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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646706/corn-silk-maysin-ameliorates-obesity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-via-suppression-of-lipogenesis-differentiation-and-function-of-adipocytes
#1
Chang Won Lee, Jeong Yeon Seo, Sun-Lim Kim, Jisun Lee, Ji Won Choi, Yong Il Park
Present study was aimed to investigate the potential anti-obesity effects of maysin, a major flavonoid of corn silk, in vitro and in vivo using 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells and C57BL/6 mice. Maysin decreased the levels of intracellular lipid droplets and triglycerides (TG), and down-regulated the protein expression levels of C/EBP-β, C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, and aP2 in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells, suggesting that maysin inhibits lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation. In addition, maysin was shown to induce the apoptotic cell death in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells via activation of caspase cascades and mitochondrial dysfunction, which may ultimately lead to reduction of adipose tissue mass...
June 21, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646699/insulin-and-the-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Djuro Macut, Jelica Bjekić-Macut, Dario Rahelić, Mirjana Doknić
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrinopathy among women during reproductive age. PCOS is characterised by hyperandrogenaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, and deranged adipokines secretion from the adipose tissue. In addition to the reduced insulin sensitivity, PCOS women exhibit β-cell dysfunction as well. Low birth weight and foetal exposure to androgens may contribute to the development of the PCOS phenotype during life. Further metabolic complications lead to dyslipidaemia, worsening obesity and glucose tolerance, high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and greater susceptibility to diabetes...
June 12, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646079/identification-of-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-5-fmo5-as-a-regulator-of-glucose-homeostasis-and-a-potential-sensor-of-gut-bacteria
#3
Flora Scott, Sandra G Gonzalez Malagon, Brett A O'Brien, Diede Fennema, Sunil Veeravalli, Clarissa R Coveney, Ian R Phillips, Elizabeth A Shephard
We have previously identified flavin-containing monooxygenase 5 (FMO5) as a regulator of metabolic ageing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of FMO5 in glucose homeostasis and the impact of diet and gut flora on the phenotype of mice in which the Fmo5 gene has been disrupted (Fmo5(-/-) mice). In comparison with wild-type (WT) counterparts, Fmo5(-/-) mice are resistant to age-related changes in glucose homeostasis and maintain the higher glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity characteristic of young animals...
June 23, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645653/catalase-overexpression-modulates-metabolic-parameters-in-a-new-stress-less-leptin-deficient-mouse-model
#4
Deborah L Amos, Tanner Robinson, Melissa B Massie, Carla Cook, Alexis Hoffsted, Courtney Crain, Nalini Santanam
Oxidative stress plays a key role in obesity by modifying the function of important biological molecules, thus altering obesogenic pathways such as glucose and lipid signaling. Catalase, is an important endogenous antioxidant enzyme that catabolizes hydrogen peroxide produced by the dismutation of superoxide. Recent studies have shown knockdown of catalase exacerbates insulin resistance and leads to obesity. We hypothesized that overexpressing catalase in an obese mouse will modulate obesogenic pathways and protect against obesity...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645541/comparison-of-the-effect-by-which-gastric-plication-and-sleeve-gastrectomy-procedures-alter-metabolic-and-physical-parameters-in-an-obese-type-2-diabetes-rodent-model
#5
Min Ye, Renhong Huang, Zhijun Min, Peng Zhang, Tingfeng Wang, Bo Yu
BACKGROUND: Gastric plication (GP) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are 2 restrictive bariatric surgeries that are associated with weight loss and health improvement in patients with obesity. However, differences in how these procedures exert their effects have not been systematically evaluated and compared between techniques. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of GP and SG surgeries for obese patients with type 2 diabetes based on evaluation of energy metabolism, hormone metabolism, and gastrointestinal dynamics...
May 11, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645299/programming-of-mouse-obesity-by-maternal-exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-fine-particles
#6
Minjie Chen, Xiaoke Wang, Ziying Hu, Huifen Zhou, Yanyi Xu, Lianglin Qiu, Xiaobo Qin, Yuhao Zhang, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Many diseases including obesity may originate through alterations in the early-life environment that interrupts fetal development. Increasing evidence has shown that exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2.5) is associated with abnormal fetal development. However, its long-term metabolic effects on offspring have not been systematically investigated. RESULTS: To determine if maternal exposure to PM2.5 programs offspring obesity, female C57Bl/6j mice were exposed to filtered air (FA) or concentrated ambient PM2...
June 23, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645193/irf6-regulates-alternative-activation-by-suppressing-ppar%C3%AE-in-male-murine-macrophages
#7
Chuan Li, Wei Ying, Zheping Huang, Tyler Brehm, Andrew Morin, Anthony T Vella, Beiyan Zhou
Aberrant pro-inflammatory and suppressed anti-inflammatory (alternative) macrophage activation underlies the chronic inflammation associated with obesity and other metabolic disorders. This study demonstrates a novel role for Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 (IRF6) in regulating macrophage alternative activation (M2) by suppressing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) expression, a critical regulator of alternative macrophage polarization. The data demonstrate suppression of IRF6 in both M2 macrophages and obese adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs)...
