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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149454/melatonin-alleviates-adipose-inflammation-through-elevating-%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-and-diverting-adipose-derived-exosomes-to-macrophages-in-mice
#1
Zhenjiang Liu, Lu Gan, Tiantian Zhang, Qian Ren, Chao Sun
Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration and metabolic inflammation, both of which promote metabolic disease progression. Melatonin is reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting inflammatory response of adipocytes and macrophages activation. However, the effects of melatonin on the communication between adipocytes and macrophages during adipose inflammation remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated melatonin alleviated inflammation and elevated α-ketoglutarate (αKG) level in adipose tissue of obese mice...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149029/kappaphycus-alvarezii-as-a-food-supplement-prevents-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats
#2
Stephen Wanyonyi, Ryan du Preez, Lindsay Brown, Nicholas A Paul, Sunil K Panchal
The red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, was evaluated for its potential to prevent signs of metabolic syndrome through use as a whole food supplement. Major biochemical components of dried Kappaphycus are carrageenan (soluble fiber ~34.6%) and salt (predominantly potassium (K) 20%) with a low overall energy content for whole seaweed. Eight to nine week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed for 8 weeks on a corn starch diet, a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet, alone or supplemented with a 5% (w/w) dried and milled Kappaphycus blended into the base diet...
November 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148120/mapping-brown-adipose-tissue-based-on-fat-water-fraction-provided-by-z-spectral-imaging
#3
Alessandro Scotti, Rong-Wen Tain, Weiguo Li, Victoria Gil, Chong Wee Liew, Kejia Cai
BACKGROUND: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has a great relevance in metabolic diseases and has been shown to be reduced in obesity and insulin resistance patients. Currently, Dixon MRI is used to calculate fat-water fraction (FWF) and differentiate BAT from white adipose tissue (WAT). However, it may fail in areas of phase wrapping and introduce fat-water swapping artifacts. PURPOSE: To investigate the capacity of the Z-spectrum imaging (ZSI) for the identification of BAT in vivo...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147909/the-role-of-the-antioxidant-protein-dj-1-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Daniel Eberhard, Eckhard Lammert
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide escalating health disorder resulting from insulin resistance and functional loss of insulin-producing beta cells that finally cause chronically elevated blood glucose concentrations. Here we review the role of ubiquitously expressed antioxidant protein DJ-1 in the pathogenesis of T2DM. In beta cells, DJ-1 protects against oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and streptozotocin- and cytokine-induced stress and preserves beta cell viability and insulin secretion...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147126/using-rats-as-a-research-model-to-investigate-the-effect-of-human-adenovirus-36-on-weight-gain
#5
Fatemeh Shirani, Ali Teimoori, Mohammad Rashno, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Majid Karandish
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has shown a positive correlation between obesity and viral infections with a particular emphasis on the human adenovirus-36 (Ad-36). Ad-36 is the first human virus that may increase adiposity in animals, and it is considered as a possible risk factor for obesity in humans; however, the results were not consistent across all the studies. The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Ad-36 infection on obesity in a rat model. METHODS: Eight-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 170-240 gram (g), were randomly divided into two groups, infection group (48 rats) and a control group (12 rats)...
July 2017: ARYA Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146976/association-of-a-variant-in-the-gene-encoding-for-erv1-chemr23-with-reduced-inflammation-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-from-morbidly-obese-individuals
#6
Cristina López-Vicario, Bibiana Rius, José Alcaraz-Quiles, Ana González-Périz, Ana Isabel Martínez-Puchol, Mireia Casulleras, Marta Duran-Güell, Ainitze Ibarzabal, Ricard Corcelles, Andrés Laguna-Fernández, Magnus Back, Esther Titos, Joan Clària
Obesity comorbidities are closely associated with chronic low-grade adipose tissue inflammation. A number of SNPs associated with inflammation has been identified, underscoring the impact of genetic determinants on this process. Here, we screened SNPs in genes with pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, STAT3 and JAK2), anti-inflammatory (IL-10 and SOCS3) and pro-resolving (ERV1/ChemR23) properties in 101 obese and 99 non-obese individuals. Among the SNPs analyzed, we identified that individuals carrying a C allele in the rs1878022 polymorphism of the ERV1/ChemR23 gene, which encodes for the receptor of the pro-resolving mediator RvE1, had increased ERV1/ChemR23 protein expression and reduced levels of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in adipose tissue...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146525/maternal-nutritional-determinants-of-colostrum-fatty-acids-in-the-eden-mother-child-cohort
#7
Martine Armand, Jonathan Y Bernard, Anne Forhan, Barbara Heude, Marie-Aline Charles
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Programming of infant development and later health may depend on early-milk polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contents, that are very variable between women for reasons not well elucidated. Indeed, a high n-6/n-3 PUFA in milk was associated with higher adiposity, arterial pressure and lower psychomotor scores in childhood. We aimed to explore the respective contribution of several maternal and perinatal factors to the variability of linoleic (LA), α-linolenic (ALA), arachidonic (AA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid levels in early milk...
