and 42-month child health examinations. We compared the changes in BMI, weight, and height among infants affected by the earthquake between their 3- and 6-month health examinations, toddlers affected at 21-30 months of age (affected groups), and children who experienced the earthquake after their 42-month child health examination (unaffected group)...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332014/influence-of-waist-circumference-on-blood-pressure-status-in-non-obese-adolescents
#10
Karima Benmohammed, Paul Valensi, Minh Tuan Nguyen, Farah Benmohammed, Moufida Benlatreche, Karima Benembarek, Alkassem Lezzar
Objectives To check whether excess in abdominal adiposity and metabolic factors were associated with blood pressure abnormalities in non-obese adolescents. Methods We randomly selected 1100 adolescent students, aged 12-18 years, from schools and classrooms in the city of Constantine, Algeria. Among them 179 were overweight and 51 were obese (IOTF criteria). Waist circumference (WC) was considered high if >74 cm in boys and 75 cm in girls (mean of WC of all population studied). Hypertension (HBP) and prehypertension (preHBP) were defined by the NHBPEP's 2004 criteria...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331565/saroglitazar-reduces-obesity-and-associated-inflammatory-consequences-in-murine-adipose-tissue
#11
Durgesh Kumar, Umesh Kumar Goand, Sanchita Gupta, Kripa Shankar, Salil Varshney, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Abhishek Gupta, Achchhe Lal Vishwakarma, Anurag Kumar Srivastava, Anil N Gaikwad
Prevailing knowledge links chronic low-grade inflammation in the adipose tissue to obesity and its associated metabolic complications. In this study, we evaluated immunometabolic effects of a recently launched dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α & γ agonist 'Saroglitazar' in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Body composition analysis revealed that saroglitazar treatment promoted hepatic weight gain, while attenuated epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) mass in DIO. In the eWAT of saroglitazar treated mice, histological analysis showed reduced adipocyte hypertrophy and matrix deposition (picrosirius red staining)...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331301/marrow-adipose-tissue-imaging-in-humans
#12
Vibha Singhal, Miriam A Bredella
Bone strength is affected not only by bone mineral density (BMD) and bone microarchitecture but also its microenvironment. Recent studies have focused on the role of marrow adipose tissue (MAT) in the pathogenesis of bone loss. Osteoblasts and adipocytes arise from a common mesenchymal stem cell within bone marrow and many osteoporotic states, including aging, medication use, immobility, over - and undernutrition are associated with increased marrow adiposity. Advancements in imaging technology allow the non-invasive quantification of MAT...
January 10, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331088/significance-of-circulatory-dpp4-activity-in-metabolic-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Titli Nargis, Partha Chakrabarti
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), also known as CD26 is a type II transmembrane protein that is released from the cell membrane in a nonclassical secretory mechanism. This exopeptidase selectively degrades varieties of substrates including incretin hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. A significant detectable amount of DPP4 activity can be measured in plasma as well as in different tissues such as intestinal epithelium, vascular endothelium, lymphocytes, monocytes, kidney, liver, adipose, lung, thymus, spleen, prostate, etc...
January 13, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331057/manifestations-and-mechanisms-of-myocardial-lipotoxicity-in-obesity
#14
Arthur C Sletten, Linda R Peterson, Jean E Schaffer
Environmental and socioeconomic changes over the past thirty years have contributed to a dramatic rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity. Heart disease is among the most serious health risks of obesity, with increases in both atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and heart failure among obese individuals. In this review, we focus on primary myocardial alterations in obesity that include hypertrophic remodeling and diastolic dysfunction. Obesity-associated perturbations in myocardial and systemic lipid metabolism are important contributors to cardiovascular complications of obesity...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330929/adipocytes-affect-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-cells-to-develop-the-resistance-to-cytotoxic-action-of-nk-cells-with-alterations-of-pd-l1-nkg2d-ligand-levels-in-tumor-cells
#15
Lijun Xu, Mingjing Shen, Xiaodong Chen, Rongying Zhu, Dong-Rong Yang, Ying Tsai, Peter C Keng, Yuhchyau Chen, Soo Ok Lee
BACKGROUND: Obesity affects prostate cancer (PCa) progression, and the periprostatic adipose tissue adjacent to the prostate is considered a driving force of disease progression. Adipocytes are the main cell population in adipose tissues and their paracrine role contributes to PCa progression, however its implication in modulating immune reactions remains largely unknown. We investigated the adipocyte role in controlling the susceptibility of castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) cells to the cytotoxic action of natural killer (NK) cells...