June 22, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645103/colxv-promotes-adipocyte-differentiation-via-inhibiting-dna-methylation-and-camp-pka-pathway-in-mice
#8
Guannv Liu, Meihang Li, Yatao Xu, Song Wu, Muhammad Saeed, Chao Sun
Extracellular matrix (ECM), as an essential component of adipose tissue, not only provides mechanical support for adipocyte growth, but also participates in ECM-adipocyte communication via various secreted proteins, including highly enriched collagens. Collagen XV (ColXV) is a secreted non-fibrillar collagen within ECM Basement Membrane (BM) zones and well recognized as a tumor suppressor. However, the role of ColXV in adipose tissue is still unknown. In this study, high fat diet (HFD) fed mice were used as obese model, in which we deeply investigated the interaction between ColXV and adipocyte differentiation or adipose metabolism...
June 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644850/visceral-adiposity-index-predicts-the-conversion-of-metabolically-healthy-obesity-to-an-unhealthy-phenotype
#9
Yu Mi Kang, Chang Hee Jung, Yun Kyung Cho, Jung Eun Jang, Jenie Yoonoo Hwang, Eun Hee Kim, Woo Je Lee, Joong-Yeol Park, Hong-Kyu Kim
OBJECTIVE: Some individuals with metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) convert to metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) phenotype, and visceral adiposity is one of proposed mechanisms underlying such conversion. Visceral adipose index (VAI) is a novel mathematical model which estimates visceral adiposity based on anthropometric and lipid profiles. We aimed to determine the association of VAI-estimated visceral adiposity with the MHO-to-MUO conversion and the predictive value of VAI in estimating such unfavorable outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644755/a-contemporary-examination-of-first-and-second-permanent-molar-emergence
#10
B T Pahel, W F Vann, K Divaris, R G Rozier
The emergence of first permanent molars (FPMs) and second permanent molars (SPMs) is an important developmental milestone influencing caries risk and the timing of sealant placement. Emergence times have been shown to vary by sex and race/ethnicity, while recent reports suggest a positive association with adiposity. Amid the changing demographics of the US population and the rising rates of pediatric overweight/obesity, we sought to examine the association of body mass index (BMI) with FPM/SPM emergence in a representative sample of US children and adolescents...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643888/combination-of-citrus-polymethoxyflavones-green-tea-polyphenols-and-lychee-extracts-suppresses-obesity-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#11
Min-Hsiung Pan, Guliang Yang, Shiming Li, Ming-Yi Li, Mei-Ling Tsai, Jia-Ching Wu, Vladimir Badmaev, Chi-Tang Ho, Ching-Shu Lai
SCOPE: SlimTrym(®) is a formulated product composed of citrus polymethoxyflavones (PMFs), green tea extract and lychee extract. We investigated the effect of dietary SlimTrym(®) on diet-induced obesity and associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HFD) or HFD containing 0.1% or 0.5% SlimTrym(®) for sixteen weeks. Dietary SlimTrym(®) significantly reduced weight gain and relative perigonadal, retroperitoneal, mesenteric fat weight as well as the size of adipocyte in HFD-fed mice...
June 23, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643234/body-mass-disorders-in-healthy-short-children-and-in-children-with-growth-hormone-deficiency
#12
Paweł Tomaszewski, Katarzyna Milde, Anna Majcher, Beata Pyrżak, Gul Tiryaki-Sonmez, Brad J Schoenfeld
The aim of the study was to determine the degree of adiposity and the incidence of body mass disorders, including abdominal obesity, in healthy short children and children with growth hormone deficiency. The study included 134 short children (height < 10th percentile) aged 7-15. In this cohort there were 63 (31 boys and 32 girls) children without diagnosed hormonal disorders and 71 patients (35 boys and 36 girls) with growth hormone deficiency. Basic somatic features were assessed and the study participants were categorized according to the percentage of body fat (%FAT), body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)...
June 23, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643028/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-adipose-tissue-and-metabolic-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Alessandro P Delitala, Giampiero Capobianco, Giuseppe Delitala, Pier Luigi Cherchi, Salvatore Dessole
PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder that affects women of reproductive age and is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction and/or androgen excess or polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS present a number of systemic symptoms in addition to those related to the reproductive system. It has been associated with functional derangements in adipose tissue, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: A detailed literature search on Pubmed was done for articles about PCOS, adipokines, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome...