October 21, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146142/visceral-adiposity-index-as-a-predictor-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-a-relatively-healthy-population-in-taiwan
#8
Yi-Chuan Chen, Shih-Han Lai, Yi-Wen Tsai, Shy-Shin Chang
OBJECTIVES: Abdominal obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Visceral adiposity index (VAI), a simple formula representing visceral adipose dysfunction, has already been proven to have a strong correlation with various cardiometabolic disorders. Limited studies are available regarding the relationship between VAI and renal function decline. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between VAI and renal function and to estimate the risk of chronic kidney disease in a relatively healthy adult population in Taiwan...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145563/neuronal-dnmt1-deficiency-attenuates-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#9
Emily C Bruggeman, John T Garretson, Rui Wu, Hang Shi, Bingzhong Xue
Aberrant neuronal DNA methylation patterns have been implicated in the promotion of obesity development, but the role of neuronal DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts; enzymes that catalyze DNA methylation) in energy balance remains poorly understood. We investigated whether neuronal Dnmt1 regulates normal energy homeostasis and obesity development using a novel Dnmt1 knockout mouse model, Dnmt1fl/fl Synapsin1Cre (ND1KO), which specifically deletes Dnmt1 in neurons.Neuronal Dnmt1 deficiency reduced adiposity in chow-fed mice and attenuated obesity in HFD-fed male mice...
November 14, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145541/variations-in-adipor1-but-not-adipor2-are-associated-with-hypertriglyceridemia-and-diabetes-in-an-admixed-latin-american-population
#10
Gustavo Gustavo Mora-García, María S Ruiz-Díaz, Fabian Espitia-Almeida, Doris Gómez-Camargo
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue. It regulates glycolysis and lipolysis and is involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes and related disorders. Its activity is mainly mediated by the transmembrane receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, which are encoded by ADIPOR1 (1q32.1) and ADIPOR2 (12p13.33) genes, respectively. In genetic association studies, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near these genes have been associated with metabolic alterations. However, these relationships are still controversial...
July 2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145423/examining-the-relationships-between-body-image-eating-attitudes-bmi-and-physical-activity-in-rural-and-urban-south-african-young-adult-females-using-structural-equation-modeling
#11
Alessandra Prioreschi, Stephanie V Wrottesley, Emmanuel Cohen, Ankita Reddy, Rihlat Said-Mohamed, Rhian Twine, Stephen M Tollman, Kathleen Kahn, David B Dunger, Shane A Norris
The persistence of food insecurity, malnutrition, increasing adiposity, and decreasing physical activity, heightens the need to understand relationships between body image satisfaction, eating attitudes, BMI and physical activity levels in South Africa. Females aged 18-23 years were recruited from rural (n = 509) and urban (n = 510) settings. Body image satisfaction was measured using Stunkard's silhouettes, and the 26-item Eating Attitudes questionnaire (EAT-26) was used to evaluate participants' risk of disordered eating...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144959/induction-of-innervation-by-encapsulated-adipocytes-with-engineered-vitamin-a-metabolism
#12
Q Shen, R Yasmeen, J Marbourg, L Xu, J L Yu, P Fadda, A Flechtner, L J Lee, P G Popovich, O Ziouzenkova
Innervation is a fundamental basis for function and survival of tissues. In the peripheral tissues, degenerative diseases create a neurotoxic metabolic milieu that either causes neurodegeneration or fails to sustain regenerative growth and reinnervation of injured/diseased tissues. Encapsulation of cells producing neurotrophic factors can augment axon growth and neuron survival; however, sustained innervation in vivo requires a combination of factors promoting axon growth and guidance pathway that are released in a tissue-specific context...
October 28, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144887/rosiglitazone-is-superior-to-resveratrol-in-inducing-the-expression-of-glyceroneogenic-genes-in-adipose-tissue-from-obese-participants
#13
Marie-Soleil Beaudoin, Nicholas Gaudio, John K Reed, Jules Foute-Nelong, David M Mutch, David C Wright
We compared the effects of resveratrol and rosiglitazone, alone and in combination, on indices of fatty acid re-esterification in cultured adipose tissue from obese participants (n=17) undergoing gastric bypass. Rosiglitazone induced PDK4 and PEPCK gene expression to a greater extent than resveratrol. Co-treatment with both compounds induced PDK4 and PEPCK expression in parallel with reductions in the fatty acid to glycerol ratio. Our findings suggest beneficial effects of resveratrol and rosiglitazone co-treatment...