January 12, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330624/functional-transcriptomic-annotation-and-protein-protein-interaction-network-analysis-identify-nek2-birc5-and-top2a-as-potential-targets-in-obese-patients-with-luminal-a-breast-cancer
#16
Miriam Nuncia-Cantarero, Sandra Martinez-Canales, Fernando Andrés-Pretel, Gabriel Santpere, Alberto Ocaña, Eva Maria Galan-Moya
PURPOSE: Although obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer, little effort has been made in the identification of druggable molecular alterations in obese-breast cancer patients. Tumors are controlled by their surrounding microenvironment, in which the adipose tissue is a main component. In this work, we intended to describe molecular alterations at a transcriptomic and protein-protein interaction (PPI) level between obese and non-obese patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Gene expression data of 269 primary breast tumors were compared between normal-weight (BMI < 25, n = 130) and obese (IMC > 30, n = 139) patients...
January 12, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329923/different-protein-composition-of-low-calorie-diet-differently-impacts-adipokine-profile-irrespective-of-weight-loss-in-overweight-and-obese-women
#17
R Mateo-Gallego, I Lamiquiz-Moneo, S Perez-Calahorra, V Marco-Benedí, A M Bea, L Baila-Rueda, M Laclaustra, J L Peñalvo, F Civeira, A Cenarro
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High-protein (HP) diets have shown benefits in cardiometabolic markers such as insulin or triglycerides but the responsible mechanisms are not known. We aimed to assess the effect of three energy-restricted diets with different protein contents (20%, 27%, and 35%; ∼80% coming from animal source) on plasma adipokine concentration and its association with changes in cardiometabolic markers. METHODS: Seventy-six women (BMI 32.8 ± 2.93) were randomized to one of three calorie-reduced diets, with protein, 20%, 27%, or 35%; carbohydrates, 50%, 43%, or 35%; and fat, 30%, for 3 months...
November 4, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329795/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-adipose-tissue-biology
#18
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl, Jan Kopecky
This review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism, i.e. how adipose-resident immune cells and adipocytes affect each other and define the immune-metabolic interface; and (ii) the characteristic features of "healthy adipocytes" in WAT, which are relatively small fat cells endowed with a high capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, triacylglycerol/fatty acid (TAG/FA) cycling and de novo lipogenesis (DNL)...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329333/wide-range-screening-of-anti-inflammatory-compounds-in-tomato-using-lc-ms-and-elucidating-the-mechanism-of-their-functions
#19
Shinsuke Mohri, Haruya Takahashi, Maiko Sakai, Shingo Takahashi, Naoko Waki, Koichi Aizawa, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Takeshi Ara, Yasuki Matsumura, Daisuke Shibata, Tsuyoshi Goto, Teruo Kawada
Obesity-induced chronic inflammation is a key factor in type 2 diabetes. A vicious cycle involving pro-inflammatory mediators between adipocytes and macrophages is a common cause of chronic inflammation in the adipose tissue. Tomato is one of the most popular vegetables and is associated with a reduced risk of diabetes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of tomato on diabetes is unclear. In this study, we focused on anti-inflammatory compounds in tomato. We found that the extract of tomato reduced plasma glucose and inflammatory markers in mice...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329236/gender-associated-impact-of-early-leucine-supplementation-on-adult-predisposition-to-obesity-in-rats
#20
Nora López, Juana Sánchez, Andreu Palou, Francisca Serra
Early nutrition plays an important role in development and may constitute a relevant contributor to the onset of obesity in adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of maternal leucine (Leu) supplementation during lactation on progeny in rats. A chow diet, supplemented with 2% Leu, was supplied during lactation (21 days) and, from weaning onwards, was replaced by a standard chow diet. Then, at adulthood (6 months of age), this was replaced with hypercaloric diets (either with high-fat (HF) or high-carbohydrate (HC) content), for two months, to induce obesity...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
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