June 22, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642544/resistin-promotes-the-abnormal-type-i-collagen-phenotype-of-subchondral-bone-in-obese-patients-with-end-stage-hip-osteoarthritis
#14
Ashleigh M Philp, Rebecca L Collier, Liam M Grover, Edward T Davis, Simon W Jones
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adiposity on the architecture and composition of hip OA subchondral bone, and to examine the pathological role of adipokines. Femoral heads were collected from normal-weight or over-weight/obese patients with hip OA. Structural parameters of subchondral bone were determined by MicroCT and type I collagen α1/α2 ratio was determined by SDS PAGE and by qRT-PCR in ex-vivo bone explants. The serum concentration of adipokines was determined by Luminex. The effect of resistin on primary OA osteoblasts was determined by analysis of Wnt pathway signal transduction, bone nodule formation, and osteoblast metabolic activity...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642059/new-trends-on-obesity-and-nafld-in-asia
#15
REVIEW
Jian-Gao Fan, Seung-Up Kim, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong
Traditionally, obesity and its related diseases are considered problems in Western countries. However, in the past two decades, urbanization in many Asian countries has led to sedentary lifestyle and overnutrition, and has set the stage for the epidemic of obesity. This article reviews the epidemiological trend of obesity in Asia with special emphasis on the emerging condition of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Currently, the population prevalence of NAFLD in Asia is around 25%, similar to that in many Western countries...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642037/testosterone-regulates-3t3-l1pre-adipocyte-differentiation-and-epididymal-fat-accumulation-in-mice-through-modulating-macrophage-polarization
#16
Xiaojiao Ren, Xiaojian Fu, Xinhua Zhang, Shiqiang Chen, Shuguang Huang, Lun Yao, Guoquan Liu
Low testosterone levels are strongly related to obesity in males. The balance between the classically M1 and alternatively M2 polarized macrophages also plays a critical role in obesity. It is not clear whether testosterone regulates macrophage polarization and then affects adipocyte differentiation. In this report, we demonstrate that testosterone strengthens interleukin (IL) -4-induced M2 polarization and inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced M1 polarization, but has no direct effect on adipocyte differentiation...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641779/macrophage-functions-in-lean-and-obese-adipose-tissue
#17
REVIEW
Dylan Thomas, Caroline Apovian
Interactions between macrophages and adipocytes influence both metabolism and inflammation. Obesity-induced changes to macrophages and adipocytes lead to chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. This paper reviews the various functions of macrophages in lean and obese adipose tissue and how obesity alters adipose tissue macrophage phenotypes. Metabolic disease and insulin resistance shift the balance between numerous pro- and anti-inflammatory regulators of macrophages and create a feed-forward loop of increasing inflammatory macrophage activation and worsening adipocyte dysfunction...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640866/diet-induced-adipose-tissue-expansion-is-mitigated-in-mice-with-a-targeted-inactivation-of-mesoderm-specific-transcript-mest
#18
Rea P Anunciado-Koza, Justin Manuel, Randall L Mynatt, Jingying Zhang, Leslie P Kozak, Robert A Koza
Interindividual variation of white adipose tissue (WAT) expression of mesoderm specific transcript (Mest), a paternally-expressed imprinted gene belonging to the α/β-hydrolase fold protein family, becomes apparent among genetically inbred mice fed high fat diet (HFD) and is positively associated with adipose tissue expansion (ATE). To elucidate a role for MEST in ATE, mice were developed with global and adipose tissue inactivation of Mest. Mice with homozygous (MestgKO) and paternal allelic (MestpKO) inactivation of Mest were born at expected Mendelian frequencies, showed no behavioral or physical abnormalities, and did not perturb expression of the Mest locus-derived microRNA miR-335...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640444/impact-of-growth-hormone-on-regulation-of-adipose-tissue
#19
Katie M Troike, Brooke E Henry, Elizabeth A Jensen, Jonathan A Young, Edward O List, John J Kopchick, Darlene E Berryman
Increasing prevalence of obesity and obesity-related conditions worldwide has necessitated a more thorough understanding of adipose tissue (AT) and expanded the scope of research in this field. AT is now understood to be far more complex and dynamic than previously thought, which has also fueled research to reevaluate how hormones, such as growth hormone (GH), alter the tissue. In this review, we will introduce properties of AT important for understanding how GH alters the tissue, such as anatomical location of depots and adipokine output...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640441/adipose-tissue-derived-omentin-1-function-and-regulation
#20
Takuya Watanabe, Kaho Watanabe-Kominato, Yui Takahashi, Miho Kojima, Rena Watanabe
Omentin-1, also known as intelectin-1, is a recently identified novel adipocytokine of 313 amino acids, which is expressed in visceral (omental and epicardial) fat as well as mesothelial cells, vascular cells, airway goblet cells, small intestine, colon, ovary, and plasma. The level of omentin-1 expression in (pre)adipocytes is decreased by glucose/insulin and stimulated by fibroblast growth factor-21 and dexamethasone. Several lines of experimental evidence have shown that omentin-1 plays crucial roles in the maintenance of body metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and cardiovascular protective effects via AMP-activated protein kinase/Akt/nuclear factor-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, JNK, and p38) signaling...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
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