November 16, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144884/adiposity-and-asthma-in-a-nationwide-study-of-children-and-adults-in-the-united-states
#14
Erick Forno, Yueh-Ying Han, Ingrid M Libman, Radhika H Muzumdar, Juan C Celedón
RATIONALE: While obesity has been associated with asthma, body mass index (BMI) is suboptimal to fully characterize adiposity. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relation between adiposity and asthma in a large sample of the U.S. population, using indices defined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). METHODS: We analyzed data from 8,886 children (aged 8-19 years) and 12,795 adults (aged 20-69 years) from the 2001-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)...
November 16, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144805/dpp4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-as-a-potential-treatment-option-in-metformin-intolerant-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-pilot-randomized-study
#15
Simona Ferjan, Andrej Janez, Mojca Jensterle
OBJECTIVE: Metformin has an established role in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Some patients cannot tolerate it due to associated gastrointestinal adverse events. The present study evaluated DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin as a potential treatment option in metformin intolerant PCOS. DESIGN: We conducted a 12-week prospective randomized open-label study with 30 obese metformin intolerant women with PCOS (aged 35.0±7.2 years, BMI 36.9±5.5 kg/m(2))...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143783/metformin-potentiates-the-benefits-of-dietary-restraint-a-metabolomic-study
#16
Marta Riera-Borrull, Anabel García-Heredia, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Anna Hernández-Aguilera, Noemí Cabré, Elisabet Cuyàs, Fedra Luciano-Mateo, Jordi Camps, Javier A Menendez, Jorge Joven
Prevention of the metabolic consequences of a chronic energy-dense/high-fat diet (HFD) represents a public health priority. Metformin is a strong candidate to be incorporated in alternative therapeutic approaches. We used a targeted metabolomic approach to assess changes related to the multi-faceted metabolic disturbances provoked by HFD. We evaluated the protective effects of metformin and explored how pro-inflammatory and metabolic changes respond when mice rendered obese, glucose-intolerant and hyperlipidemic were switched to diet reversal with or without metformin...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142551/association-of-single-nucleotide-missence-polymorphism-val109asp-of-omentin-1-gene-and-coronary-artery-disease-in-pakistani-population-multicenter-study
#17
Shazia Nazar, Sitwat Zehra, Abid Azhar
Background & Objective: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a most important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide as well as in Pakistan. Recent studies have shown that the combination of obesity, insulin resistance and fluctuation in circulating adipocytokines levels is associated with the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. Omentin-1 is recently found adipocytokine that is highly expressed in visceral adipose tissue. It has anti- inflammatory properties and is negatively correlated with ischemic heart disease...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142285/blockade-of-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-alters-gut-microbiota-and-attenuates-inflammation-and-diet-induced-obesity
#18
Pegah Mehrpouya-Bahrami, Kumaraswamy Naidu Chitrala, Mitra S Ganewatta, Chuanbing Tang, E Angela Murphy, Reilly T Enos, Kandy T Velazquez, Jamie McCellan, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti
Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade, systemic inflammation, altered gut microbiota, and gut barrier disruption. Additionally, obesity is associated with increased activity of endocannabinoid system (eCB). However, the clear connection between gut microbiota and the eCB system in the regulation of energy homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation and metabolism, remains to be established. We investigated the effect of treatment of mice with a cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonist on Diet-Induced Obesity (DIO), specifically whether such a treatment that blocks endocannabinoid activity can induce changes in gut microbiota and anti-inflammatory state in adipose tissue...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142243/genetic-risk-scores-for-body-fat-distribution-attenuate-weight-loss-in-women-during-dietary-intervention
#19
M Svendstrup, K H Allin, T I A Sørensen, T H Hansen, N Grarup, T Hansen, H Vestergaard
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The well-established link between body fat distribution and metabolic health has been suggested to act through an impact on the remodeling capacity of the adipose tissue. Remodeling of the adipose tissue has been shown to affect body fat distribution and might affect the ability to lose weight. We aimed to study the effect of weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) on weight loss based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with waist-hip-ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI)...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142011/effect-of-distinct-lifestyle-interventions-on-mobilization-of-fat-storage-pools-the-central-mri-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Hila Zelicha, Lilac Tene, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Gal Tsaban, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Oded Komy, Arik Wolak, Yoash Chassidim, Rachel Golan, Hilla Avni-Hassid, Avital Bilitzky, Benjamin Sarusi, Eyal Goshen, Elad Shemesh, Yaakov Henkin, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek, Assaf Rudich, Meir J Stampfer, Iris Shai
Background -We aimed to assess whether distinct lifestyle strategies can differentially affect specific body adipose depots. Methods -We performed an eighteen-month randomized controlled trial among 278 sedentary adults with abdominal obesity (75%) or dyslipidemia in an isolated workplace with a monitored provided lunch. Participants were randomized to iso-caloric low-fat (LF) or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet+28g walnuts/day with/without added moderate physical activity (PA;80% aerobic; supervised/free gym membership)...
November 15, 2017: Circulation
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